4
votes
4answers
440 views

Where does the $\varphi(n)$ part of RSA come from?

$e d \equiv 1 \pmod{\varphi(n)}$ Where does the $\varphi(n)$ part come from? How did the inventors of RSA arrive at $\varphi(n)$?
4
votes
1answer
750 views

Recommended way of adding a pepper/secret key to password before hashing?

There have been several questions regarding password hashing here and on Security.SE. A "pepper" is sometimes mentioned – an application-specific secret key. The canonical answer on password hashing ...
4
votes
1answer
583 views

Attacking historical ciphers methodology

It's more a theoretical question of how would you approach it. All you know about the ciphertext it's was generated with a historical cipher. The ciphertext appears to be random, BUT it's divided into ...
4
votes
3answers
334 views

What is a block cipher?

I have read about block ciphers, but I do not understand the topic completely. Is a block cipher a way to send data or a way to encrypt data? How is the data divided into multiply blocks before it ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Are there any standards of multi-prime RSA key generation?

FIPS 186-3 specifies a method to generate DSA parameters. Is there anything similar (official standard or widely-accepted recommendation) that shows how to generate the primes for multi-prime RSA?
4
votes
4answers
734 views

Which block cipher modes of operation allow a predictable IV?

Recently I found out that in the modes CBC and PCBC the IV may be passed in cleartext but never must be predictable. However for this part of my app I rather have the IV be predictable and unique ...
4
votes
1answer
12k views

Calculating private keys in the RSA cryptosystem

The number $43733$ was chosen as base for an implementation of the RSA system. $M=19985$ is the message, that was encrypted with help of a public key $K=53$. What is the plaintext text? What is the ...
4
votes
3answers
611 views

Does the XML Encryption flaw affect SSL/TLS?

A "practical attack against XML's cipher block chaining (CBC) mode" has been demonstrated: XML Encryption Flaw Leaves Web Services Vulnerable. Does this weakness of CBC-mode which is used here also ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

RSA enc/decryption with multiple prime modulus using CRT

Every information I found on internet about RSA-CRT encryption/decryption uses only two primes. I'm interested in my project in doing that using multiple (up to 8) primes. The general idea is to ...
3
votes
3answers
356 views

How to roll my own hardware RNG?

I am considering building a hardware RNG myself using cheap parts. Is this a good idea and safe enough? Random sources: amplified Zener noise from one randomly chosen ...
3
votes
1answer
254 views

ECC - ElGamal with Montgomery or Edwards type curves (curve25519, ed25519) - possible?

I know the usual way of using getting shared secrets for encryption with ECC is DH, however, this only works with two keypairs of exactly the same kind, for example two curve25519- or two ...
3
votes
1answer
341 views

Convert m-Sequence into a de Bruijn Sequence

In his paper Alternating Step Generator Controlled by de Bruijn Sequence, C.G. Günther states on page three that a de Bruijn sequence (..) can easily be obtained from an m-sequence (maximal length ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Meet-in-the-middle with checking complexity

In regards to meet in the middle type attacks, I have been considering the amount of operations in order to successfully find a key given two sets of plaintext / ciphertext pairs. All of the sources I ...
3
votes
2answers
395 views

What are the standard procedures in cryptanalysis to analyze unknown ciphertext?

What are the "standard procedures in cryptanalysis" to analyze unknown ciphertext? In other words: Are there any protocols, officially acknowledged checklists or something like that which represent a ...
3
votes
2answers
579 views

Timing attack on modular exponentiation

It is known that computing $a^x \bmod N$ takes $O(|x| + \mathrm{pop}(x))$ multiplications modulo $N$, where $|x|$ is the number of bits of $x$ and $\mathrm{pop}(x)$ is the number of $1$ bits (Hamming ...
3
votes
1answer
4k views

Advantage of AES(Rijndael) over Twofish and Serpent

I'm trying to figure out a suitable encryption technique and after reading a bit, I figured the current AES 128-bit encryption is suitable for what I'm trying to do. However, this is more due to the ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

How to perform file encryption using 128-Bit AES?

I am confused, how can I encrypt a file using 128 Bit Advanced Encryption Standard? Do I need only to encrypt the file name and it's content or is there something that I need to do to encrypt it? Is ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is HMAC-SHA1 still considered secure?

This Q & A http://security.stackexchange.com/questions/33123/hotp-with-as-hmac-hashing-algoritme-a-hash-from-the-sha-2-family says that the security of HMAC-SHA1 does not depend on resistance to ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

On composition of encryption schemes

If we composed (as in function composition) multiple CPA-secure encryption schemes would the result also be CPA-secure?
2
votes
1answer
233 views

Is it safe to encrypt random data using ECB mode?

If I have 48 random bytes, is it safe to encrypt them using ECB mode? Or is there still a good reason to use another mode like CTR, CBC, etc.? Context is this: I am creating something like a TLS ...
2
votes
2answers
309 views

Using hash for one time pad key

Recently I've been delving into security algorithms, I already knew some of the (easy) math behind AES and RSA and how to and not to implement it. But well, i got a bit bored so i thought I'd just do ...
2
votes
2answers
273 views

Which characters to take into account when calculating unicity distance?

I need to calculate the unicity distance of a block cipher. Assuming I know that the plaintext is an English message I considered using 53 as the size of the alphabet, since the message could contain ...
2
votes
2answers
485 views

Proving the semantic security of the One Time pad

Currently hearing a lecture on cryptography, and the professor gave us the definition of semantic security, which is roughly the following (formally not quite complete, but you get the idea): ...
2
votes
1answer
275 views

Secure double encryption using CPA and CCA

Do you mind if you give me any hints, links or ideas about how to improve the security of double regular encryption and decryption, by using CPA game and CCA game, it sounds interesting question, and ...
2
votes
0answers
324 views

Consequences of AES without any one of its operations

Suppose AES-$128$. There are $4$ operations in AES's encryption, they are SubByte, Shift Row, MixColumns and AddRoundKey. Question: If I remove one of the following opearations, what will happen to ...
2
votes
2answers
293 views

Skein or Keccak stream cipher construction

I am wondering if using Skein or the Keccak hash algorithm in this construction (as a stream cipher) is secure: $H$ = Keccak or Skein hash with a 256 bit output $K$ = The main 256 bit random key, ...
2
votes
1answer
274 views

How to calculate complexity of ElGamal cryptosystem?

How to calculate time and space complexity of ElGamal encryption and decryption as there are two exponentiation operation during encryption and one during decryption? Here is my code for encryption: ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

What curve and key length to use in ECDSA with BouncyCastle

I'm developing a client/server system in Java which is not interacting with third party software, so I don't have to worry about compatibility. At a certain point, I need the client and server to ...
2
votes
1answer
265 views

Is AES-256 over AES-128 weakening the original encryption?

When transfering data using TLS the browser and server agree the cipher suite to be used - so for example this could be chosen as AES-128 and is (probably) outside of my control. If I separately ...
2
votes
1answer
267 views

ECC partially blind signature scheme verification

Continued from Is there a flaw in this ECC blind signature scheme? The problem I needed a partially blind signature scheme for one of my projects, but couldn't find one on the internet, so I've made ...
2
votes
1answer
653 views

How can an encryption scheme be indistinguishable with multiple messages but vulnerable to an adaptive chosen-plaintext attack?

In order to be indistinguishable with respect to multiple messages, wouldn't the scheme need to be nondeterministic? How would this then possibly be vulnerable to an adaptive CPA?
2
votes
3answers
140 views

Securing content and login with “same” password

I'm writing a client application that wants to store some secret information with a storage service. The client has to authenticate the user with the service and the service should not be able to ...
2
votes
1answer
775 views

Is a PBKDF2-derived master key easier cracked if very many Data Protection Keys are derived from it?

I'm referring the NIST document about PBKDF2, NIST Special Publication 800-132, Recommendation for Password-Based Key Derivation, Part 1: Storage Applications, Page 8 and 9, section 5.4 Using the ...
2
votes
2answers
374 views

IV Security Clarification

After doing lots of reading on SO and other websites relating to AES cryptography, I am trying to understand the security issues surrounding IV's. There seems to be a lot of confusion and ...
2
votes
2answers
904 views

risk of attacker decrypting RSA ciphertext without public or private key

As I describe in my previous question I am trying to decide if it's worth it for me to use the Offline Private Key Protocol in creating some long term private archives, instead of just going with a ...
2
votes
3answers
253 views

Message authentication codes construction

I was reading the paper $[1]$ and came across the scheme that I show below. While I understand the scheme well, I don't understand why they prepend a 0 to the block containing $r$ and a 1 to all other ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Calculating the inverse modularity of the determinant for Hill cipher

I'm trying to decrypt a message encrypted with Hill Cipher, but I don't understand how to find the determinant so it solves the equation $det * 1/det = 1 mod 26$. The determinant for my key matrix is ...
1
vote
4answers
110 views

How is an epsilon of 1/1000 non-negligible?

Lately I've been studying cryptography and in the current course I'm taking we're reviewing statistical tests and how they can be used to determine if a pseudo-random generator is secure or not. ...
1
vote
1answer
191 views

Is this variant of SRP for peer-to-peer authentication practical?

I'm interested in using a modified form of SRP as a peer-to-peer authentication method. Since neither side is acting as a host, one of the primary design goals for SRP (that the client doesn't need ...
1
vote
1answer
337 views

what is the difference between IBE and ABE schemes

Can somebody explain in simple words. real life example light help and limitations of these schemes etc.
1
vote
1answer
156 views

Choosing primes in the Paillier cryptosystem

In the first step of key generation phase in Paillier cryptosystem given here. It's given that ( length($p$) == length($q$) )$\implies$ gcd$(pq,(p-1(q-1)))$=1 where length($k$) = # bits in ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Hash of multiset of values, which lets me compute the hash of the union

Cryptographic hash functions normally take as input a bitstring. I am looking for a hash function that takes as input a finite multiset of values. In other words, given $S \subset \{0,1\}^*$, I want ...
1
vote
1answer
5k views

How do I derive the time complexity of encryption and decryption based on modular arithmetic?

I want to calculate the time complexity of two encryption and decryption algorithms. The first one (RSA-like) has the encryption $$ C := M^e \bmod N $$ and decryption $$ M_P := C^d \bmod N. $$ ...
0
votes
2answers
139 views

Lightweight Asymmetric encryption algorithm

I'm an embedded systems researcher, and new in the crypto field. Actually, I need to know if there are any lightweight asymmetric encryption algorithm especially considering the time needed for key ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Altering the message space of Paillier

Is there any obstacle if we restrict in Paillier the plaintext values to be drawn from $\mathbb{Z}_N^*$ instead of $\mathbb{Z}_N$ as the original scheme indicates.
0
votes
1answer
116 views

Efficient Robust Private Set Intersection Questions

I am trying to implement Efficient Robust Private Set Intersection using additive ElGamal. I am trying to run the full protocol mentioned in Section 3.4 on the following inputs: $p = 17$ (prime) $g ...
0
votes
1answer
229 views

I've got my private key compromised. How does CRL work?

How does certificate revocation list (CRL) work? How can I send a request to the CA to add my current private key to the CRL, so no one except me can add my certificate to the CRL? Related: - How can ...
-1
votes
1answer
158 views

credit card number encryption using aes-ctr mode

I want to encrypt credit card numbers. I want to apply AES-CTR mode. Is it suitable for that? How can I store nonce and counter values for an individual credit card number? How can I send the ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

Is the CBC weakness in XML Encryption a new discovery? Are other applications vulnerable?

The RUB in Germany reports that XML encryption is broken. This is essentially the W3C standard for protecting XML documents from prying eyes. Does this mean that an attacker can only see a single ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Is Encrypt+HMAC stronger than AEAD?

There are a few posts that I've come across that seem to infer that using regular encryption and a MAC might be better than using the newer AEAD (ie: AES/GCM) modes. ...

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