All Questions

2
votes
1answer
140 views

Understanding Pseudo Random Generators

I've been taking a crypto course online. I have a good idea how PRG's and Stream Ciphers work, but I'd love to get some input to help visualize what is actually happening. I understand a seed is used, ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Prepending random data to encrypted file

If random data is prepended to a file encrypted with GNUPG's symmetric encryption, how may an attacker find out if the input file is deliberately corrupted or the passphrase is wrong? If it is not ...
6
votes
3answers
479 views

What is the use of Mersenne Primes in cryptography

There is an international search for Mersenne Primes. The project is huge. But what is the use of Mersenne Primes in cryptography? Do they have any other properties other than the $2^n-1$ form?
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

How to guess the encoding of a string? [closed]

I am trying to decode a string without knowing the encoding. The encoding is probably some industry standard, but I haven't been able to recognize patterns. Where would be a good place to start on ...
3
votes
2answers
121 views

Does a stream cipher require a KDF when it's key is variable length?

RC4 has a variable length key. Is it still necessary to use a key derivation function, such as PBKDF2, to initialize it? Would using a single character password weaken it's output when compared to a ...
1
vote
3answers
181 views

verify contents, but not order

Is there an algorithm that can be used to verify the contents of a cyphertext, but not the order of the elements? I am thinking that a deck of cards could be shuffled, and it must be verifiable that ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Is it possible to hand-negotiate an SSL/TLS session?

I'm interested in trying to hand-negotiate an SSL/TLS session. Similar to how one would use telnet to port 80 and type GET / HTTP/1.1. I know there's a lot of steps ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Computing the redundancy of language for a Vigenère cipher with m=5

Redundancy of L = 1- Entropy of L/ log base 2 {P} The Redundancy of L is given by 1 minus the Entropy of L divided by log base 2 of the Cardinality of the Plaintext space. Could someone advise me how ...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

AES Affine Transformation in $GF(2^4)$

in $GF(2^8)$ the AES affine transformation is defined as \begin{equation*} b( x ) = ( x^7 + x^6 + x^2 + x ) + a ( x )( x^7 + x^6 + x^5 + x^4 + 1) mod (x^8 + 1) \end{equation*} where the polynom $( x^7 ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Where is defined the fact of having a “learning” and “challenge” phase in cryptography proofs?

I've read Bellare and Rogaway 2004 and Shoup 2004 about game-based cryptography proofs, but I lack precisions about how should be built the "learning" and "challenge" phases, since my games will ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

For calculating the index of coincidence for each sequence

I was learning about the finding the key length reading the following web site... http://practicalcryptography.com/cryptanalysis/stochastic-searching/cryptanalysis-vigenere-cipher/ and I really don't ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

What does “learnable with oracle queries” mean?

I came across the following quotes in reading papers on obfuscation (1, ibid, and 2): The next result follows from the fact that point functions are not exactly learnable (since a uniformly chosen ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Proof that counter mode of operation and CBC mode are CPA secure when pseudorandom permutations?

I know counter mode can be CPA secure, when used with block ciphers modeled as random permutations. If we use pseudo-random permutations, is it still CPA secure? Is there a proof? How about CBC ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Checking the share membership in secret sharing schemes

I was thinking of this since yesterday. Imagine, a secret is split into its respective shares (using any secret sharing scheme) with threshold $t$ and total $n$. Can we find out given any random ...
2
votes
1answer
211 views

Serpent 256bit key wrong round keys

Assume that we have this 256bit key: 15FC0D48 D7F8199C BE399183 4D96F327 10000000 00000000 00000000 On first 0-7 keys we can't apply formula wi=(wi-8 xor wi-5 xor wi-3 xor wi-1 xor phi xor ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Encrypt a file for random access but only after an initial read of the whole file

I'm symmetrically encrypting a file (using a random salt and a user supplied password with PKCS5S2, i.e., nothing special) and I need to be able to access it randomly. Therefore I'm using a stream ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Committing Bilinear equation in Groth-Sahai framework

Groth-Sahai framework enables us to commit to QE, MSME, PP equations. Now, is the equation below committable in GS framework? A bilinear map $e: G_1 \times G_2 \rightarrow G_T$. $g_1 \in G_1$ and ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Does google's Crypto.JS AES encryption use PBKDF2 as default?

Does google's Crypto.JS AES encryption use PBKDF2 as default? Some references, but I can't figure out the answer myself: https://code.google.com/p/crypto-js/#The_Cipher_Algorithms ...
-1
votes
1answer
64 views

Bouncy Castle and Salsa 20

I want to use Salsa 20 in Java, so I downloaded Bouncy Castle, and... it makes no sense to me. I've got it working, but most of my choices were essentially random. But I can't see there anything ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Calculate the security of a cascade cipher

I’m reading “The Security of Multiple Encryption in the Ideal Cipher Model” and I’m having a hard time understanding something. How do I calculate the bounds of cascade cipher from the following ...
20
votes
3answers
19k views

How can I use SSL/TLS with Perfect Forward Secrecy?

I'm new to the field of cryptography, but I want to make the web a better web by setting up the sites that I host with Perfect Forward Secrecy. I have a list of questions regarding the setup of ...
3
votes
1answer
153 views

ZIP 2.0 encryption bruteforce attack

I have an old sourcecode backup from my DOS days stored in a ZIP 2.0 encrypted archive, but I lost the password. The password was written on a paper slip, but I remember that it consisted of 30+ ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

To prove $r_2$ is a uniformly at random value in $Z_n$, where $r_2=r_1 . m$

$m$ is arbitrary value in $Z_n$, where n is RSA modulo. Then we do: $r_2=r_1 . m (modn)$, where $r_1$ is a random value such that $r_1\in Z^*_n$. ** Question(1): is $r_2$ a uniformly at random ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Crypto Libraries with Pairing Based Functions for Academic and Educational Use? [closed]

I am aware of some crypto libraries containing functions and tools for pairing based cryptography. However, I want to have a more extensive list of them. My ultimate purpose is to implement some of ...
0
votes
0answers
101 views

becoming a cryptographer after math studies [duplicate]

After studying philosophy and being a philosophy teacher, I took back studies 4 years ago and I did a bachelor in maths. I'm in maths grad school now (I'm 32), and I would like to work in ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Which mathematical operations does secp256k1 point multiplication use?

To convert a bitcoin private key to a public key, the secp256k1 point multiplication math is used. Could I – theoretically – convert a private key to a public key just using the four arithmetic ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Verify signed file using GPG by passing in signature hosted online rather than stored locally (i.e. in keyring)? [migrated]

Is it possible to pass the URL of a GnuPG signature when executing a verify query against a signed file? For example, instead of: gpg --verify file.txt Is there ...
2
votes
1answer
206 views

The security of an encrypt-and-MAC

I would like to know what is the security of an encrypt-and-MAC with different keys for each transaction For example: the one-time-pad with $k_1$ and the HMAC with $k_2$ $$C = M \oplus k_1\\ MAC = ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Detect desynchronization in HOTP authentication [duplicate]

In HOTP authentication, is there a way for a system to detect that the token has been desynchronized? If so how does it know that the OTP was generated from a desynchronized (but valid) token and is ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Protection of Elliptic Curve Implementations against side-channel attacks [closed]

Recent fast elliptic curve implementations, for example a presentation at Eurocrypt 2014 (earlier presentation slides, the paper) talks about protection against only timing attacks. Why only timing ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Implementation of garbled circuits using RSA

I was just reading these notes on garbled (Yao) circuits and I just stuck trying to figure out how an implementation of Table 1 would work using RSA encryption. In RSA the public key is (n,e). So for ...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

Is it just as difficult to find a desired output in a hash digest, for MSB vs LSB?

This question comes to mind after seeing "custom" Bitcoin addresses with some special string at the beginning of the address. They are generated in the same way Bitcoins are "mined", continually ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Arranging Vigenere Cipher into columns [migrated]

As I understand if you arrange a Vigenere cipher into columns you can use the Index Of Coincidence to find out the key length. I'm struggling to write an Algorithm that would take a piece of text and ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Security of chameleon hash functions

With the knowledge of the trapdoor, we are able to compute the same digest for differents messages. I've read that given two messages $m$, $m'$ and two numbers $r$, $r'$ such that ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

problem with “one time pad” [closed]

I am a french student and I read the post on the forums (How does one attack a two-time pad (i.e. one time pad with key reuse)?). I need your help if possible. I 'm 11 encrypted messages , all ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Does the transposition cipher have a network application?

So I'm reading a chapter in my networking book and it talks about substitution and transposition ciphers (Transposition Cipher Wikipedia). I know that most network security uses public key or ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

Can we run a probabilistic function on ciphertext with Functional Encryption (or Attribute Based Encryption)?

In the definition of functional encryption ($FE$): $FE.Setup(1^k)$ takes as input the security parameter $1^k$ and outputs a master public key $fmpk$ and a master secret key $fmsk$. $FE.KeyGen(fmsk, ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

SHA-1 collision resistance

I'm researching on the SHA-1 algorithm and looking for reasons why it has fallen prey to differential cryptanalysis. I have read the research papers by Merc Stevens and Wang both of which describe how ...
-1
votes
0answers
49 views

How do you perform frequency analysis to break Vigenere cipher programmatically?

I am trying to write a program to which when provided a ciphertext(maxlength - 200) and a key length(maxlength - 40), gives a plaintext as output from a possible set of plaintexts. By possible set of ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

MD5 update functions

In the hashlib module in python is a function called m.update() where m is a ...
0
votes
1answer
105 views

Encrypting twice with different modes?

I was using a SOCKS5 proxy today (tunneled through SSH) and I began to wonder what the effect of encrypting twice (TLS over encrypted SOCKS5 in this case) would have on the security of the transmitted ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Why can't garbled circuits be reused?

There are a bunch of papers do research on resizable garbled circuits. But I wonder why garbled circuits cannot be reused? For example, the constructor constructs a garbled circuit of "AND" like ...
7
votes
1answer
289 views

What is the history of recommended RSA key sizes?

One can find up to date recommended key sizes for RSA at http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-131A/sp800-131A.pdf for example. In short it suggests a key size of at least 2048 bits. Is it ...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

Prove that the affine cipher over Z26 has perfect secrecy if every key is used with equal probability of 1/312

Prove that the affine cipher over Z26 has perfect secrecy if every key is used with equal probability of 1/312. Just some guidance/help with this problem would be greatly appreciated not sure how to ...
16
votes
1answer
414 views

How secure would HMAC-SHA3 be?

It would be possible to implement the HMAC construction with (draft) SHA-3, leading to HMAC-SHA3-224, HMAC-SHA3-256, HMAC-SHA3-384, HMAC-SHA3-512 (the last 3 digits are the output size $\ell$, where ...
0
votes
2answers
83 views

Database row level encryption scheme

I am wanting to secure some highly sensitive data in a database. This would mean that the data needs to be encrypted and remain secure for 100 years if it were to fall into adversary hands. I also ...
2
votes
3answers
95 views

Is it true the longer the key length is the more secure the encryption?

Then why don't we use xxxxxxx bits encryption? what stopping us from using a very lengthy key? I am referring to the encryption we use with SSL
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Cryptography system that limits the length of the encypted message

I have two devices which communicate via sms. This communication should now be encrypted. The devices can only send messages with the lenght of 160 characters. So i am looking for an encryption ...
0
votes
0answers
57 views

initiate the elliptic curve

when we consider a curve in a prime field for example Weierstrass form and want to initiate it in Miracl,we should give these inputs for initiate curve: ebrick_init(&binst,x,y,a,b,n,window,nb) ...
0
votes
3answers
111 views

Elliptic curve parameters

What's the meaning of 160 bit Curve in Elliptic curve ? or 192 or 224 or 256 and etc. And What is the standard for selecting this number of bit ? why they don't say 100 bit curve?

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