4
votes
3answers
356 views

Why are elliptic curves better than cyclic groups?

The set of points of an elliptic curve over a finite field is isomorphic to the direct product of two cyclic groups (i.e. $E(F_{p^n}) \cong Z_{s} \times Z_{t})$. What is the advantage of representing ...
4
votes
3answers
455 views

The utility of elliptic curve cryptography

Suppose that the only public key cryptography schemes that we knew were Diffie Hellman, RSA and ElGamal. How much would this set civilization back? Are there important applications of elliptic curve ...
4
votes
2answers
536 views

Signature schemes for underpowered devices (8bit microcontroller)

I am currently researching into a small scale home automation system, aiming for cost. The system architecture is basically one master and several slaves which are connected in parallel. Recently ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

AES-CTR vulnerability to cryptographic oracle

I am new to cryptographic issues and from what I googled so far I could not retrieve the information I need. Consider the use of AES-128 in CTR mode. Let M be the set of possible plaintexts, for ...
4
votes
2answers
314 views

How is the x coordinate of a “point at infinity” encoded in a Secp256k1 signature?

I'm testing an implementation of Bitcoin, which uses the curve Secp256k1 for ECDSA, and I want to see how it handles the point at infinity ($0$) if present in a signature. For example, r could be the ...
4
votes
2answers
335 views

Is it possible to break a hash-based block cipher?

Let's define the following block cipher: $C_n = M_n \oplus H(k + n)$ where $C_n$ is the nth block of ciphertext, $M_n$ is the nth block of plaintext, $H$ is a cryptographic hash function, and $k$ is ...
4
votes
1answer
268 views

A situation where security by obscurity might be the best solution - or am I wrong?

Imagine the following situation. There is an application for a microcontroller-driven system. The profits are made from manufacturing and selling the device itself. However, it is expected, that the ...
4
votes
3answers
757 views

Is there any semantic difference between predicate encryption and functional encryption?

Predicate encryption(PE) arrived as a descendant of attribute based encryption. Attribute based encryption allows the encryptor to embody a policy to the ciphertext (Ciphertext-Policy based ...
4
votes
2answers
225 views

Is SHA1 secure with such many inputs Z that Z = constant secret X + variable public Y?

Let me ask whether SHA1 is designed to be secure for the following case. You compute each SHA1 of many strings,for example 1 million, where each string is a concatenation of X+Y , where X is secret ...
4
votes
2answers
410 views

X.509 CSR: Why does CA remove signature?

I just read this article on Wikipedia: Certificate Signing Request I'm not a PKI or Crypto expert. As I understand, a CSR (certification request) is always signed by the PKCS#10-Request creator. ...
4
votes
2answers
334 views

Does this block cipher mode allow for decryption?

Is there's a way for someone (with the key) to decrypt a message encrypted with the cipher mode shown? $$ P_0 = IV $$ $$ C_i = P_{i-1} \oplus E_K(P_i) \oplus P_i $$
4
votes
1answer
779 views

Are there two-way encryption algorithms that include a work factor?

I recently learned about the hashing algorithm bcrypt, which allows you to specify a "work factor" for the hash which can be incremented to stay ahead of Moore's Law. I understand there are some other ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Is it a good idea to use bitwise XOR on a set of MD5 sums?

I have designed an SQL aggregate function in Oracle that bitwise XORs all MD5 sums of the values stored in a column. For example, if my table is: ...
4
votes
3answers
894 views

public key cryptography and digital signature

I read the following from Understanding Public Key Cryptography on Microsoft TechNet: Using a private key to establish identity shows that the full encryption and decryption operation was ...
4
votes
1answer
180 views

The difference between MAC algorithms and what to use

I've been looking into message authentication codes and found several ways to create integrity for a message. I know of the following algorithms: HMAC, this can use any cryptograhpic hash function ...
4
votes
2answers
125 views

Randomness re-use in LWE encryption scheme

Let me describe the scheme first, it is the scheme proposed by O. Regev when he introduced the LWE assumption. $sk = \textbf{s} \in \mathbf{Z}_q^n$ $pk = \textbf{A}\textbf{s}+\textbf{e}$ where ...
4
votes
2answers
138 views

Finding strong primes

Wikipedia lists the following conditions for a prime to be strong: $p-1$ has large prime factors. That is, $p = a_1 q_1 + 1$ for some integer $a_1$ and large prime $q_1$. $q_1-1$ has large prime ...
4
votes
2answers
165 views

Spoofing protocol nonce

Amy and Betty have a shared key $k$, and the protocol below is to provide a mutual authentication for both Betty and Amy. A sends B : $n_a$ B sends A : $n_b \;\|\; E(k, n_a)$ A sends B : $E(k, n_b)$ ...
4
votes
2answers
672 views

How secure is the AES master key if Round Keys are found

If an attacker finds some round key of AES256, is it possible to find the master key? How safe is the master key if an attackers finds multiple round keys?
4
votes
1answer
139 views

Should different key pairs be used for signing and encryption?

In the recent iOS Security white paper from Apple (February 2014), the section on iMessage discusses using two different asymmetric key types as part of its standard operation: When a user turns ...
4
votes
2answers
226 views

Authenticated encryption without padding

I want to encrypt data and protect its integrity and confidentiality. However, I cannot increase the length of the data. Are there any cipher modes of operation which provide confidentiality and ...
4
votes
1answer
203 views

Homomorphic Encryption and Semantic Security using Lattices?

I've been reading Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan's "Efficient Fully Homomorphic Encryption from (Standard) LWE" and I'm still digesting pieces at a time. Under section 1.1, "Re-Linearization: Somewhat ...
4
votes
2answers
227 views

Is the following symmetric design secure?

Assume: $O$ be a reversible random permutation oracle on a finite set and $O^{-1}$ the inverse permutation (pretty much equivalent to a random permutation: What is the difference between a bijective ...
4
votes
2answers
838 views

Why is sharing the seed and using SecureRandom “deterministically” so bad?

I've recently been reading an article about "using cryptography to store credentials", and I would love it someone explained this in more detail… Up until Android 4.1, Android used a SecureRandom ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Which stream cipher can we replace the RC4 in the SSL?

In cryptography, the Fluhrer, Mantin and Shamir attack is a particular stream cipher attack, a dedicated form of cryptanalysis for attacking the widely-used stream cipher RC4. The attack allows an ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Can an RSA private key have several public keys?

Ok, so my crpto lecturer in Uni posed this question at the end of the RSA key generation lecture as a brain teaser. I have been thinking about this and I think I have come up with a way ( I am aware ...
4
votes
2answers
218 views

how to iteratively calculate a^emod n with modulus n sized 4096 bits

In most sites the exponent of the RSA public key is 24 bits. But the modulus can get to 4096 bits size. I have an accelerator that can get max. 2112 bit size modulus. It calculates ...
4
votes
2answers
179 views

Can S/MIME be still considered secure?

Previoulsy I had asked this question at http://stackoverflow.com/questions/18235983/can-s-mime-be-still-considered-secure but I feel this forum is topic-wise the right place. Recently there has been ...
4
votes
2answers
4k views

AES encryption using a Diffie-Hellman key exchange

I have two systems which need to encrypt their communication by AES-128. The key for the AES encryption should be exchanged with the Diffie-Hellman (DH) algorithm. Now, I've read about DH and got a ...
4
votes
2answers
294 views

Does SRP reduce to DH key exchange when shared password is not secret?

I can find JavaScript implementations of SRP (Secure Remote Password protocol), but nothing that inspires confidence for Diffie-Hellmen key exchange. I also have a separate need for SRP later. I ...
4
votes
2answers
417 views

How do I unpack the x and y values from the BITSTRING in a DER ECDSA public key?

In ASN.1, the X and Y values for a 256-bit elliptic curve key are stored as a single 66-byte ASN.1 BITSTRING. Are the values just the first and second half of this bitstring? The private key is an ...
4
votes
1answer
886 views

BCrypt vs Key Stretching MD5

Ars technica posted an article about the latest in cyber warfare from the stuxnet crew. They key stretched MD5 by iterating it 10,000 times. It seems to be effective at handicapping HashCat's gpu ...
4
votes
1answer
851 views

What happens if an RSA key pair has identical public and private exponents?

Rather, is it possible for big prime numbers? Classroom examples usually involve smaller primes, so for example if you are given a prime number pair $p = 3$, $q = 13$ you would get $n = 39$ and $e = ...
4
votes
4answers
649 views

Which block cipher modes of operation allow a predictable IV?

Recently I found out that in the modes CBC and PCBC the IV may be passed in cleartext but never must be predictable. However for this part of my app I rather have the IV be predictable and unique ...
4
votes
2answers
584 views

Adaptive Hash Functions: How to tell how many iterations were used?

If an adaptive hash function like bcrypt or PBKDF2 is used in hashing passwords, the number of iterations used in the hashing process can be configured. For a penetration tester or a malicious ...
4
votes
2answers
570 views

How did LinkedIn “salt” all their passwords?

First, just to make sure I understand "salting" correctly: You randomly generate a string to append to the password before hashing it, so as to increase its length and make precomputed tables much ...
4
votes
1answer
400 views

How secure is my OTP program?

I'm writing an One-Time Pad encryption program, because I got really interested in the idea of " encryption which has been proven to be impossible to crack if used correctly". I'm writing the program ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Why DSA cannot be used for encryption?

Here it is mentioned that DSA cannot be used for encrypt. But Both RSA and DSA can be used to generate public and private keys, right? (Or am I wrong?). Then why can't I use the DSA public key to ...
4
votes
1answer
202 views

Do public/private pairs work both ways?

Public/private key algorithms such as RSA encrypt a message with a private key but only decrypted with another (mathematically related) key. Can the public key decrypt the messages encrypted with ...
4
votes
1answer
200 views

Question about hash collisions

If we have a hash function $h(x)$ and then a hash function $H(X) = h(h(X_0) || h(X_1))$ where $X_0$ is the first half of $X$, $X_1$ is the second half of $X$ and $||$ is concatenation. Then assuming ...
4
votes
1answer
784 views

If you had to implement the BGN Cryptosystem, how would you do it?

If you had to implement BGN, how would you do it? I'm looking for an implementation of the public-key cryptosystem due to Boneh, Goh, and Nissim (aka BGN), or at least some suggestions on ...
4
votes
2answers
376 views

Provable Encryption

Is it possible to encrypt data in a way that it can be proven that the data is encrypted, without revealing the key? Alice chooses some plaintext, then she encrypts it with a certain scheme. She ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is ElGamal considered non-deterministic?

One difference between RSA and ElGamal is that ElGamal isn't necessarily deterministic (while RSA is). What makes it non-deterministic? Is this advantageous to security? How else does this property ...
4
votes
2answers
424 views

What is the appropriate public key encryption for secure coin flipping?

I quote Bobby's question here since I encountered the same one... Random Coin Flip using ElGamal and a Trusted Party Consider the following protocol for two parties to flip a fair coin. Trusted ...
4
votes
3answers
514 views

Does the XML Encryption flaw affect SSL/TLS?

A "practical attack against XML's cipher block chaining (CBC) mode" has been demonstrated: XML Encryption Flaw Leaves Web Services Vulnerable. Does this weakness of CBC-mode which is used here also ...
4
votes
1answer
179 views

When is an asymmetric scheme considered broken?

Does the following quote imply that valid encrypted data can be created and decrypted by someone other than the owner of a private key: An asymmetric encryption scheme is considered to be broken ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Brute forcing CRC-32

I'm working on a cryptosystem which uses IDEA. The designer made the mistake of including a CRC-32B hash of the password unencrypted in the header, so that the system can quickly reject bad ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

Authenticating Very Short (Sub-Block) Data

If I'm encrypting very short/small data - like an int or a long (32 or 64 bits), does it make any sense to authenticate the ciphertext, when using an "online" mode of operation (like EAX)? ...
4
votes
1answer
204 views

Encryption-Decryption-Encryption

I have learned from Applied Cryptography that triple encryption with three independent keys in encryption-decryption-encryption (EDE) process gives security not higher then $2^{2n}$ when it comes to ...
4
votes
2answers
120 views

Are variable-length crypto hash functions still susceptible to collisions?

I just recently learned that the SHA-3 finalist Keccak allows for variable length output. As the only answer to this question states, "[it] need to have an output length at least equal to the input ...

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