# All Questions

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### SSL / TLS digital signature exchange

If server is sending its digital signature, in which message / where does the digitally signature is provided to the client. Is it after the server_hello message because there the public key of the ...
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### Is there a way to use bcrypt with passwords longer than 72 bytes securely?

From my understanding BCrypt truncates the password to 72 bytes. If a password is longer than 72 bytes, what is a way to store that password using bcrypt securely without compromising it? Or is this ...
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### Why perfect secrecy can be ensured when a plain message and a cipher-text based on one-time pad are correlated?

First, some well-known results are as follows. For random variables $X$ and $Y$, we have $$H(X,Y) \leq H(X) + H(Y).$$ The equality is achieved when $X$ and $Y$ are independent. Second, in one-time ...
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### What do the magic numbers 0x5c and 0x36 in the opad/ipad calc in HMAC do?

Wikipedia lists the following pseudocode for HMAC: ...
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### Website Certificate with different public key [migrated]

I've installed a ssl certificate from https://www.startssl.com/ in a server running with plesk. The website is the following: https://refood.sal-pimenta.pt/ As you can see the certificate is fine but ...
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### what is legend of h(r) in this protocol?

can you help me what is legend of h(r) in below protocol? ‎‎$A‎\leftarrow‎{B}\quad:{h(r)‎‎}{,B}{,P{_A(r,B)}}‎\\A‎\rightarrow‎{B}\quad:r$
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### Modes of encryption for hard drives?

What are the currently recommended modes of encryption for large disks? Basic requirements would seem to be that you can update an encrypted sector independently of others, which rules out most ...
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### Factoring two RSA moduli $N_i=p_i\cdot q_i$ knowing that $p_2=p_1+2$?

It is given two RSA moduli $N_1$ and $N_2$, known to be of the form $N_i=p_i\cdot q_i$, with $p_i$ and $q_i$ unknown primes, and such that $p_2=p_1+2$. Can we make use of that relation to factor the ...
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### Difference between IPSEC SA and CHILD SA [migrated]

Let us consider two network entities. ...
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### GPG: What public key do I have to publish? [migrated]

I just created a master key and two subkeys. The first subkey is used for encryption, the second one for signing. Now i am wondering what public key do I have to publish on my website. Does is ...
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### nonce is a number that use once.so why in many protocol use nonce several times?

the Nonce is "a number that use once".so why in many protocol use nonce several times? how use nonce in protocols? if problem is save of nonce in database,how saved time stamp and signature in ...
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### Asymmetric encryption that is secure for (almost) any foreseeable future

Recently, I've been reading a couple of papers about building cryptosystems that are secure for up to 30 years. But for some applications, this seems a bit low to me. So I am wondering if considering ...
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### Use cases for “online” authenticated encryption?

What is the the point of an "online" mode for an authenticated cipher? I understand what "online" means in this context. However, I have trouble coming up with applications that would benefit from ...
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### Factoring two RSA modulus with known $|p_1 - p_2| < \ell$

I have two 1024bit RSA modulus $N_1 = p_1q_1$ and $N_2 = p_2q_2$ such that $0 <|p_1 - p_2| < \ell$, and $\ell$ is at most 64bit integer. Can I factorise $N_1$ and $N_2$? What's the answer when ...
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### Security for multiple functions for a functional encryption scheme

Assuming a functional encryption scheme $F$ in which an untrusted server is able to learn the sum, the multiplication and the sum of the inverses of an $n$ dimensional vector $x \in \mathbb{F}_N^*$ ...
51 views

### Secure ElGamal with OAEP

Is it possible to make ElGamal IND-CCA2 using OAEP or OAEP+? The reason I ask is that I recently answered this question and it came to my mind that OAEP or OAEP+ might be possible solutions. Note ...
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### Inserting a backdoor into a cryptographic hash function

I'm curious as to how a backdoor can be built into a hash function. What might it take the form of? What's probability of getting one that can be backdoored in a way that can actually undermine its ...
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### RFID Protocol Cryptanalysis

Assume we have the following scheme for RFID: TAG & READER both have initially k keys. Every session the TAG computes $k_i$=F($k_{i-1})$ where F is a function which computes XOR of previous key ...
229 views

### The effect of truncated hash on entropy

Suppose i have a 128 bits random binary string (128 bits of entropy), then i hash it using SHA-256, then i take the first 128 bits of the output hash. Does the taken bit string still have (almost) 128 ...
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### Encrypt-Mix-Encrypt: Full Diffusion?

I've read this paper about the encrypt-mix-encrypt mode for ciphers and was asking myself if this mode provides "full" diffusion. So if an attacker alters one bit of the ciphertext, how many bits ...
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I was reading about HMAC and why it is crucial to avoid security issues with normal prepending / appending the secret k to a message (issues due to merkel damagard construction). I am not familiar ...
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### What do these notations mean in the definition of Perfect Secrecy, if we read those in English?

If m: message, M: message space, k: key, K: keyspace, c: cipher, C: cipher space and $E_k$: encryption function, such that $E_k(m) = c,\ m,m^* \in M,\ k\in K,\ c\in C.$ Then, what do the following ...
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### Are there equivalent IVs in DES/CBC?

I'm playing around with the CryptoPP library with DES/CBC and I've noticed that for some sets of data, if I decrypt the ciphertext with Key1, IV1, I get a good cleartext result -- but if I decrypt the ...
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### Using similar passwords and salts for PBKDF2

I'm trying to generate a bunch of pseudo-random keys for AES using PBKDF2, where the AES ciphers will be used in CTR mode as pseudo-random number generators. My goal is to create a 2-dimensional ...
227 views

### Timelock puzzle improvment

I came across this question with this answer about a cryptographic timelock-puzzle that needs approximately 30 years to be solved. There is also an explanation with source code for that puzzle ...