# All Questions

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### We can obtain “absolutely perfect CONFIDENTIALITY” using the one-time pad. Is there such a thing as “absolutely perfect INTEGRITY”? [duplicate]

The OTP (one-time pad) gives us perfect secrecy. This is the very best confidentiality available in this universe. (Although it does require large keys, which is beside the point of this question). ...
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### Feasible attacks on ECRSA cryptosystem

In ECRSA cryptosystem, I want to know the feasible attacks. For illustrations we have two prime $p$ and $q$ such that $p \equiv 2 \pmod 3$, $q \equiv 2 \pmod 3$ and generate key pair as follows: n = ...
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### In Paillier homomorphism, how do you deal with bit length? [on hold]

I'm trying to figure out homomorphic encryption and would like to multiply two paillier encrypted numbers. Like so: [a].[b]=[a+b] To try this I got this Paillier.java and tried the following: <...
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### How can I instantiate a generalized hash function?

I've come across a bunch of "strange" hash function notations, such as the following ones and now I don't know how to choose / instantiate them. Can you please explain me what this notation means and ...
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### SHA-3 maximal number of zeros (Padding)

What is the maximum number of zeros, which are appended at the input- padding in messages? How large must the message be for this?
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### elliptic curve and embedding degree

I am new in ECC. I am confused what the embedding degree in elliptic curve represents and what is the impact of its values on the curve and security ( small values or large values? What does the ...
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### Build a hash function that returns a digest in $\mathbb{Z}_{N}^{\ast}$

I want to know if there is a way to build a Hash Function in a such way? $\mathcal{H}:{\left\{ {0,1} \right\}^*} \to \mathbb{Z}_{N}^{\ast}$, $N=pq$ and where $p,q$ are primes.
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### How is a hash function that implements random oracle model collision resistance?

ROM is considered as collision resistance. Does ROM assume there is an infinite set of output, or assume the output set is always larger than the input set? Because by the pigeonhole principle, ROM is ...
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### Prime factorization of 700 decimal digits number

I'm a newbie to encryption. If I create a number 'n' as a product of two prime numbers 'p' and 'q' with the following specifications: 'p' is a fully random prime with 300 decimal digits in length. 'q'...
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### Getting the same two hash values for carved files I found

I am doing an independent study class for computer forensics, I have to carve the images I've been given. After using scalpel I get a .wav file and .asf file both files play the same songs, and they ...
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### Fix timestamp of self signature on PGP public key [closed]

I accidentally changed configuration of my pgp key while my system didn't have the correct clock. And I uploaded my key to key servers. Now every time I try to download my key from key servers or even ...
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### What is bounded-retrieval model?

What is bounded-retrieval model in cryptography? How is it related (or apply) to leakage-resilient cryptography?
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### Feistel-Network - why wire crossing?

In Feistel-Network, there would be a wire-crossing at the end (for the next round). Which insufficiency would occur, if the wire crossing would be omitted?
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### Attacks from releasing decrypted CCM payload before verifying tag

CCM specifies (Section 1.7) that no plaintext data should be released before the MAC is verified. Why is this recommendation given and what attacks are possible against CCM if data is treated like a ...
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### Attacking Scrypt Under Access Pattern Leakage

Could cache-timing channels (such as exist for certain block ciphers) somehow be made use of in order to extract memory-access pattern information if both the attacker and user are NOT in a shared ...
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### How to use modes of operation in DES? [closed]

How to use modes of operation in block cipher with Data Encryption Standard (DES) ? How the Feistel structure properties are achieved in DES when a mode of operation such as ECB is used?
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### Efficiency of oblivious algorithms vs non-oblivious algorithms

Recently, plenty of researchers are looking at designing efficient data-oblivious algorithms. Roughly speaking, an algorithm is said to be data-oblivious if its data access patterns are independednt ...
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### Are any of the practical implementations of ORAM being used in a real world system?

The concept of Oblivious RAM (ORAM) was first introduced by Oded Goldreich and Rafail Ostrovsky in 1996. However, in the past 5-10 years there has been a surge in the amount of research that looks ...
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### How do I decipher a text using a repeating one-time pad?

I have an encrypted message that is 582 characters long. I know that: It is in hexadecimal It has been encrypted using a one time pad The pad's length is exactly 50 characters When the pad reaches ...
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### Do RSA keys contain a checksum mechanism? [duplicate]

I'm new to cryptography, and I was making an experiment a few minutes ago, but I want to have some deeper knowledge about RSA public and private keys. I have a set of keys One begins with ...
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### Does changing an encryption key make an application unusable [closed]

I have a small piece of basic PHP code that adds new users to a database. It was working fine yesterday but this morning I read something about encryption and realized I hadn't changed the encryption ...
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### What makes an open source encryption algorithm safe?

Take for example the popular AES algorithm where we have a combination of substitution, shift row, mix column, and add key steps involved in encrypting plain test. All of the mathematical operations ...
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### How to deniably send a value

Alice has a single bit of information, b, that she wants to send to Bob (over an unalterable but possibly-monitored channel) but in such a way that without the ...
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### Who invented the $1^n$ notation? [duplicate]

I am always wondering about the seemingly odd syntax $1^n$ which designates the security strength of a cryptographic algorithm. Who invented this (odd) syntax and what was the reason for inventing ...
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### Are there key-derivation functions that are safe to use in parallel on the same secret?

I'm considering using a key-derivation scheme for generating multiple keys from the same user secret. It is important that given all but one of these derived keys, it is not feasible to calculate the ...
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### What is the non-programmable random oracle model?

I would like to know the difference between the random oracle model and the non-programmable random oracle model. ​ What is the difference?
Consider the following bit sequence: 00100000110 Using Berlekamp-Massey algorithm we can find the following minimal degree polynomial: $P(x)=x^6 + x^5 + x^4 + 1$ Now, is there a way to find all ...