# All Questions

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### Can we use the sponge construct to efficiently authenticate any cipher?

The sponge construct facilitates authenticated encryption independently of the function used to mix its state. Could we use any strong cipher (i.e. AES-256) as the mixing function in a sponge to ...
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### Trying to understand MixColumns with Hexadecimal matrix

I am trying to read and understand the textbook's exercise questions. The sample solution at the end the textbook has a final answer and it does not clarify how it got the result. I am trying to ...
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### How does Boneh–Lynn–Shacham work?

As described by Wikipedia, BLS uses Diffie-Hellman in some way. I understand how Diffie-Hellman works in both its normal and elliptic curve forms. But what is the "pairing function"?
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### Distribution of hash values

I was wondering if the uniform distribution of hash values is a generally required criteria for cryptographic hash functions. The english wikipedia article only mentions four main properties. But it ...
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### How is McEliece chosen plaintext secure?

Suppose a challenger creates a McEliece encryption system where there is a public key consisting of a matrix $G$ representing some linear code, and a number $t$ for the number of errors. Then the ...
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### Confidentiality then Integrity with different keys [duplicate]

Can anyone describe how we can do what is said in the below sentence which is in Mark Stamp crypto slides (PPTX) on slide number 101 : Can do a little better - about 1.5 “encryptions” The whole ...
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### Confidentiality then Integrity with different keys

Can anyone describe how we can do what is said in the below sentence which is in Mark Stamp crypto slides (PPTX) on slide number 101 : Can do a little better - about 1.5 “encryptions” The whole ...
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### What to do when crib dragging does not work in OTP (One-time pad) ciphers?

With a Cipher text of ...
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### great discovery in the field of elliptic curves cryptography?

Prof. Adi Shamir says in The Cryptographers' Panel 2016: i think that NSA has made a great discovery in the field of elliptic curves cryptography and NSA wants to avoid the increased use and ...
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### Calculating inverse of transposition key cipher [duplicate]

I need some help on transposition cryptography. If I'm given the encoding key to a transposition cipher, how do I get the decoding key for it? I tried googling but couldn't find any steps on the ...
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### Getting inverse of a transposition key

I'm new to security stuff and I have some questions about the keys of transposition cryptography. If I'm given the encoding key to a transposition cipher, how do I get the decoding key for it? I ...
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### How to define order according to domain parameters in elliptic curve pairing groups

According to domain parameters, as an example Type 1 pairing domain parameters are ...
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### Solving for a One-time pad cipher help ; crib dragging doesnt work (no surprise) [duplicate]

Basically we're given the text 7ECC555AB95BF6EC605E5F22B772D2B34FF4636340D32FABC29B 73CB4855BE44F6EC60594C2BB47997B60EEE303049CD3CABC29B 64C6401BAF45F6A930435F3DF875C4E102F8742A45C824AFCA9B ...
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### How to test an encryption against different attacks [closed]

For the last while I have been reading up on cryptography and the different kinds of methods for encryption (public key, blocks, etc) and the attacks against them. This got me wondering how to ...
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### how to verify subset of hashes from hash list

I need to verify a couple hashed (SHA256) integers from a list of approximately 50 hashed integers in a message. The list can be divided into groups. The (plain) integer data is not in the message, ...
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### Public-key encryption with associated data

In the symmetric-key world, we have authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). I'm looking for something similar, but for public-key encryption: public-key encryption with associated data (...
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### Password hashing in embedded systems

Are there good options for password hashing in embedded systems? These systems often cannot afford slow has functions. I can think of a few approaches: Store the (hashed) passwords in a HSM that ...
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### Attack being kind of completely puzzled?

I am reading this paper "The security of Hidden Field Equations (HFE)" and at the end of the page 4 the author wrote: Thus, after all, this belief about every attack being kind of ”completely ...
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### Impact of Git's use of SHA-1? [closed]

Git uses SHA-1, and it is common to sign Git commit or tag hashes to authenticate a repo. Is this insecure now?
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### Why does 0x00 make bcrypt weaker?

On the following site: https://paragonie.com/blog/2015/04/secure-authentication-php-with-long-term-persistence when talking about the dangers of using bcrypt it states: There is a nontrivial ...
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### Is it safe to use a key as message in keyed hashing (HMAC)?

Scenario: User gives password. A "password key" is derived from the password (e.g. by PBKDF2). A random salt is applied. The password key is hashed with a HMAC algorithm (e.g. HMAC-SHA256), with ...
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### How to show that this modification of CBC-MAC is insecure?

I'm working on some cryptography problems, found this and I'm not sure how to solve it: Modify CBC-MAC so that all blocks $t_1,\dots,t_l$ are output rather than just $t_l$ and prove it is not ...
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### Is AES solvable by reducing to SAT?

Consider a known plaintext attack on AES — just so we have an actual system of equalities that we can feed to a SAT solver. Is AES solvable in this way? In other words, will the algorithm eventually ...
6k views

### Why is OTP not vulnerable to brute-force attacks?

I saw this question on the book Understanding Cryptography. At first glance it seems as though an exhaustive key search is possible against an OTP system. Given is a short message, let’s say 5 ...
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### Does encrypting with MGF1/SHA-512/1024-bit seed equal to a 1024-bit key block cipher?

Suppose: Alice uses SHA-512 with MGF1(as in PKCS#1 V2) and a 1024-bit random seed to generate a mask, XORs the mask with a message(M), gets a cipher text (CT), and sends the CT to her old friend ...
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### Does RSA have two trapdoors?

I watched some videos from Khan Academy explaining the algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption. They explained that there are two trapdoors, modular exponentiation being one and prime factorization ...
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### Probability of generating same master secret key in Identity-based Encryption

Suppose multiple servers use same IBE domain parameters (I mean same curve description parameters and field) for master secret key setup. Is there any possibility for generating the same system ...
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### Why is the compression function in Miyaguchi-Preneel scheme secure?

I was reading about the Miyaguchi-Preneel scheme and had difficulty in understanding why the compression function, $h(H,m)=E(H, H \oplus M) \oplus M \oplus H$ can be called secure. The only resource I ...
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### How to calculate entropy of output of a PRNG

Suppose the entropy of seed key is $H(n)$ which is $n$-bit long and random and the output bit length of the PRNG is $2^n$, which will be used as a long running key. Though it is obvious in that case, ...
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### Reykeyed AES in CTR mode as a stream cipher

Suppose one uses AES in CTR mode to generate a keystream, but every $l$ bytes the $n$ bits that would follow are used as a new AES key. Assuming that AES is a secure PRP: Is this a secure stream ...
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### Dangers of using CTR mode for encryption

I know that it is never suggested to use the same key or key/IV pair twice for a stream cipher or for a block cipher operating in CTR mode. Filesystem-level encryption reuses the same key for a file ...
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### Is there an algorithm that allows verification that 2 encrypted or hashed bits of data are the same, given that I may only know half of the key/ salt?

We have an interesting problem. Currently, we store a salted hash of some secret key known only to the clients of our clients to allow us (and our clients) to find other records that were generated ...
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### Key derivation using the main AES encryption key and some plain text

I am using AES 128 bit encryption in java. I have an encryption key and 10 digit plain text. I want to derive a key for HMAC using the AES encryption key and the 10 digit plain text. This plain text ...
33 views

### The security of Hidden Field Equations - sentence

I am reading this paper "The security of Hidden Field Equations (HFE)" and at the end of the page 3 the author wrote: The random oracle paradigm would be to ignore that the function formulae ...
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### Building multiple keys from the same input using a KDF [duplicate]

Let's say I have a single secret with high entropy, S, for the entire application. I want to generate keys K1, K2 for 2 ...
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### Is it OK to reseed a Deterministic Random Bit Generator from itself?

I want a deterministic PRNG for simulation purposes, and I don't want to have to worry about spurious correlations like those the DMCT is designed to protect the Mersenne Twister against. So even ...
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### Is there a security problem with this prime generation algorithm?

I am facing the following algorithm to generate an RSA public key: ...
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### Identity-based proxy re-encryption using different system parameters

I am wondering if there is an identity based proxy re-encryption scheme (such as the Green-Ateniese scheme https://eprint.iacr.org/2006/473.pdf) that converts an encryption computed with ID1, system ...
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### Fixed-prefix IV in CBC mode

I know the Initialization Vector needs to be unpredictable. Does it apply to the IV as a whole, or to every bit in the IV? I have multiple devices with poor entropy sharing the same key and I want to ...
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### Best/average/worst-case complexity for cryptography

I understand that the complexity of a problem can be measured by it's best-case, average-case, or worst-case complexity. Am I correct in thinking that, for cryptographic purposes, each of these is of ...
142 views

### Difference left-or-right CPA security, IND-CPA security

I am trying to understand the notion of left-or-right-CPA (LOR-CPA) security for private-key encryption schemes introduced in my lecture. If I understood it correctly so far, the only difference to ...
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### What about using AES-ECB with random IV?

Let P1P2...Pn be n blocks plaintext, and M0 be a random IV. Then a n+1 blocks message M0M1...Mn can be constructed by setting Mi+1 = Mi xor Pi+1. Finally, we use AES-ECB to encrypt this message. Is it ...
2k views

### How to publish a cipher (concept)?

In the last months I was searching for a subject for my bachelor thesis. I came up with an idea for a new cipher concept that works by combining already known techniques in a (hopefully) new way. So ...
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### How to deal with different setup in Multikey FHE?

The scenario : using a Multikey FHE scheme, let's say LTV-FHE scheme, parties delegate the computation of some function to the mighty cloud. In LTV-FHE scheme the parties generate their keys and ...
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### Can shuffling plaintext produce a useable key?

If I 'shuffle' the characters in a long text, is there some number of shuffles that will produce apparent randomness approaching a cryptographically secure random number generator? A chapter in a ...