2
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1answer
133 views

Separate Read and Write Keys in TLS Key Material

Why does the TLS protocol use different symmetric keys for receiving and sending data? Isn't it enough to have a single key used for both reading and writing?
2
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2answers
851 views

Is RSA in a ECB-like-mode safe for bulk encryption?

Let's say I would like to communicate with my friend using asymmetric/public-key encryption, e.g. RSA. (Note: I do realize that in practice this is done through an intermediate symmetric key, but ...
2
votes
4answers
959 views

Is my pseudo-random initialization vector secure?

How can I know if I am generating a secure pseudorandom initialization vector? Currently I am planning to generate a pseudo-random initialization Vector using current date and time - is this secure ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

How to use RCON In Key Expansion of 128 Bit Advanced Encryption Standard

I have a question about RCON here is my illustration... this is the 128 bit key.. ...
2
votes
3answers
467 views

reverse of md5sum

This might be out of ignorance, I apologize, but how complex of a problem might it be to generate a file of size N whose md5sum is X? For example, ...
2
votes
1answer
360 views

Offline anonymous electronic money systems and their cryptographical base

What anonymous offline electronic money systems exist and what are they based on? I know only one currently - eCash, based on RSA blind signatures.
2
votes
3answers
141 views

Combating traffic analysis over request-response protocols

Suppose I am to design a request-response protocol (similar HTTP). For the sake of simplicity let us assume that this is a "chat" protocol where the client can only perform two actions: Contribute a ...
2
votes
4answers
329 views

Looking for cryptographic secure hash algorithm(s) that produces identical root hash for differently sliced hash list

I have a scenario similar to the one described in Wikipedia: hash list, but with a twist. I'm looking for a cryptographically secure hash function that would create the same root hash for the same ...
1
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0answers
70 views

Are partial hashes used in cryptographic protocols?

In my question (and answer) about a partial hash code used within a signature application I found out that partial hash codes are sometimes used within protocols with a relatively restricted security ...
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vote
2answers
177 views

Why is MAC using nonce+message+hash(nonce+message+identifier) not the standard?

Given that we know that nonce + message + hash(nonce + message + mac-key) all inside the encryption makes it possible to detect if any bits of the message have been ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Choosing primes in the Paillier cryptosystem

In the first step of key generation phase in Paillier cryptosystem given here. It's given that ( length($p$) == length($q$) )$\implies$ gcd$(pq,(p-1(q-1)))$=1 where length($k$) = # bits in ...
1
vote
1answer
130 views

SHA1 collision event probability after n iterations

There are String1 and String2 - some variables-strings. The probability of collision for different ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Non-commutitive and nonassociative algebraic structures in cryptography

Are there any cryptographic algorithms or primitives that have been developed and studied that make use of non-commutative or non-associative algebraic structures such as quaternion integers or ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Question about block erasure codes

I have a question about linear block erasure codes that are described in this paper. I briefly describe the idea behind the linear erasure codes and then I ask my question. Given a set $d=\langle x_i ...
1
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2answers
125 views

64 bit Elliptic Curve key?

For a simple proof of concept project i'm (attempting!) to do, i've started looking into openSSL elliptic curve cryptography. However instead of the standard key lengths, 160-512. I'm interested in ...
1
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0answers
64 views

Why don't we use H(m||k) as a MAC? [duplicate]

HMAC seems a bit complicated. Why can't we use $H(m||k)$ as a MAC? Unlike $H(k||m)$, length extension attacks won't work. Is there some other obvious attack?
1
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4answers
255 views

Does it make sense to have a 4000 bit long key?

My question is about the key length of a asymetric algorithm. How is it possible to memorize or remember a key that is about 4000 bits long?
1
vote
1answer
107 views

Simplified Fiat-Shamir example generates wrong output

I am trying to implement the Fiat-Shamir identification protocol, however the end results always fail to match. I am using algorithm's description from here. Preparation: Select 2 prime integers ...
1
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1answer
202 views

Certificate signature with SHA-1 and RSA: where do 1888 bits come from?

Plenty of X.509 Certificates use "PKCS#1 SHA1 with RSA encryption" as the Certificate Signature Algorithm for generating a 2048-bit signature. The SHA-1 hash function generates a hash value of 160 ...
1
vote
1answer
142 views

What are some restrictions when converting Montgomery Curves into Weierstrass Curves?

I want to represent a Montgomery Curve (curve25519) in Weierstrass form as a personal exercise. After doing some math and referencing the conversion equation at ...
1
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2answers
97 views

Proof for exponentiation in modular arithemtic

If $e$ is a natural number, then this is true: $$m^e \bmod\ n = (m\bmod\ n)^e\bmod\ n$$ This is often used when encrypting, especially with RSA, since one can avoid directly calculating $m^e$, ...
1
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2answers
189 views

Shamir's ID based signatures

I am currently implementing Shamir's ID based signature algorithm as proposed in Adi Shamir, Identity-Based Cryptosystems and Signature Schemes. Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84, ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

How to specify last $t$ bits are only sent when a signature is sent?

I have read that in cases where there is a limit on the amount of data sent over the network, one idea is to sent only $t$ bits of data rather than sending all the bits. For example, in the Schnorr ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Method to calculating e in RSA

For simplicity I choose two small primes for p and q. p=3 q=11 n=33 Φ(n)=20 Now we need ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

Short length asymmetric encryption?

I want to send out short messages to the world which listeners could verify to be send from me. The way this is usually done is to encrypt the message with a private key where the readers decrypt it ...
1
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2answers
342 views

How do I calculate the private key in RSA?

Given $n=pq$ for $p,q$ known, I can calculate $\phi(n)$. $e$ is selected such that $\gcd (e,\phi(n)) = 1$. Using this, how do I calculate the RSA private key? Example: I have $n = 35$, with ...
1
vote
1answer
353 views

Why does plain RSA not work with big messages ($m>n$)?

From what I can remember, RSA is something like this: Generate 2 distinct prime numbers $p$ and $q$ that have similar bit length. Compute $n=pq$ and $\phi(n)=(p-1)(q-1)$ Compute $e$ such that ...
1
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1answer
74 views

What is the difference between a bijective random oracle and a random permutation?

Assume $S$ be a finite set $O$ be a random oracle from $S$ to $S$, such that $O$ is bijective $f$ be a random permutation of $S$ Is there any difference between $O$ and $f$? Does it makes any ...
1
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1answer
108 views

How to design a secure data container?

I want to design a secure data container that can be used to transfer encrypted data over a public network that can defeat common attacks. Data is already encrypted before entering this container so ...
1
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1answer
154 views

Is there proof to the relation between the gap Diffie-Hellman problem and the the Cha-Cheon signature scheme?

I am trying to prove that: "If the gap Diffie-Hellman problem is easy, then the Cha-Cheon signature scheme will be broken." Can you help me to prove it? Is there any proof to the relation between ...
1
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0answers
42 views

one-time key, zero IV in stream cipher (e.g. AES-CTR) [duplicate]

Say I am using a random key to construct a stream cipher with, say, AES in CTR mode, which will never be used to encrypt more than one data stream. Is there any advantage, no matter how small, to ...
1
vote
5answers
850 views

Using one-way hash functions as the encryption method

Suppose two parties want to communicate securely with each other (Bob and Alice) using a simple messaging system in English. There are approximately 180,000 currently used words in the English ...
1
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1answer
1k views

What is the meaning of “trapdoor” in cryptography?

I do not really understand the meaning of a "trapdoor" in cryptography, so here are my questions: What is the meaning of trapdoor and how can I convert a word or string using a trapdoor in ...
1
vote
2answers
333 views

Quadratic residue problem on composite integers

Its believed that the quadratic residue modulo $n=p·q$ for large primes $p$ and $q$ is intractable, which forms the basis of some cryptosystems. However, it is solvable if the factors of $n$ are ...
1
vote
1answer
248 views

Is the salt value a secret or can it be stored in cleartext just like the IV? [duplicate]

From Wikipedia I read that the IV is used to randomise the mapping of cleartext to cipher text and that the IV is usually stored (in cleartext) together with the encrypted record. ...
1
vote
3answers
558 views

Hash function based on pseudorandom functions and security

Are there hash functions that make use of pseudorandom functions. Precisely, I'm looking for a specification of a hash function based on PRF (and based on the security of such a primitive).
1
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1answer
316 views

Homomorphic Encryption

Homomorphic Encryption (HE) which supports any function on ciphertexts is known as Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), while Partially Homomorphic Encryption (PHE) includes encryption schemes that ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Lamport-Diffie + Security Proof

I am studying Lamport-Diffie signature scheme. In the lecture present the algorithm $A'$ for attempting to invert the one way function $f$, where $f$ is used to compute the public key. My question is ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

What type of groups does Microsoft's U-Prove use (Schnorr… etc?)

I'm trying to learn more about the Subgroups implementation of Microsoft UProve. I'm unsure if they are Schnorr Groups or use a different foundation? Can anyone point me to the technical reading ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How long to bruteforce a RSA key [duplicate]

Suppose I have a 2048 bit RSA public key, and want to brute force the corresponding private key. I guess there are 2048^16 possible combinations? How long would this take me to brute force with an ...
1
vote
2answers
139 views

Does collision resistance stay when extending a hash function to a set domain?

Given a Cryptographic hash function $h$ for element $x$, let's extend it to sets via $H(S)=\prod_{x\in{S}}{h(x)}$. I am asking if the new hash $H$ (in domain of set) is still collision resistant? To ...
1
vote
2answers
280 views

Help me describe/identify this challenge-response protocol/algorithm?

My area of expertise is reverse engineering, specifically embedded systems. I do attack cryptographic systems, but this largely involves key recovery or exploiting the implementation. I was asked to ...
1
vote
1answer
177 views

Indistinguishability attack example

I want solve the next exercise. The author defined the experiment for the cryptosystem $\Pi$, the adversary $A$ and the security parameter $n$ as follows $\mathsf{PRIV_{EAV}}(\Pi,A,n)$ The ...
1
vote
1answer
187 views

chaining rsa with ecies

In an answer to a previous question it was suggested that one way to protect your asymmetrically encrypted AES-256 keys, from say a solution to prime factorization, would be to chain asymmetric ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

decryption many time pad [duplicate]

I have eleven ciphertexts that were encrypted with the same key (which I don't know). I want to decrypt the last ciphertext. I read similar question like Many time pad attack but I can't solve my ...
1
vote
1answer
823 views

What is the probability of breaking the AES algorithm?

I am doing a project which requires the encryption to be done using AES. Is it really possible (technically) to crack AES? If yes, please tell me: What is the probability of breaking AES? How ...
1
vote
1answer
112 views

Security relevance of random factor in Paillier

In the Paillier cryptosystem [1] the encryption of $m \in \mathbb{Z}_N$ with randomness $r \in \mathbb{Z}_n^*$ is $c = g^m r^n \bmod{n^2}$. The additive-homomorphic property of the system shows that ...
1
vote
1answer
183 views

Scrypt as a KDF with one-time high-entropy input

I'm looking at using Scrypt as a KDF. Assume the following: the input will always be high-entropy random bytes generated by a CSPRNG the length of the input can vary from between 8 to 32 bytes the ...
1
vote
2answers
283 views

Store hashed email and compare hash values

I have a number of different systems sending me email addresses, but I don't actually need the underlying email, just a hash of the email address. I know I can compare hash values to find matches ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

Two files encrypted with related data versus one file

I have some code that takes a list of credit-card numbers, splits the number into two chunks, one chunk is 8 characters long, the other chunk is the remainder. Each series of chunks is saved into ...

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