# All Questions

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### When would you use KP-ABE over CP-ABE?

When would you use KP-ABE over CP-ABE or vice versa? I started this question as I am having problems abstracting the pros and cons between KPABE and CPABE. This is not an assignment question. I have ...
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### Remotely Verify File Timestamp

I'm working for a professor to build a platform for students to take midterms and finals online. The student downloads the test during class (when the professor makes the test available on the server ...
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### In FHE over integers is each bit of the cyphertext encrypted under the new key?

In the paper Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers, a method is shown for doing homomorphic encryption using only integers. The basic idea is that a bit m is encoded as a large integer c. ...
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### ECDH security when no KDF is used

Let's suppose our device performs ECDH with a fixed, unknown, private key $prv$. It accepts as input any point $Q$ lying in the proper subgroup of the proper ellipict curve, then computes: $P = prv*Q$...
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### How to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b) in spritz cryptography

I try to implement spritz cryptography like this paper . But I don't know how to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b). In paper page 7. ...
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### Can you explain “k out of n” from the VCS paper by Naor and Shamir

I am new to visual cryptography. I’ve just read the paper “Visual Cryptography” by Moni Naor and Adi Shamir and I'm stuck on the chapter about the “$k$ out of $n$” construction. I am aware that, on ...
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### Usefulness of ability to calculate $m^{p+q}$ with RSA

I noticed that with only an RSA public key, it is possible/tractable to calculate $m^{p+q} \pmod n$ for any $m$ without knowing $p$ or $q$. Namely, $m^{p+q} \equiv m^{n+1} \pmod n$. (This follows ...
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### CPA-security proof of “l-padded RSA” encryption scheme

The 10.9 exercise from the Katz-Lindell textbook creates a lot of confusion, let me state it here. Consider the following experiment for an algorithm $A$ and a function $l$ with $l(n) \leq 2n-2$ for ...
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### Question about OR operation in fully homomorphic encryption

This page (which won't let me post a comment, sadly!) describes how the original FHE paper by Craig Gentry describes FHE. (Other references to this stuff can be found on this question.) It mentions ...
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### Example describing Baek and Zheng’s threshold identity-based decryption scheme

I am trying to work through an example of Baek and Zheng’s “threshold identity-based decryption scheme” and I tried a lot to solve this, but somewhere I’m doing something wrong. I hope someone can ...
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### How to calculate the avalanche effect in aes-256?

I am a beginner in cryptography. I'm testing AES-128 bit key, AES-256 bit key, and Camellia-256 bit key. I'm using AES-256, 9 character salt, CBC mode, PKCS #5 padding, and the ciphertext using ...
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### Understanding a faulty Needam-Schroeder protocol

Give this mutual-authentication protocol (along with the attack) in which Alice wants to communicate with Bob, I can't understand how the attack works. A chooses $N$ (nonce) and sends to C (trusted ...
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### How do we generate AES S-BOX?

I am new to AES and I am too much confused about the generation of S-box in AES. I don't have any idea of $GF(2)^8$ field and how the things are happening around. Please answer this question with a ...
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### What are the problems of IKEv1 aggressive mode (compared to IKEv1 main mode or IKEv2)?

I would like to seek confirmation/clarification of the following statements about IKE: IKEv1 aggressive mode is supposed to be “insecure” if used with PSK. But as far as I can see, correct (or more ...
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### FFX Encryption over alphabet of arbitrary radix

I understand how standard numeric FPE using a halved string in cycled Feistel networks is constructed and operates. I then read the paper regarding FFX encryption which should allow for any non-binary ...
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### Prove that certain amount of data was stored

I'm looking for a way to prove that a certain amount of data was stored, through some easily verifiable piece of information. Similarly to how proof-of-work can prove through a hash that a certain ...
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### What consequences do the plaintext space size has on the performances in the BGV scheme?

In the BGV paper [1], the authors say in §5.4 that you can have $\mathbb{Z}_p$ as plaintext size with a large $p$. What is the impact of the size of $p$ on the ciphertext size and computational work ...
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### ElGamal signatures systems

Let $p$ prime number $q/p-1$ prime and $g\in (Z/pZ)^*$ element of order $q$.Also $a\in \{1,...,q-1\}$ the private key and $y\equiv g^a\pmod p$ the correspoding public key.For each of the following ...
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### CPA-security of a pseudorandom permutation encryption scheme

Let $F$ be a pseudorandom permutation, and define a fixed-length encryption scheme $(Gen, Enc, Dec)$ as follows: on input $m \in$ $\{0,1\}^{n/2}$ and key $k \in \{0,1\}^n$, algorithm Enc chooses a ...
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### One-Time-Signature based codes

I'm trying to understand the sentence in bold, in the follow paragraph of A new one-time signature scheme from syndrome decoding Keygen: Given a security parameter $\lambda$, choose a suitable ...
Please clarify the below doubt regarding EC point addition and multiplication: $P$-Generator Point; $a$ and $b$ are integers; $X$ and $Y$ are EC points, defined as follows: $X = (a*P) + (b*P)$ \$Y = ...