# All Questions

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### Is $H(x) = x^2 \bmod p$ pre-image resistant, second pre-image resistant and/or collision resistant

I have the function $H(x) = x^2\bmod p$ , where $p$ is a prime of length n bits and this function maps to the message $x$ to a n-bit hash value $H(x)$. I need to find out if it is pre-image ...
919 views

### Certificate signature with SHA-1 and RSA: where do 1888 bits come from?

Plenty of X.509 Certificates use "PKCS#1 SHA1 with RSA encryption" as the Certificate Signature Algorithm for generating a 2048-bit signature. The SHA-1 hash function generates a hash value of 160 ...
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### Why can't hashes be reversed with toffoli gates?

This is a follow up question to this question: Crack cryptographic hash functions using Toffoli gates?. Suppose there is a hash function $$H(x)=y,$$ where $x$ is the input of the function and $y$ is ...
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### Homomorphic encryption for vector addition

Building on the question and answer from Addition-only PHE in F# which ponders homomorphic cryptosystems to navigate, relatively, a single dimension without revealing absolute position (an encrypted ...
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### Distinguishing attack on CBC-MAC

I want to ask about distinguishing attack on CBC MAC, as in the paper published by Ketting Jia, Xiaoyun Wang, Zheng Yuan, and Guangwu Xu: Distinguishing Attack and Second-Preimage Attack on the ...
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### How does this happen in RSA malleability?

I don't understand how the $E(m)$ turns into $E(mt)$. I mean, I don't know how does that transformation happen and how does the equation occur. $$E(m) \cdot t^e \bmod n = (mt)^e \bmod n = E(mt)$$ ...
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### Speed up modular exponentation with fixed base and modulus

Can someone explain, how $a^x \mod N$ can be speeded up, when $a$ and $N$ are known constants? How big is the gain and what resources are needed? ...
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### A key-derivation function that is as strong as the stronger of PBKDF2 and scrypt

I want a key stretching system that's as strong as the stronger of scrypt and PBKDF2. The consensus now is that scrypt is by far the better system, but that might change if in the future, a weakness ...
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### Increase number of rounds for SPN and Feistel ciphers

Read a post on Schneiers blog (and again 2011) about increasing the number of rounds for AES from to "AES-128 at 16 rounds, AES-192 at 20 rounds, and AES-256 at 28 rounds" to raise the security. ...
690 views

### Avalanche noise RNG for one-time pad use

I came across this little HRNG widget and was really intrigued as I have been looking for a decent but afordable source for truly random bits to use in a one-time pad. The question is, would a HRNG ...
363 views

### implications of SSH server key compromission when authenticating users against a public key

Friday we had a disagreement with a colleague of mine about the implications of SSH server key compromission The question was stated as this : What could a hacker do while provided with the SSH ...
539 views

### Is there another resource for Carter-Wegman-style message authentication?

I'm wondering if there are other resources that cover Carter-Wegman style message authentication, besides the sources themselves. Is there an online text or a book that covers their ideas? I'd ...
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### Can I make a cipher (ex: Vigenère) harder to break?

The Vigenère cipher can relatively easy be broken when the key size is small compared to the size of the message. One first finds the length of the key, and then uses frequency analysis to actually ...
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### What is the actual difference between security through obscurity and true encryption?

In an abstract sense, aren't both the same? Don't their definitions boil down to the following? security through obscurity: trying to make sure some information cannot be obtained without knowing ...
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### Generating a cryptographically secure, many-time use, symmetric encryption key

I need to generate a 256 bit encryption key described by the adjectives in the title. Currently I intend to create the key using this RNG. Is this a secure manner of creating the key, given that it ...
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### Several questions about Paillier cryptosystem

I have several questions concerning the original Paillier cryptosystem as described in Paillier, Pascal (1999). "Public-Key Cryptosystems Based on Composite Degree Residuosity Classes". EUROCRYPT. ...