1
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2answers
549 views

How practical is proxy re-encryption for AES?

In proxy re-encryption schemes, a proxy is given special information that allows it to translate a ciphertext under one key into a ciphertext of the same message under a different key. How ...
1
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1answer
272 views

Preimage resistance hash in digital signature

I'm studying about preimage resistance property of the hash functions. In particularly I'm reading as the missing of this property can be fatal in digital signatures that use RSA. Further details: ...
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2answers
138 views

Differential privacy definition

Differential privacy defines "privacy" of a mechanism $A$ as the "closeness" of the two distribution $Pr[A(D) \in S]$ and $Pr[A(D') \in S]$ where $D,D'$ differ in one element. And the distance between ...
1
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1answer
578 views

Smart Card Basics

I want to implement some of the basic encryption algorithms on smart card, could any body guide me how to program a smart card, which tools (hardware and software) I should have, and if these tools ...
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1answer
565 views

When making public key fingerprints - is a sha1 hash still a good idea?

I'm thinking about trying to save some space (and readability) when referencing 2k and 4k public keys (millions of them) by storing the fingerprint in some places instead of the full public key. ...
1
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1answer
79 views

Why does the server in S/KEY authentication only store a single password?

I've been reading about the S/KEY One-Time Password system on wikipedia here and was wondering why the server only stores a single password and not the list of one-time passwords like the client does. ...
1
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1answer
487 views

Key sizes for discrete logarithm based methods

I have a question regarding the key generation process of methods that are based on the discrete logarithm problem. This site gives some good insights, but I don't fully grasp it I think: ...
1
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1answer
95 views

Adversary Two Stages

I am read this paragraph and I have a doubt. "An adversary to PKC $\Pi$ is given by two probabilistic polynomial time algorithms, $A = (A1; A2)$. In the first stage, the "find" stage, the ...
1
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1answer
92 views

What does “securely realize” mean?

I was wondering what "securely realizes" means. I see this in some cryptographic papers but I don't know what it means for a protocol to "securely realize" a function $F$. Is it just a fancy way of ...
1
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1answer
3k views

AES AddRoundKey

Looking at the first step of AES encryption I see that we XOR the key with the plaintext block. Why is the actual key involved at all, why not just use the round keys derived from the key schedule?
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1answer
76 views

What is the significance of i^Q mod P = 1 and are there any special properties to be aware of?

I'm studying UProve, and one of the fundamental components of this technology is based upon the relationship between i^Q mod P = 1 Lacking a specific name I can call this mathematical ...
1
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1answer
305 views

Use curve25519 for ElGamal crypto [duplicate]

DJB described curve25519 in his paper which can be found here (PDF). It seems that the main purpose was for Diffie-Hellman key exchange. I think this means that Discrete Log is supposed to be hard on ...
1
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1answer
155 views

Security relevance of random factor in Paillier

In the Paillier cryptosystem [1] the encryption of $m \in \mathbb{Z}_N$ with randomness $r \in \mathbb{Z}_n^*$ is $c = g^m r^n \bmod{n^2}$. The additive-homomorphic property of the system shows that ...
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3answers
993 views

What goals is homomorphic encryption aiming to solve?

As I understand from this article about homomorphic encryption, it mainly aims to enhance the security of cloud computing. We should be able to encrypt data and send it to the cloud. After it is send, ...
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2answers
1k views

Deriving HMAC key and cipher key from passphrase? [duplicate]

I'm encrypting a file with AES-256 in CBC mode. I needed to add an HMAC for authentication and validation of the file contents and passphrase, so I used a SHA-256 HMAC over chunks of my file ...
1
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2answers
1k views

Fastest multiplication algorithm for efficient exponentiation in C++?

First I apologize if this question is better tailored for SO, but since I'm using the method for crypto stuff, I thought I'd ask anybody that might know here. Karatsuba algorithm does a pretty good ...
1
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1answer
376 views

Measuring Shannon's diffusion

Shannon's idea of diffusion is fundamental to cryptography. Besides being a descriptive idea, is there any work on measuring or expressing it? Saying something like "System A has more diffusion than ...
1
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1answer
216 views

Request for 1024-bit primes $p$ , subgroup $q$ and subgroup generator $g$

I need to find a prime $p$ of $1024$ bits with a $160$ bit sub group size $q$, such that $q|p-1$ , and $g$ is the generator of the sub group size $q$. I'm looking for the numeric values of $p$ , $q$ ...
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3answers
1k views

Kryptos : K2. What is the origin of the “abscissa” keyword?

I'm studying the Kryptos sculpture with its cryptographic puzzles K1 to K4. Similar to the "palimsest" keyword for K1, the keyword "abscissa" for K2 was determined by brute-force. To better ...
1
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1answer
359 views

Understanding padding oracles - is an attack plausible in my scenario?

I have a scheme that, long story short, uses AES in CBC mode to encrypt third-party credentials for user accounts with a password-derived key. It's been mentioned that the use of CBC mode is a ...
1
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1answer
1k views

Why the following attack in common modulus RSA works?

Suppose that i share a common modulus $N$ with two users $u_1$ and $u_2$ with public, secret keys ($e_a,d_a$), ($e_b,d_b$). Why then $gcd(V,e_b)=1$ where $V=d_a*e_a-1/$W and $W=gcd(e_b,d_a*e_a-1)$ ...
1
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1answer
198 views

inverse element in Paillier cryptosystem

As I know, in Paillier cryptosystem, the encryption $c$ of a message $m$ is calculated as $c=g^m r^n \bmod n^2$. Now, I am wondering if I can derive $g^m \bmod n^2$ given that I know $c$, $r$, and ...
1
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1answer
181 views

Factorize RSA knowing several N and E

I did a CRT challenge yesterday and there`s one problem I was unable to solve, probably due to my lack of understanding advanced crypto math. It`s about RSA. There are ten given pairs of N and E ...
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1answer
927 views

Weakness in using only one RSA key pair for two-way communication?

In Alice/Bob/Cindy terms (EDIT: and with a little more detail): Alice and Bob have each securely obtained one key of an RSA keypair from a trusted third party. Alice has one key ($e$ and $n$), Bob ...
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1answer
2k views

Blowfish: hex digits of pi used for s-boxes?

Preface: here is the official site for the Blowfish algorithm: http://www.schneier.com/blowfish.html The Blowfish algorithm uses an s-box, which consists of hex digits of pi (found here: ...
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1answer
388 views

How can I prove in zero knowldege that an ElGamal shuffle is correct for a special setting? [closed]

In a special ElGamal encryption scheme, every user has an ElGamal encryption key-pair using the same cyclic group $G$ and generator $g$. The system has a special function : $$ ...
1
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1answer
109 views

Is secure remote snap possible?

Scenario: We have a central server $S$. We have a number of peripheral servers $P_i$ We have some individuals $U_j$ A given individual may be "known" to one or more peripheral servers. Each ...
1
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1answer
130 views

Conditional entropy

Suppose I have a file with random binary strings of the same length in each line. If I'm computing the conditional entropy $H(Y|X)$ where $Y$ is the variable string of fixed length $l$ which is ...
1
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1answer
122 views

How to hide bit frequency of the inter-packet delays covert channel?

I encode a hidden message as different delays between packets of another data stream. My implementation now is that for each bit, if the bit is 0, a inter-packet ...
1
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1answer
412 views

Can iterated key expansion in Blowfish slow down bruteforce attacks on small key sizes?

Suppose I have to use 64-bit keys for encryption (e.g. to comply with export restrictions). For this question, assume this key is truly random, and the encryption algorithm is Blowfish. Blowfish key ...
1
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1answer
141 views

Random decomposition of symmetric key

Considering a symmetric cipher (i.e : AES in counter mode), is it possible for any given key to be randomly decomposed into other keys without knowing the message or the ciphertext, such as : ...
1
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1answer
573 views

What would be the most effective way to brute force a 16 char AES key?

I have a file that is encrypted in AES using a 16 char string. The string is (a-zA-Z0-9) and .,?!. Also, it only contains words ...
1
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1answer
493 views

Other than brute force, are there any attacks on Threefish-512 using only a single known plaintext block?

As per title, other than brute force, are there any attacks on Threefish-512 using only a single plaintext block? Are there any attacks like this in any other cipher?
1
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1answer
760 views

OpenPGP Public-Key Encrypted Session Key Packet Key ID generation

Im probably just not reading something again, but: RFC 4880 says that a OpenPGP Public-Key Encrypted Session Key Packet (tag 1) is made up of ...
1
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3answers
801 views

Does the MixColumns step come before or after AddRoundKey in AES decryption?

I found these images depicting the AES decryption process: In the first image, the MixColumns step comes before the AddRoundKey step, while in the second image, the AddRoundKey will come before ...
1
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1answer
222 views

ECDSA - point order criterion

i am creating some primitive demostration for ECDSA over small curve (p < 229). But my implementation have some weird issues. Verify process return false even if the signature is correct. Because I ...
1
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1answer
118 views

Determine complexity of a SAT problem

Is there a standard way to determine a complexity of the specified SAT problem? I'm researching algebraic cryptanalysis and came to solving multivariate quadratic equation systems using CryptoMiniSat. ...
1
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1answer
165 views

Is it possible take a piece of data in secret?

I want something like this, but in a digital sense: You and others walk into a room. Everyone knows who each of you are and everyone is doing their best to figure out what piece of paper each ...
1
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1answer
359 views

Which encodings have |encoding key| >> |decoding key|?

I'm looking for an encoding scheme that requires a very large encoding key E (>10MB) and suffices with a relatively small decoding key ...
1
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1answer
232 views

Block ordering and security in a MAC?

To authenticate a message $m = m_1 \,\|\, \dots \,\|\,m_n$ the tag $t := F_k(r) \oplus F_k(m_1) \oplus \dotsb \oplus F_k(m_n)$ is used, where r is uniform random number $(0,1)^n$ and $m=(0,1)^n$. Even ...
1
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1answer
281 views

Is the SILC protocol still used? [closed]

I'm looking into implementing a private SILC server for friends (and possibly their friends). And after visiting the Wikipedia entry for SILC protocol, it seems all the official pages linked at the ...
1
vote
0answers
9 views

how does the number field sieve find the target number for Deffie Hellman

I read some papers relating to this topic but I could not figure out how this algorithm help in logjam and what is the mean by the number field ? what is the field ? and this is because I am new to ...
1
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0answers
9 views

Montgomery multiplication without final subtraction

I am looking for methods to avoid the final subtraction in Montgomery multiplication. I found this paper "A Cryptographic Library for the Motorola DSP56000 " (http://goo.gl/DHePEx) In this paper they ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

Where and how to store private keys in web applications for private messaging with web browsers

I am working on a web application enabling users to communicate over private messages which is just one part of the whole system. The main focus during my development process is to protect the privacy ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

How secure is MD5 for one way authentication?

I have a server S1 with an Private String (PS) as an identifier shared with a server S2. Every 10 min S1 publish the hash value of PS+the current time which is used as public identifier (PI). Every ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Quantum vs. regular computing time to break ECC?

How long exactly would it take for a regular computer to crack an elliptic curve public/private key via bruteforce, vs. a quantum computer using Shor's algorithm with a couple thousand qubits? Can ...
1
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0answers
33 views

Possible enigma settings? [duplicate]

I'm writing an assignment about the Enigma machine, and i'm trying to calculate the amount of settings the enigma machine has. I have found several sites regarding this topic, but it seems like there ...
1
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0answers
20 views

MAC-then-encrypt: Using one-time-MAC with randomized CTR

The Coursera cryptography 1 course says: If you want to use MAC-then-encrypt mode then you should either use randomized-CTR or randomized-CBC. And if you use randomized-CTR then one-time-MAC ...
1
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1answer
37 views

Application level encryption and key renewal

I had posted this question on stackoverflow and been asked to move it to crypto. What is your view on this? What is the doability? I have a question related to encrypting data in the database, at the ...
1
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0answers
57 views

How to normalize data of a generic HTTP request for the purpose of signing

I am working on PowerAuth 2.0, a solution for counter-based signing of HTTP requests (for the purpose of mobile banking). One of the tasks that I solved somehow but I am still not happy with the ...

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