0
votes
2answers
3k views

How does the rand() function in C work? [closed]

I want to know how rand() works (even when I don't provide any seed how it produces PRNs?) thanks!
0
votes
1answer
155 views

Can one detect if two pairs of elements in Zp have the same exponential relation?

Suppose that $p$ is a safe prime of 2048 bits ($p = 2q + 1$, and $q$ is prime). Suppose that one is given two pairs $(x_1, y_1)$ and $(x_2, y_2)$ such that: $y_1 = x_1^{r_1} \pmod p$ $y_2 = ...
0
votes
1answer
824 views

Is AES reducible to an NP-complete problem?

Is breaking AES NP-hard? Can the security of AES be reduced to a NP-complete problem? If it is reducible, what does the reduction look like? If it is not reducible, why do we assume it is secure?
0
votes
1answer
210 views

Secure way to compare two secret numbers without disclosing them?

For example, two people want to know who is the older, without disclosing their age. Is there a secure way to do this without a third party involved?
0
votes
2answers
399 views

Cryptographic Symmetric Stream Cipher

Let me know a cryptographic symmetric stream cipher system with only two functions say S() and P() and it should satisfy the ...
0
votes
1answer
180 views

Pseudo-random Number generation for Passwords

I am looking for a good pseudo-random number generation algorithm for passwords. My scenario is that I have to generate 5K pseudo-random bits from a user-supplied password (6 characters). What are ...
0
votes
2answers
754 views

Does gpg's symmetric encryption keep information about the filename?

If I encrypt a file with gpg -c file.zip, and change the filename. Is there any way I can restore the filename as I used as a password. or the name encrypted to?
0
votes
1answer
1k views

How to implement order preserving encryption or order preserving hashing [closed]

Does anybody know any free implementation of either order preserving encryption or order preserving hashing? I've found some codes like CMPH but I need to dynamically add new DATA and that's why most ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

inverse of 985 mod(φ60131)

Alright Ive been working on this one for a while I found φ(60131) to be 97294 ½(60131+60131(5)^.5) = 97294 then I worked through the GCD ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Homomorphic multiplication by a scalar

Few homomorphic encryption schemes like Paillier , Ring-LWE support homomorphic multiplication operation by a scalar apart from additive homomorphic property. Loosely they could be defined as below ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

CPA on theoretical OTP with CBC mode

Body of question Note: this is THEORETICAL exercise. I understand OTP and CBC does not get along. I have to find a CPA on CBC enc-mode using OTP as the encryption algorithm, s.t a new key is ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

How do attacks on WEP work?

There is an abundance of tools and tutorials on how to break WEP encryption. However, I fail to find a nice resource that gives a clear break-down of why the attacks are possible. For example, I know ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Is this cascading encryption, and is my security weakened as a result?

I'm trying to understand what is, and what is not, considered cascading encryption. All of the posts and conversations I've read over the past few days discourage the practice, including this article. ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Why hash function are used in digital signatures? [duplicate]

In the lectures I see, hash functions are always used when we want to sign a document $d$. My question is why they are used in digital signatures? Maybe, because it is more easy and fast to calculate ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

How secure is this logarithmic encryption algorithm?

How secure would the following logarithmic encryption algorithm be when tested under the same conditions as high end encryption algorithms (AES, RSA etc...). Note: For smaller text the text will be ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Possibility for same Private Key Generation in identity-based encryption

In private key generation of IBE scheme, private key is generated as follows: $SK_{ID}=s.H(ID)$ Suppose two servers use the same curve domain parameters. If PKG on server A generates private key ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Security of DGHV Encryption

In DGHV Security How to get reliable oracle for least significant bit and then uses binary GCD algorothm that uses reliable oracle to find secret key p.Also what is oracle. Is this a turing ...
0
votes
1answer
105 views

Two-party equality computation

Alice and Bob each secretly chooses an integer between 1 and 10, a and b. They want to know (with high probability) whether or ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Stripping off message authentication or signature

If attackers can strip off RSA / EC / -DSA digital signature and conduct CCA on AES-CTR or CBC payload, why can't they do the same for AES-GCM?
0
votes
2answers
25 views

Is ssl_sign safe as it is using OPENSSL_PKCS1_PADDING

I've been hearing a lot of scare talk about PKCS1 padding attacks. Is PKCS1 v1.5 safe in signatures as it is practically transporting only message digest? I'm using it in one of my applications so ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Inverting RSA using an oracle

Say you are given an efficient deterministic algorithm 'I' that can invert the RSA function on 1% of the points in $Z^*_{N}$. That is to say that if y $ \in $ $Z^*_{N}$ is a "good" point for 'I', ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Product of Vigenère ciphers is not a Vigenère cipher with length of LCM

I have always thought that using two Vigenère ciphers leads to another Vigenère cipher with key length of LCM (least common multiple) of the two previous Vigenère ciphers. But I have stumbled upon ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Is webkey a reasonably secure authentication system?

I just created Webkey in the last couple days. This should allow any website to do single-password auth with a much higher level of auth security and convenience for users (single password with ...
0
votes
2answers
68 views

In case M is small is it possible to recover the message

In the plain RSA encryption, suppose $N$ is 1024 bits and the public key $e = 17$. Is it secure to use this setting to encrypt very small message, say $3 \leq m \leq 9$? In other words, is it possible ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Symmetric : Generate new key from old ones

Symmetric keys should be refreshed regularly. Is is terribly wrong to first agree on $N$ independent keys and then generate the key $k_j$ with $j>N$ by computing some form of hash on the keys ...
0
votes
3answers
104 views

About MAC and HMAC

I'm studying mechanisms of integrity and authentication in symmetric encryption scenarios. I want to propose some examples to see whether I got the point here: Let $m$ be the message, $c$ the ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Aggregation signature and verification

I'm not even sure of the appropriate terminology to use to describe my problem so bear with me if the explanation is not exactly formal. Imagine I have a simple digital calculator, with a screen and ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

dealing with real numbers in Integer Vector Homomorphic Encryption lib

I am using Integer Vector Homomorphic Encryption for the encryption lib. I have to multiply a learning rate of 0.01 (i.e. between 0 and 1) by the encrypted data (vector) but it is not integer. I had ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Proper authenticated encryption

I am using AES-CBC, authenticating using HMAC-SHA512 and I was wondering whether my thought process and implementation are correct. The message send over the network is: ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Randomize (encrypted) data to hide the behaviour of the data source

I'd like to transmit a small amount of data, typ. 4 - 16 Byte through a channel that can be eavesdropped at any time. The behaviour, the way the data changes, should be protected too. I could ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Security of Diffie Hellman in specific cyclic group

For some $k$, let's say $p = 1+ \prod_{j=1}^k q( j)$, where $q(1)=2$, $q(2)=3$, if $p$ is prime, the diffie-hellman key exchange is not secure in cyclic group $Z^*_p$. Why?
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Sodium crypto_aead_aes256gcm_encrypt ciphertext length > plaintext length

Using the crypto_aead_aes256gcm functions from Sodium produces a ciphertext of "at most mlen (plaintext length) + crypto_aead_aes256gcm_ABYTES bytes (16 bytes) are put into c (ciphertext), and the ...
0
votes
2answers
109 views

Algebraic structures in RSA

Why do we need a field for RSA and what are the two operations in this field? Why can't we have a ring or group for example? Because in a group you also have inverse elements.
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Unicity-distance of Playfair

Given the classical scheme Playfair, say, for 5*5 matrices, I am interested to determine its unicity-distance. How should one proceed to properly do that? I should appreciate it, if I could obtain a ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

PyCrypto and AES: can i use a longer key than the block size (16byte)?

I see that in many scripts are used keys of 16 characters for a block of 16 byte, but can I use key of 40 (for example)? And then why in some scripts with aes module the block size is set to 32 byte ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Why does AES ciphertext entropy always close to 8?

I have three binary files: 31744 byte length (1), 5712980 byte length (2) and 10806008 byte length (3). The alphabet is all 256 symbols from 00 to ff. I compute the shannon entropy, replacing ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

Would a non-deterministic (read: randomized) compression algorithm be crypto-safe?

Would a compression algorithm that randomly shifts stuff around every iteration be TLS/crypto-safe? This randomization would prevent the same byte sequence from appearing twice in a row, thus making ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Trying to understand MixColumns with Hexadecimal matrix

I am trying to read and understand the textbook's exercise questions. The sample solution at the end the textbook has a final answer and it does not clarify how it got the result. I am trying to ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

Named Elliptical Curve parameters

Are named curve parameters always the same? I know this may be a stupid question however I think this is the case. For example the secp256r1 is defined in this documet ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

k(k-1)/2: Combinations and the Birthday bound

Disclaimer: I'm new to cryptography. Background: I'm reading Cryptography Engineering by Ferguson, Schneier, and Kohno, where, in Chapter 2, the authors write this: Question: What is $k(k-1)/2$ ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

How would the opponent defraud this secure communication?

I am new in the cryptography and the information security problems, I try to understand things as much as I can and I know it's really complicated in the beginning. Considering the communication ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Is the identity function a one-way function?

The definition of the one way function says: it must be verifiable in polynomial time probability of inverting it less or equal to negligible Now, I am not sure I fully understand one way ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

Is it ok to store the plaintext hash of encrypted data

Is it ok to create and store the hash (unkeyed hash function) of a plaintext before encryption or does it lead to vulnerabilities? If it is ok are there requirements for the used hash function and ...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

How to authenticate two devices with CA?

i am trying to figure out a man-in-the-middle safe authentication scheme for some devices. I understand that this could be achieved via CA's. But what is unclear to me is how can the authenticity of ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Are any public key algos commutative?

Are there any public key encryption algorithms that allows for arbitrary ordering of crypto operations (commutative). That is, given a plaintext "message1", the following operations work to doubly ...
0
votes
2answers
173 views

Is there a way to create an encrypted email with no third party application

I would like to send and receive emails between group of people. Is there a way to create it with no need to use some other 3rd party application. Is there a way just to transfer files between 2 ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Are these hash function compositions collision resistant?

If a hash function $H$ is collision resistant, are the following two hash functions collision resistant or not? ($||$ is concatenation) $H'(m) = H(H(m)) || H(m)$ $H''(m) = H(m) || H(m)$ My first ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

OpenSSL Signature different each time

I have a file that I am generating a signature for using OpenSSL, and each time I generate the signature, it is different to the last time. ...
0
votes
2answers
87 views

How to encrypt incomplete block with RSA as a block cipher?

I have a question about an RSA academic example. If we are using block-RSA with a block-size of 3 and we have this message: "android". It is broken into 'and', 'roi', 'd'. How to encrypt the last ...
0
votes
2answers
62 views

RSA numerical questions

Let $n$ be the modular arithmetic, $p$ and $q$ the two large primes such that $n=p*q$ and $e$ the public exponent. Here they are two "simple" numerical questions: If $p = 13$ and $q = 17$, what is ...

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