# All Questions

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### Is there an algorithm for factoring N, which is just as simple as this one, but faster?

I found a simple algorithm for factoring semiprime numbers, you can read about it in Factoring Semiprimes and Possible Implications for RSA. It basically works like this: You reverse the digits in ...
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### Show that for all integers n>2, n does not divide n^2+2 [closed]

I believe this solution can be solved by induction, I just don't know how to phrase it recursively. For all n>2, n^2+2 mod n ≠ 0 Base case n=3 3^2 + 2 =11 11 mod 3 = 2 ≠ 0. Show that (n-1)^2 +2 ...
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### What's the difference between AES and earlier block ciphers?

Is there any difference except speed and key and block size from user's point of view? Or does AES have something that ideal block cipher doesn't have?
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### How to derive two keys from one password

What is the best way to generate two independent symmetric keys from one user-entered password or passphrase? Would using both scrypt and pbkdf2 achieve this?
106 views

### how much is secure to encrypt a password using itself (as encryption key) for storing it on a unsecure media?

I want to store a password securely on a storage (suppose in a usual unencrypted file). I use this password as AES key to encrypt itself (using AES-ECB) & then store it on the media (the password ...
900 views

### Is the following statement about PRG true or false?

Is the following statement true? If $G: \{0,1\}^k \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$ is a PRG, then so is $G':\{0,1\}^{k+l} \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{n+l}$ defined as $$G'(x.x')=G(x).x'$$ where $x \in \{0,1\}^k$ and ...
67 views

### Elliptic Curve is DH function or PKI?

can we reuse same ECC key on TLS for long terms or it must be used just once? (i mean can we use ECC like RSA?) is there patent free ECC implementation ?
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### Is there any strong enough pen-and-paper or mind cipher?

Some ciphers are talked about here, but I don't see an answer, are they strong enough, or are non-computer ciphers more or less just a toy and one should abandon using them for practical purposes?
1k views

### How can rainbow tables be used for a dictionary attack?

I'm putting together a password policy for my company. I very much want to avoid requiring complex passwords, and would much rather require length. The maximum length I can enforce is 14 characters. ...
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### Have I understood pedersen commitment correctly?

I want to do a one-sided integer commitment scheme. I.e. the whole process must be non-interactive where I at one point first publicly reveal some data and then at a later time reveal the committed ...
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### DES chosen-plaintext attack in Windows [closed]

How do I do a DES chosen-plaintext attack in Windows?
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### Adding and multiplication in jacobian coordinates

How can I derive formulas for adding and multiplication of 2 points in Jacobian coordinates $(x,y) = (\frac{X}{Z^2},\frac{Y}{Z^3})$ over an elliptic curve?
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### session keys in an online e-voting system [closed]

I do not have much knowledge about cryptography or public and private keys, and your help will be much appreciated. I am totally a beginner, and no one from my university can help me. I am trying to ...
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### Attacking historical ciphers methodology

It's more a theoretical question of how would you approach it. All you know about the ciphertext it's was generated with a historical cipher. The ciphertext appears to be random, BUT it's divided into ...
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### recommendation for steganography tool? [closed]

I am trying to find a good and referenced steganography tool to make some tests, it its freeware it would be great. Does anyone knows any recommended tool for this task? I have found some free ...
782 views

### What is the most practical fully homomorphic cryptosystem?

Craig Gentry recently gave the first fully homomorphic cryptosystem. Quite a bit of work has been done since extending his work. It seems, however, that no system is practical for real world use. ...
229 views

### Knowing a valid salted hash for an unknown secret, is it possible to compute another valid hash?

$H(s,r)=d$ is a function that hashes the secret string $s$ with a salt $r$, and returns a digest $d$. $r$ may be arbitrarily chosen and each $r$ returns a different $d$. For any $d$, $r$ is known from ...
163 views

### Is it possible to work out the hash algorithm from a list of known message-hash pairs?

For example, in my situation I know hash(20) = 486e9638177faf1f34e49910491b77af. I also know the hashes for all values from 0 to 20. Is it possible to work out the ...
87 views

### Padding of Original Message in MD5

what should I do if my original message is greater than 64 bits? what is the process of padding in MD5? As described in Internet Security: Cryptographic Principles, Algorithms and Protocols, page ...
159 views

### SHA256 HMAC brute force with chosen plaintext attacks

This is a follow up to Is It Possible To Reconstruct a Cryptographic Hash's Key I am using a SHA-256 HMAC function on a single-word input: sha256hmac(privatekey,word) = output. The private key length ...
382 views

### Decrypt digital signature using RSA public key with openssl

I have a digital signature that was created using the following algorithm: a SHA-256 hash of the body of the message is calculated. It is then signed using an RSA private key and the result is ...
187 views

### toy hash algorithm

I'm looking for a toy hash function, where the idea is to have high school students break (i.e. find a collision) a hash function by hand, in order to teach them how one way functions and hashing ...
104 views

### Encrypt a single file, chunk-by-chunk, each chunk using different key (AES)

Encrypt a single file, chunk-by-chunk, each chunk using different key. I am a security newbie (only took 2 security courses before) But currently I am using this encryption method for my Android ...
201 views

### What does the expression $1^n$ mean as a function argument?

In a paper about predicate encryption or attribute based encryption, the setup function is mentioned with the $setup(1^n)$ or $setup(1^l)$. I want to know what is meant here. Is it multiples of ones ...
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### Book Didactic Security Notions [closed]

I want study more about cryptography reading papers, but I have a problems to understand few concepts: security notions, random oracle model, IND-CCA, ... etc. I began study this concepts by internet: ...
138 views

### Is it worth applying a MAC on data in a HSM?

I'm building a basic HSM out of an Arduino, and am using the following scheme to store data: Master symmetric key $k_m$ stored in firmware (secure bit set to prevent trivial extraction). Secondary ...
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### Why does key generation take an input $1^k$, and how do I represent it in practice?

In my lecture, the lecturer said: Let $K$ be the key generation algorithm. Given a security parameter represented in unary, $1^k$, $K(1^k)$ will output a keypair $(pk; sk)$, known as the public ...
137 views

### Secure encrypt-then-sign with RSA

I understand that when you want to encrypt and sign data with RSA the generally recommended approach is sign-then-encrypt. However, I have encrypted data that I need to sign, to prove the author of ...
107 views

### Proof that padded RSA is CPA-secure

I'm referring to page 383 of J. Katz and Y. Lindell's Introduction to Modern Cryptography. The book presents a padded RSA: ${\bf Key Generation:}$ same as Textbook RSA (given security parameter ...
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### Perfect secrecy Proof

A symmetric cryptosystem have perfect secrecy $\iff$ for all distribution over the messages space, $M$, and for all $m0$, $m1$ (messages) and any ciphertext $c$, $$P(c|m0) = P(c|m1).$$ I got ...
225 views

### Is it generally possible to employ brute force methods when the encryption scheme is not known? Why or why not?

Lets say you are presented with an encrypted string of bits or text, and no other information. What would be necessary before you could apply brute force methods to decrypting the string? How would a ...
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### Sematically Secure McEliece

I am read the Lemma 2 (pp13) in the paper [1]. Here a make a question Why "for any $Hash_z$ and any $Gen$"? The author of paper reply The reason why "for any $Hash_z$ and any $Gen$" is that if ...
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### How to compare two datasets „anonymously”?

Ok, I hope this question makes some sense because I am not so sure how to word it any differently… Imagine the following situation: There are 10 defined colors (blue, orange, yellow etc.) There are ...
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### Interesting game: decipher the following sequence [closed]

Decode the following sequence: KROWE MOHSI HTDEY OJNEI The original cipher is printed in such matrix format
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### chaining rsa with ecies

In an answer to a previous question it was suggested that one way to protect your asymmetrically encrypted AES-256 keys, from say a solution to prime factorization, would be to chain asymmetric ...
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### standard way to authenticate parties with public keys without certificates

Is there some standard protocol for mutual authentication of two parties when there is possibility to use public key cryptography? The problem is that two parties can use public key cryptography but ...
I am read this paragraph and I have a doubt. "An adversary to PKC $\Pi$ is given by two probabilistic polynomial time algorithms, $A = (A1; A2)$. In the first stage, the "find" stage, the ...