# All Questions

2answers
101 views

### Present an attack for the combination of OTP and textbook RSA

Let $N=p \times q$ where $p$ and $q$ are two primes. Compute $\Phi (N) = (p-1)(q-1)$. Choose $e$ s.t. $1 < e < \Phi(N)$ and $gcd(e,\Phi(N))=1$. Compute $d = e^{-1}(mod \ \Phi(N))$. ...
0answers
85 views

### How can I design a cryptographically secure, key-dependent s-box?

I would like to design a cryptographically secure, key-dependent s-box, but I am not sure how. Mainly, because I am unsure about the difference in design compared to a random s-box. What is the ...
0answers
321 views

### Proper way to generate symmetric keys [duplicate]

I'm trying to educate my self in key management, how to store them, how to generate them, how to use them properly. I've been trying to find how you would generate a key for symmetric encryption (say ...
1answer
95 views

### Why are modes of operation used, what attacks do they prevent?

I know you always need to use a mode of operation when using a block cipher, AES for example, and Wikipedia has a good explanation for what modes of operation are Now I know if i do not use a mode of ...
1answer
104 views

### Roots in modulo field

I have a point $(X,Y)$ on an elliptical curve $E(a,b)$ where $a=-3$ and $B$ is a large number that is in hexadecimal from -51BD. To compress this point oficially in a program, we know that every $X$ ...
2answers
309 views

### Is there a way to systematically calculate the public exponent $e$ in RSA?

I'm learning RSA in one of my classes and we were given a problem: $p = 5$, $q = 11$ I have done the following steps: $n = 5 \cdot 11 = 55$ $\phi = (5-1)\cdot(11-1) = 40$ I know that to ...
2answers
604 views

### How do I convert the definition of E-521 into a curve definition a la Bouncy Castle?

I am currently trying to create an ECCCurve for E-521. Unfortunately, it is not currently a named curve in the library I am using, so I will have to define it manually. I am using the definition of ...
2answers
3k views

### How to calculate the maximum output size for data encrypted with a RSA Private Key?

I have an an encryption algorithm I am working with that looks like this: prv_key_enc(sha1_hash(data)) Where, the RSA parameters are: RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding 1024 ...
1answer
590 views

### How is HKDF-Expand better than a simple hash?

Why do we need HKDF-Expand if we can simply hash the pseudorandom key to make it longer? The docs (in the link) say: The second stage "expands" the pseudorandom key to the desired length... ...
1answer
67 views

### Weaker Notion of Target Collision Resistance

I'm reading the paper “Collision-Resistant Hashing? Towards Making UOWHFs Practical” which states: While it might be easy to find a collision $M,M'$ in $F_K$ by making both $M,M'$ depend on $K$ ...
1answer
82 views

### Dependence on Keyed Hash Function

I'm reading the paper “Collision-Resistant Hashing? Towards Making UOWHFs Practical” which states: With an ACR hash function $F$ the key $K$ is announced and the adversary wins if she manages to ...
2answers
725 views

### Difference between collision resistance and target collision resistance

For a hash function, what's the difference between Collision Resistance and Target Collision Resistance?. I understand the definition of hash function collision resistance, but I don't know about ...
3answers
805 views

### additive ElGamal encryption algorithm

I'm performing ElGamal encryption algorithm and using the additive homomorphic property so the product of two ciphertexts is the encryption of the sum of the plaintexts. The problem is that I need to ...
1answer
255 views

### How large should a Diffie-Hellman p be if the messages are encrypted?

How large should the prime $p$ and generator $g$ values be in a Diffie-Hellman handshake if the messages are encrypted. If the key that encrypted the Diffie-Hellman messages becomes compromised, ...
1answer
517 views

### Nonce role on stream ciphers

Modern stream ciphers usually predicts the usage of a nonce (also termed as IV) in the cryptosystem. The cost of initializing the cipher with the nonce varies from algorithm to algorithm (for ...
1answer
540 views

### using Post-quantum asymmetric ciphers instead of RSA

We can't trust RSA to encrypt our Emails so what is best post-quantum cryptography system as alternative for RSA which provide good security and don't be breakable? because McEliece cryptosystem looks ...
2answers
380 views

### Why is a non fixed-length encryption scheme worse than a fixed-length one?

I have the following definition (highlights by me): An (efficient secret-key) encryption scheme $(Gen,Enc,Dec)$, where $Gen$ and $Enc$ are PPT algorithms and $Dec$ is a Deterministic Polytime ...
1answer
6k views

### What exactly is addition modulo $2^{32}$ in cryptography?

EDIT: I've been confusing this the whole time. What I've been wanting to say this whole time is addition modulo $2^{32}$ not addition modulo 32 as the question originally said. Thanks for pointing ...
1answer
1k views

### Shortcuts / practicality of brute forcing block cipher (AES) + ECB with known plaintext

I know the plaintext (26 bytes long) and cryptotext of block cipher (suspected to be AES) in ECB mode. I can generate hundreds or thousands of such samples, but the samples are not arbitrary. What are ...
1answer
1k views

### How can the Diffie-Hellman key exchange be extended to three parties? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Can one generalize the Diffie-Hellman key exchange to three or more parties? How can Alice, Bob, and Charlie share a common secret key using an extended version of the ...
3answers
539 views

### Entropy of system data - use all and hash, or trim least significant bits?

I'm working on a background entropy collector for key generation that monitors hardware and produces an entropy pool. Here's my list of sources: Mouse position Keyboard timings (i.e. time between ...
1answer
224 views

### Shannon entropy calculation: is $H(A|R·A) = H(A)$?

Suppose I generate a random $m×m$ matrix $R$, where each of its elements belongs to $\mathbb Z_n$. I ensure that $R$ is invertible in $\mathbb Z_n^{m×m}$. Now I take a non-random $m×m$ ...
3answers
779 views

### Salts, how does the script know what the salt is?

I am new to PHP programming and trying to grasp the idea of hashing and encryption for protecting passwords, credit card details and such. I've done a lot of reading about MD5 which I think I ...
3answers
564 views

### A mathematical explanation of the DES encryption system

I need a mathematical explanation of what does the DES encryption system really do. This means I need more explanation than the one that offers FIPS, which is more an explanation for computer ...
0answers
90 views

### How to verify a signature with openssl methods from the ECDSA class?

I'm trying to verify my signature like I explained in my question before. But I have some problems to program my own verification without the verify methods of openssl. Therefore I'm going on to use ...
1answer
138 views

### Proving an encrypted message contains (but does not 100% consist of) a plain-text message?

I have keypair (u,r), and two pieces of data, X and Y. I reveal X publicly but keep Y secret. Y has high entropy. I then concatenate X and Y, into Z. I encrypt Z, into "encrypt(Z,u) = Q". r is ...
1answer
107 views

### What is a man-in-the-middle attack (for instance in Diffie-Hellman)?

I'm new to cryptography and I just started learning about the Diffie-Hellman key agreement. I read that this system is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack when used alone. What kind of attack is ...
2answers
170 views

### RSA private key d knowing e,n

I need to find RSA private key $(d, N)$ knowing $(e, N)$. It's "own" RSA implementation. As i know $p$ is random 70 bit number, then $q$ is $p-2^{10} < q < p+2^{10}$ $d$ is max 16 bit long with ...
1answer
128 views

### NTRU Encryption

It's using Euclidian inverse. Can you show it step by step? $$N=7, q=11, a = 3+2X^2 -3X^4 +X^6$$ the inverse of $a \pmod {11}$ is $$A=-2+4X+2X^2 +4X^3 -4X^4 +2X^5 -2X^6$$ How do we compute $A$?
2answers
329 views

### Sharing an encrypted file between a group of people

Is there any way to share an encrypted file with a group? In the other words, can I encrypt a file with a public key so that each person in a group decrypt it with his/her private key? Is there any ...
1answer
445 views

### Cracking secret key of a MD5 hash?

I have a MD5 hash which is obtained by hashing certain strings appended by a pipe character ( | ). (I know the values of these) A secret key is added as a suffix to this (I don't know the secret key). ...
1answer
125 views

### DES-X , computation load and storage

The passage said that the computational load to attack DES-X can be reduced to approximately $2^{(56+64)}=2^{120}$ steps,and the storage of data sets should be $2^{64}$. But I can't figure why ...
1answer
265 views

I am trying to implement an FPE for a 19-digit long number. I am trying to follow the lecture of Prof. Dan Boneh and here is how I understand it: Get the nearest power of two greater than $10^{19} ... 0answers 60 views ### Smart card Strong authentication / Verification ( fingerprints) I'm trying to make a strong authentication software and embedded software in a java card. I have found many papers and publications about the subject… too much information to process and I'm working ... 2answers 635 views ### RSA problem if i choose two specific small prime numbers? I know that rsa normally is made to make it with big integers, but i trying to make the algorithm myself (with the help of wikipedia) and I´m making it with small numbers to track the problems easily. ... 2answers 416 views ### why inverse in diffie-hellman protocol will not give same value? Security of diffie hellman protocol is$K=g^{ab}$.if sender want to calculate value of$b$(given$a$) he can do$g^{{{ab}^b}^{-1}}$(where K=$g^{ab}$) which will give$g^{a}$as we are cancelling value ... 1answer 94 views ### Addition-only PHE in F# Using homomorphic encryption, I would like to be able to take an encrypted integer and either add 1 or -1 for a new encrypted value. I do not want the encrypted value to be recoverable - just the ... 1answer 541 views ### How can we get CA's public key? To get a public key of some organization or someone we want to send an encrypted message to, we need to make a request to CA asking that organization's public key. CA then returns X509 certificate. It ... 1answer 3k views ### Simple digital signature example with number I've been looking for a simple which signs a number with some randomly generated key and then verified(decrypts the original number) with the public key, which is generated by the private. All the ... 1answer 269 views ### ECKS-PS algorithm: searching in encrypted data; bilinear maps I have found an encryption algorithm named ECKS-PS (published in the paper Efficient conjunctive keyword search on encrypted data storage system) that allows an user to search in encrypted data. All ... 1answer 2k views ### AES key/ciphertext space sizes This is giving me a brain ache now... If I have AES-128, block is 128 bit, then every plaintext (128-bit) can be encrypted to some ciphertext that is also 128-bit. This is the block size. But: 128-bit ... 1answer 1k views ### AES CBC with fixed or predictable IV, what are the risks? I am making a call with parameters from application "A" to a web application "B". Parameters are in the query string of the URL. They don't need to be hidden. But I want to be sure that nobody can ... 3answers 1k views ### Kryptos : K2. What is the origin of the “abscissa” keyword? I'm studying the Kryptos sculpture with its cryptographic puzzles K1 to K4. Similar to the "palimsest" keyword for K1, the keyword "abscissa" for K2 was determined by brute-force. To better ... 1answer 334 views ### Can Add and Multiply On Cipher Text achieve all operations? A Fully homomorphic encryption scheme needs to support an evaluate function that can do add and multiply operations on cipher text. Can we do all kinds of complex operations on cipher text like ... 1answer 711 views ### Cryptanalysing Affine cipher I am trying to cryptanalyse a cipher–text encrypted by Affine cipher. The encryption formula is:$c = f(x) = (ax+b)\bmod m$, where$a$and$b$are unknown constants;$x$is a plain-text symbol, and ... 1answer 800 views ### How to jusify {e,n} is a valid RSA public key? I have a two set of key {36,77} and {50,117}, How can validate if it is a valid RSA public keys? Is there any simple method? 1answer 147 views ### Rijndael S-boxes: Where do the$\mu$and$\nu\$ polynomial ring elements come from?

I've asked some other questions before about Rijndael's S-boxes, and step by step I'm coming to an understanding; but those steps often guide me to new questions. I did some lines of code to ...
1answer
87 views

### Does SHA-1 hash have quasi commutative property? [closed]

Although I have tested with a program and found negative answer, I want to be sure.
1answer
86 views

### How to calculate kinv from the given k value

I am implementing an ECDSA NIST test vectors verification application. The test vectors are taken from http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cavp/#09. One of the test vectors is given below: ...
1answer
196 views

### Hash Based Encryption (fast & simple), how well would this compare to AES? [duplicate]

First of all, I know it's a very bad idea to invent your own encryption algorithm. It's better to use existing known, trusted, extensively tested and studied algorithms with a proven track record. The ...

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