6
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the progress on the MIT LCS35 Time Capsule Crypto-Puzzle?

Ron Rivest posed a puzzle in 1999. MIT LCS35 Time Capsule Crypto-Puzzle. The problem is to compute $2^{2^t} \pmod n$ for specified values of $t$ and $n$. Here $n$ is the product of two large ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

On-the-fly computation of AES Round Keys for decryption?

The usual implementation of AES first computes all the Round Keys sequentially starting from the key, and stores them in RAM for later uses. However, when enciphering a single block with a key that ...
6
votes
1answer
399 views

What's the reason for applying the hash twice when hashing with salt?

One of the typical approaches to computing a salted hash is this: hash(salt+hash(secret)) where hash is something like SHA-256 hash function - taking any size ...
6
votes
1answer
481 views

Does omitting the first two lines of RC4's pseudo-random generation algorithm weaken the cipher?

A particular educational software program published by a U.S. government agency uses a variant of RC4 to obfuscate its data files (see Stack Overflow question). The variant of RC4 in question is ...
6
votes
1answer
371 views

Useful pairings for cryptography

I've recently looked a bit at pairing based cryptography and I was wondering what properties the groups involved should have in order to be useful for cryptographic purposes? Has anything more exact ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

How much can we compress RSA public keys?

I am wondering to what degree we can define an RSA variant, with a security argument that it is as safe as regular RSA with a given modulus size $m$ (e.g. $m=2048$), in which the public key has a ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

RSA-based authentication and key-agreement protocol

An authentication and key-agreement protocol between devices shall mutually demonstrate their identity, and establish a shared random secret $R$ suitable for securing later communications. To that ...
6
votes
2answers
479 views

Deniable Encryption from simple primitives

Is there a deniable encryption scheme $M = E(p_1,k_1,p_2,k_2,...,p_n,k_n), p_j = D(M,k_j)$ of $n$ plaintexts $p_1,p_2,...,p_n$ and $n$ keys $k_1,k_2,...,k_n$, such that we can fix $D$ to be a known ...
6
votes
1answer
291 views

Hermitian curves introductory references

Could you give me some reference to start on Hermitian Curves. Some papers or textbooks would be perfect, and please mention if it's math inclined or comp.sci. inclined. I've only seen hermitian ...
5
votes
1answer
95 views

Why have round constants in hashes?

This may seem like crypto 101, but why do hash functions like SHA2 and Whirlpool have round constants that are absorbed into their respective states? I can understand that in a cipher you need some ...
5
votes
2answers
95 views

Encrypt-Mix-Encrypt: Full Diffusion?

I've read "A Parallelizable Enciphering Mode" by Halevi and Rogaway about the encrypt-mix-encrypt mode for ciphers and was asking myself if this mode provides "full" diffusion. So if an attacker ...
5
votes
3answers
187 views

Hash which can be used to verify one of multiple inputs?

Is there a hash function H1 which, when given inputs a, b, etc., produces output ...
5
votes
3answers
466 views

What is the most computationally efficient way of generating pseudo-random permutations?

I have an application in which I need to create up to J randomly shuffled-copies of an array of length N. Then I will have millions or even billions of iterations such that, in each iteration, I will ...
5
votes
2answers
219 views

Are there cryptographic hash functions with homomorphic properties? [duplicate]

Are there cryptographic hash functions that have homomorphism-like properties? E.g. satisfying following relation $h(a || b) = h(a) · h(b)$, where $h(x)$ is hash function itself, $x || y$ is ...
5
votes
2answers
128 views

Is it possible to construct a secure block cipher of size $2n$ given a secure block cipher of size $n$?

Given, say, the Blowfish block cipher, which is considered secure but only has a 64-bit block size, can we construct a secure block cipher of 128-bit block size? Say we run the key through two KDFs, ...
5
votes
1answer
123 views

How can I find the order of the group that an elliptic curve is defined over?

I have a Weierstrass elliptic curve ($y^2=x^3+a \times x+b \mod p $) How can I find the order of the group itself? I have seen Mathematica has a GroupOrder[] ...
5
votes
1answer
177 views

What functions allow for practical indistinguishability obfuscation?

Recently, there has been a major theoretical breakthrough in program obfuscation, in the area of indistinguishability obfuscation. Background: Indistinguishability obfuscation is a form of program ...
5
votes
1answer
376 views

I need a 64-bit cryptographic hash for 96 bits of data

I have a situation in which I need to combine a 32-bit datum, G, and a 64-bit datum, I, to produce a 64-bit datum. No two ...
5
votes
5answers
508 views

Is there a technique to confirm that a given large integer value is a product of two primes?

Given a list of 2048 bit integer values in which one or few 2048 bit integer values may be product of two prime numbers and other values may be just 2048 bit odd integers numbers. My question is - ...
5
votes
3answers
469 views

AES column mixing and S-Box confusion

I am trying to understand the AES encryption algorithm. I know that we process 128 bits at a time for a 128 bit key in a 4x4 octet form, but am confused by the following: How does the substitution ...
5
votes
1answer
354 views

Initialization Vector Properties

This is a multi-layer problem, and I want to take you through the whole thing rather than just asking about IVs. Bear with me. Also, all code below is in Common Lisp because that's what I'm using, but ...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

PBKDF2WithHmacSHA512 Vs. PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1

I'm working on a Java authentication subsystem that specs the storage of passwords in the DB as PBKDF2-generated hashes, and I'm now trying to decide whether I ...
5
votes
1answer
669 views

How much entropy is lost via hashing when you add known or low entropy data?

(I updated the title, as I think there was some confusion as to the question) Here's the question: For example, if I have a bit stream that is 64K bytes long and there is about 16 *8 bits worth of ...
5
votes
1answer
245 views

HMAC construction based on the combination of two hash functions

I would like an $\operatorname{HMAC}$ that's based on two different hash functions ($H_1$ and $H_2$), so that a break of the combined $\operatorname{HMAC}$ would imply a break of ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

What is it meant by a “hybrid argument”?

Can anyone explain (or point to a reference for) what a hybrid argument is in a security proof, and when it's convenient or preferable to use it? Among some of the places where I've seen it ...
5
votes
1answer
512 views

What signature schemes allow recovering the public key from a signature?

It seems to be possible to retrieve the (public) key used for creating an ECDSA signature just from the signature alone. This seems like an interesting property; as far as I know, RSA doesn't share ...
5
votes
1answer
350 views

What criteria make the theta step of Keccak's round function reversible?

From what I've been reading, Keccak's round function is reversible. That's pretty obvious for the $\rho$, $\pi$ and $\iota$ transforms. For $\chi$ to be reversible, $x$'s range has to be odd — but ...
5
votes
1answer
305 views

Toy encryption system that provides “hints”

I'm looking for a toy encryption system that has a specific property that when decrypting it with a key that is close enough to the key used in the encryption, it will produce some of the original ...
5
votes
3answers
337 views

Secret sharing scheme with possibility to change the secret

Here's a scenario I want to handle with a secret sharing scheme: Alice wants to share the secret $S$ with Bob, Charlie and Dave. Alice generates private shares based on $S$ for Bob, Charlie and ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

Finding a keylength in a repeating key XOR cipher

In an old cryptography FAQ, I found the following step described for determining a the length of the key a cipher was repeatedly XORed against: Discover the length of the key by counting ...
5
votes
1answer
437 views

HMAC for short messages

I am using HMAC (hmac-sha256 to be precise) message authentication without encryption. My question is, is having a short message make it easy to determine what my secret key is? My C# code is as ...
5
votes
3answers
405 views

What do $0^n$ and $1^n$ mean in cryptography?

Let $f$ = $\{f_k\}$ be a pseudorandom function family. Let $G(x)$ be a pseudo-random generator such that: $G(x) = f_x(0^k)f_x(1^k)$ where $k=|x|$. I don't understand the meaning of $1^n$ ...
5
votes
1answer
311 views

md5: is reverse length-extension attack possible?

If I know H = md5( SECRET_KEY | DATA ) then I can calculate H' = md5( SECRET_KEY | DATA | DATA' ) That's length-extension ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Why should the RSA private exponent have the same size as the modulus?

Consider the generation of an RSA key pair with a given modulus size $n$ and a known, small public exponent $e$ (typically $e = 3$ or $e = 65537$). A common method is to generate two random primes ...
5
votes
2answers
756 views

How many bits can be safely extracted from the BBS generator at each step?

The Blum-Blum-Shub generator is a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security reducible to that of integer factorization. Setup: Secretly chose random primes $P$, $Q$, with $P\equiv ...
5
votes
1answer
419 views

OpenPGP Signature Packet hashed data

RFC 4880 describes the version 4 signature packet, tag 2, as ...
5
votes
1answer
290 views

S-box Cryptanalytic Resistance

In DES, different S-boxes were tested for cryptanalytic resistance and the most secure one was chosen for the algorithm itself. How do different S-boxes offer different levels of security against ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Is the AES Key Schedule weak?

After reading this paper entitled Key Recovery Attacks of Practical Complexity on AES Variants With Up To 10 Rounds I was left wondering why the key schedule of AES is invertable. In the paper the ...
5
votes
3answers
303 views

Cipher for Product Registration?

I'd like to implement a "Product Registration" scheme into my software where upon initial use, the User must enter a key to unlock it. The key they enter is compared to their encrypted Username. ...
5
votes
2answers
766 views

ElGamal signature without calculating the inverse

I stumbled upon this question in some textbook. Propose a variant of ElGamal signature scheme such that there is no need to calculate the inverse $k^{-1}$ as it is usually done using the EEA. ...
4
votes
2answers
278 views

Brute-force attack given small search-space and hash prefix

Suppose we have a value $secret which is a random 56-bit (7-byte) string. Suppose an adversary wishes to discover $secret. The ...
4
votes
2answers
197 views

Is $f(x)\oplus x$ a one-way function?

Given that $f$ is a OWF and $|f(x)|=|x|$ for all $x$, is $g(x)=f(x)\oplus x$ necessarily also a OWF?
4
votes
3answers
252 views

Cryptographic data structure: sparse array without membership test

I would like a data structure supporting two operations: $\mathsf{set}(k,v)$ and $\mathsf{get}(k)$, with the following properties: $k$ can be any number between $0$ and something impressively large, ...
4
votes
1answer
149 views

GCM: Math behind update of AAD after ciphertext has been processed

In the Bouncy Castle libraries, the GCM cipher implementation has an interesting property that does not seem described in the GCM papers (neither the NIST or the original paper): Some AAD was sent ...
4
votes
1answer
211 views

Encryption-Decryption-Encryption

I have learned from Applied Cryptography that triple encryption with three independent keys in encryption-decryption-encryption (EDE) process gives security not higher then $2^{2n}$ when it comes to ...
4
votes
1answer
377 views

For a one-time pad, which MAC method is information-theoretically secure?

In the the main post about MAC methods it mentions a few methods: Authenticate And Encrypt: The sender computes a MAC of the plaintext, encrypts the plaintext, and then appends the MAC to the ...
4
votes
1answer
392 views

Making my steganography code more hard to detect and crack

I'm doing a college project about digital image steganography on MATLAB. So far i've been able to get the help i needed from cool guys on stackoverflow but i now need to make my algorithm more hard to ...
4
votes
2answers
436 views

Perfect Forward Secrecy with Pre-shared Key

I've recently been looking at how to do perfect forward secrecy on a unidirectional connection (server can only push messages to client, client cannot respond). What I've come up with is the idea of ...
4
votes
4answers
699 views

How do institutions like banks do RSA with big primes?

When encrypting with RSA it is often infeasible to decrypt by just doing c^d mod n, because for example when using the primes $(p,q)=(12553,1233)$, which are small ...
4
votes
1answer
401 views

Computing IV for CBC from PBKDF2 + HKDF

Note that this question is somewhat similar to Can I use my random IV (for AES) as a salt for PBKDF2? My current encryption format computes two random PBKDF2 salts (encryption and HMAC, 8 bytes each) ...

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