1
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2answers
54 views

NIST HMAC Test vectors

I am searching test vectors of the HMAC-SHA256 primitive to verify the correctness of an implementation. Without hesitation I go on the NIST website to see what they offer. While reading the ...
1
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1answer
66 views

How to split up $GF(2^{128})$ into smaller fields?

I've heard that it's possible to split up $GF(2^{128})$ into copies of several smaller fields like $GF(4)$ so as to make the math easier in some cases. How do you do that? I know how it works for ...
1
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1answer
43 views

XOR or add in one time pads? [duplicate]

Is there any difference in adding the plain text and key vs using xor instead(apart from the performance improvements)?
1
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1answer
78 views

SHA256 for large files

I have a hardware engine for SHA256 which can process 64K of data, but the input data size I am getting is around 1MB. What should I do to process 1MB size. What should be my input after 1st 64KB ...
1
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2answers
36 views

Are there any disadvantages of using libsodiums helpers for en-/decoding/comparision instead of the native ones?

Libsodium has some helpers, which allow hexdecimal decoding, encoding and also constant-time string comparison. So if you use the php binding libsodium-php you ...
1
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1answer
204 views

How is El Gamal different from Diffie Hellman Key Exchange [duplicate]

I am Reading RSA and Public-Key Cryptography by Mollin and I can't make out how El Gamal is different from Diffie Hellman Key Exchange. Any thoughts?
1
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1answer
102 views

Is super encryption (aka “multiple encryption”) always good?

I'm trying to use super encryption (also known as “multiple encryption”) with AES in CFB mode with IV and password salting and AES in CTR mode both without padding. I first use AES CFB and then AES in ...
1
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1answer
51 views

What happens if you multiply a point with its order on complete Edwards curves?

I was recently working with some ECC crypto and stumbled across the following phrase on the SafeCurves page: The rational points of a complete Edwards curve are the pairs (x,y) of elements of ...
1
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1answer
82 views

What libraries do people use to implement and evaluate cryptography protocols?

I want to implement this credential system: “Anonymous Credentials Light” (PDF). The implementation would involve some zero-knowledge proof and some exponentiation. For some basic group computations ...
1
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3answers
81 views

RSA message integrity

I wish to send some small data that RSA alone can encrypt, and I send a shared secret along with it. ...
1
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1answer
58 views

How are all necessary parameters shared between signer and verifier in ED25519 signature scheme?

I want to use ED25519 signature scheme in my application which requires frequent sharing of secret data between two entities in public domain. I know that Schnorr signature scheme has a key ...
1
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1answer
274 views

Decoding base64 encoded message with a key

I am pentesting a database that where I found data which was base64 encoded. I tried the usual method of decoding base64, which didn't work. Later, I found in ...
1
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1answer
79 views

Where can I get the correct and precise algorithms for elliptic curve cryptography?

I have been asked to implement cryptographic operations using elliptic curves. I would like to get precise algorithms for various processes like key generation, digital signature and verification. I ...
1
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2answers
96 views

Encrypt letters separately?

I am trying to encrypt the word Hello using RSA. When encrypting Hello’s integer representation, is each letter encrypted ...
1
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3answers
136 views

Adding dummy bytes to ciphertext

I was wondering if interleaving the resulting crypted data with dummy bytes placed at random positions but known in advance by the peers could improve security (no matter the algorithm and strength ...
1
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1answer
54 views

Hash functions vs. keyed hash functions in the context of private key generation

I'm designing a key distribution mechanism and have thought of using a securely generated/acquired private key as a seed for a sequence of private keys to be distributed to a number of users using a ...
1
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2answers
58 views

Paillier cryptosystem, small integers and range of values

First, this a different take on my previous question: Pailler encryption of small integers to 32-bit integers I have to encode small integers (range 0-50) using the Paillier cryptosystem. Those ...
1
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1answer
115 views

Birthday-attack calculation in planning password salting strategy

The book Cryptography Engineering by Fergusun, Schneier, Kohno section 2.7.1 explains Birthday Attacks: "In general, if an element can take on N different values, then you can expect the first ...
1
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2answers
170 views

FIPS 140-2 Compliance Testing

Is there any tool which can be used to test that implementations follow FIPS 140-2 Compliance ?
1
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1answer
134 views

Implement AES with 16 bit block size?

Can we implement AES with 16 bit block size ?if so what are its advantages and disadvantages?Is there any rule AES has to be implemented with 128,192,256 ?Can we use AES for odd number of ...
1
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1answer
85 views

Efficiency of McEliece cryptography (ciphertext expansion)

Most of the sources say McEliece has never gained acceptance because of its large size of private and public keys. However I have never heard about the size (or length) of its ciphertext. ...
1
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1answer
96 views

have a question in the book “introduction to modern cryptography”

"introduction to modern cryptography. 2ed" in page 254 "By obtaining sufficiently many estimates and letting $x_{i}$ be the majority value, $A{'}$can ensure that $x_{i}$ is equal to $gl(x, e^{i})$ ...
1
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1answer
34 views

TLS Cipher Suite definitions

Based off the various cipher suites available for TLS (which I am looking at here:https://www.thesprawl.org/research/tls-and-ssl-cipher-suites/), can anyone clarify if when the suite contains 'SHA', ...
1
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1answer
53 views

Random Function size

I am new to cryptography. I have question regarding the size of the set of random functions. I found the text from "Introduction to modern cryptography" by Katz and Lindell, in another thread which ...
1
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1answer
188 views

Ensuring integrity and confidentiality together with symmetric encryption

I've been required to answer a question: As usually, we have Alice and Bob. Suppose Alice wants to send a file F to Bob, ensuring integrity and confidentiality. They share a symmetryc key ...
1
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2answers
158 views

Is entropy being lost when the hash of a secret has a specific format?

Bitcoin's mini private key format works by brute forcing random data to produce a secret so that when appending ? and then hashing with sha256 it will produce a ...
1
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1answer
268 views

Simulation Based Proof: What Can / Can not Simulator Do?

I have seen some examples in "Foundation of cryptography" and "Efficient two party computation", in which simulator can do some things that in the real world model the parties cannot do, for instance: ...
1
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2answers
78 views

Collision probability of MD5 over different attacks

I am researching the collision probability of MD5 and various attacks against it. Can someone help me how to learn the least probability that there will be a collision in a specific attack on MD5? ...
1
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4answers
121 views

How is an epsilon of 1/1000 non-negligible?

Lately I've been studying cryptography and in the current course I'm taking we're reviewing statistical tests and how they can be used to determine if a pseudo-random generator is secure or not. ...
1
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1answer
107 views

Will adding space to the Vigenère block make it truly unbreakable?

I just have gotten into cryptography and learned about the Vigenère block. I think it's a very good idea because, if used correctly, it is unbreakable. But the only downsite is, the key must be the ...
1
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1answer
81 views

What should I think about these unique certificate serial numbers [closed]

I was looking at the serial numbers of the certificates for www.google.com and wordpress.com. Wordpress was listed by openssl as: 04:0B:D4:F8:25:88:C5 This serial is listed as the serial for both ...
1
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1answer
190 views

Why doesn't this defeat RSA?

Apologies for the obviously ridiculous question but I need to know where I'm going wrong here. For RSA, we compute $n=pq$ for primes $p$ and $q$. We then choose an $e$ such that $gcd(e, ...
1
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1answer
176 views

Zero knowledge / proof of knowledge sudoku solution

I recently started a coursera course "cryptography 1" provided by Stanford university. In one point when explaining zero proof knowledge the instructor mentions the following: Almost any puzzle ...
1
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1answer
264 views

Where is the authentication tag stored in file encrypted using AES-GCM?

So I am using cryptopp to encrypt a file in a project and I am using AES-GCM. I have a 256bit key and a 128bit ivec and a 128bit tag that I use to encrypt files. However, I want to know where the ...
1
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1answer
65 views

How are onetimepads distributed?

OTP encryption is unbreakable as it seems. I have read some stuff (wiki, blogpost, etc.) but i would not find any information how they are used. If i wanted to create a messenger service, how would i ...
1
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2answers
230 views

correct usage of keys and nonce

I've being studying up on AES, GCM, CBC, HMAC and a lot of other primitives and am somewhat ( a little bit, perhaps) familiar with them however I am still a bit weary on the use of the keys and nonce. ...
1
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1answer
123 views

Why is a Feistel network not a type of substitution-permutation network?

I understand what substitution-permutation networks look like. I understand what Feistel networks and Feistel-like networks look like. A Feistel network or a Feistel-like network features substitution ...
1
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3answers
145 views

Salsa20-GCM composition secure?

AES-GCM seems to be used by everyone but I never seen even one post about Salsa20-GCM. Is it secure? Wikipedia mentions that GCM ...
1
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1answer
106 views

Will there always be 256 collisions for the output of the MD5 hashsum function for 17-byte inputs?

By my math, if you are inputting all possible 17 byte values, and the output is 16 bytes long, then there must always be 256 possible inputs that will result in each output hashsum. However, looking ...
1
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1answer
274 views

How to encypt/decrypt messages after ECDH key agreement

I am using Diffie-Helman key exchange to generate the shared secret. But how will can a message be encrypted using this shared key?
1
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2answers
142 views

Is computing roots moduli a composite $N$ a hard problem without knowing the factorization of $N$?

Suppose that we are given $\mathbb{Z}_{N}$ and an element $x^u \in \mathbb{Z}_{N}$ with $u \in (0,l]$ where $l$ is the bit-size of $N$. Is it difficult to recover $x$ by knowing $u$ without knowing ...
1
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2answers
666 views

What is the best hash for HMAC?

Long question but I am starting to lose sight of all the HASH algo's there are. I know SHAKE128 and 256 are part of the SHA-3 standard but is the SHA3 standard officially released yet? i can only ...
1
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2answers
87 views

Applying Trapdoor Function directly to plaintext

Suppose we have a secure trapdoor function defined on (G, F, F^-1) where G is a randomized algorithm outputs a key pair (pk, sk). Why would this trapdoor function become insecure if we apply F ...
1
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2answers
363 views

Why are twofish or other algorithms not NIST approved, are they still safe?

NIST has a total of 3 approved block ciphers on their website: AES, TDES and skipjack. I get why those are on there (though personally I find TDES a bit iffy) but from my understanding Twofish and ...
1
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2answers
198 views

Why is this a fix to Bleichenbacher's attack?

Looking at the excellent explaination of the attack here: Can you explain Bleichenbacher's CCA attack on PKCS#1 v1.5? I have one additional question: It says that: ""To prevent this attack, SSL ...
1
vote
2answers
130 views

How do you derive the lambda and beta values for endomorphism on the secp256k1 curve?

Note: This question was reposted from Bitcoin Stack Exchange, where it received alike answers. You can see a little background about this on this bitcointalk post by the late Hal Finney. $\beta$ ...
1
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3answers
715 views

RSA Key generation: How is multiplicative inverse computed?

As per Wikipedia, RSA keygen goes like this: Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q. Compute $n = pq$. Compute $\varphi(n) = (p − 1)(q − 1)$. Choose an integer e such that $1 < e < ...
1
vote
1answer
127 views

Why are cryptographically secure hashes required for digital signing (RSA or DSA)?

I know that a cryptographically secure hashing algorithm is required for proper message signing (SHA-1, or I think SHA-2 is the current suggested algorithm). However, why does the hashing algorithm ...
1
vote
1answer
279 views

Can we quantify strength of encryption scheme ?

Was wondering if we have any (or can we come up with) "units" for strength of encryption like in Physics. Most of our comparative analysis of encryption schemes are based on number of S boxes or ...
1
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2answers
144 views

Do I have to transfer the private key to digitally sign a remote document?

I'm trying to digitally sign a document which is uploaded by a user. I want the user to sign that document using his digital signing certificate (DSC). Should I: transfer the file to the user, and ...

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