# All Questions

0answers
101 views

### Blum-Blum-Shub Cryptosystem

I am given $N$, which is Bob's encryption key. I was able to successfully factor $N$ into $N=p*q$. Alice encrypts a messages for bob and sends $a = [1,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,...]$ $b = 1545164156...$ ...
2answers
87 views

### Graphically representing points on Elliptic Curve over finite field

I have taken elliptic curve $E\colon y^2=x^3-4x+20$, defined over $\mathbb{F}_{29}$. The number of points on the curve, $\left|E(\mathbb{F}_{29})\right|=37$. I took base point $P=(1,5)$, and got ...
2answers
81 views

### IV's from Crypto++ AutoSeededRNG always ends the same: Problem with the PRNG?

I am using a AutoSeededRNG from Crypto++ to generate IVs for use in CBC encryption. I am encoding the IVs using Base64 for future use (decryption). I notice that ...
1answer
66 views

### Implementation of cryptography [closed]

I want to know how we implement the research topic/thesis in cryptography area? I mean is it through C/C++ programmming or any other way?
0answers
63 views

### $\phi$ function in Dual_EC_DRBG

I am trying to understand the operation of the Dual_EC_DRBG. I'm reading the formal specification (SP 800-90) and can't seem to find a definition of the $\phi$ function used throughout the definition ...
2answers
76 views

### Why use two affine transformations in Multivariate Cryptography?

I'm reading Multivariate Cryptography and would like to know why we use two affine transformations to scramble the central map? Why not use only one?
4answers
311 views

### How to prove the security of the PRNG?

Are there any realties tests or criterias that prove the security of the PRNG? What kind of tests or criteria?
2answers
200 views

### Testing the Fortuna random number generator?

I have implemented the Fortuna random number generator as described in chapter 10 of "Practical Cryptography" (Ferguson and Schneier, Wiley, 2003), the result can be found at ...
2answers
75 views

### What is the function of the secret key “r” in Poly1305?

Poly1305-AES uses two per-connection keys $k$ (for AES) and $r$ (for Poly1305's compression function) and a per-message nonce n to execute. I've read the original paper on the implementation, and I ...
0answers
62 views

### Layered email encryption with multiple private keys on separate media [migrated]

I'd like to encrypt e-mail messages so that multiple physically separated keys are needed to decrypt them. For example, I'd like to have three private keys stored on different media, as in: key A ...
2answers
110 views

### Splitting a password for dual roles [duplicate]

I would like to prompt users for a single passphrase to establish trust with separate, normally (but not always) complementary systems from one password input. I'm essentially looking for a box where ...
0answers
42 views

### On the structure of the UOV (Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar) signature scheme [closed]

I'm study Multivariate Quadratic Cryptography. I like to know why, in opposite to other multivariate schemes, the second afﬁne map S is not needed for the security of the UOV signature scheme? ...
1answer
56 views

### What is the difference between, and security of $Z_p$ and $F_p$?

While reading some papers, I found that sometimes $Z_p$ was used but sometimes $F_p$ was used ($p$ is prime). Usually, the author will only use their subgroups like this: choose a big prime factor of ...
1answer
80 views

### What does this step in this protocol for the Yao's Millionaire Problem mean?

I was reading “An Efficient Protocol for Yao’s Millionaires’ Problem” (Ioannidis and Grama 2003). In the proposed protocol in section three, it is written: (Step 4) For every $i$, $1 \le i \le d$, ...
1answer
133 views

### Did NIST verify “post-quantum” claims in the SHA3 proposal papers?

I have been reading Bernstein’s “Quantum attacks against Blue Midnight Wish, ECHO, Fugue, Grøstl, Hamsi, JH, Keccak, Shabal, SHAvite-3, SIMD, and Skein” paper from 2010… This document disproves ...
1answer
205 views

### Is this encryption scheme perfectly secure?

Let $m = 6$, and let $\mathbb{Z}_m$ denote the set $\{0,…,m-1\}$. Let $X \mod m$ denote the remainder obtained when dividing $X$ by $m$. (a) Consider the symmetric encryption scheme in ...
1answer
161 views

### Does a playlist of songs or movies mixed together contain enough random enough for OTP key material?

Ok hypothetical scenario. Lets say I want to generate a lot of key material quickly for a one-time pad. This key material will be divided up and used for many different messages in the future. I ...
4answers
488 views

### Would this simple encrypted chat program be feasible using One Time Pads?

Lets say I want to build a simple chat program that has encryption that is impossible to crack for anyone, even a theoretical government with a massive super computer. Ok here's my idea. You'll need ...
1answer
92 views

### Purpose of leading zero in PKCS1-v1_5 padding

According to this document the padded message has the following structure: $EM \;= \; 0x00 \; || \; 0x02 \; || \; PS \; || \; 0x00 \; || \; M$ What is the purpose of this null byte at the beginning ...
1answer
142 views

### XOR cipher Pseudo-random key strength

When implementing a XOR cipher with a pseudo-random key equal in length to the plaintext, Is there a significant difference in potential key strength between keys drawn from a pool of either 1000 or ...
1answer
348 views

### What stops the Multiply-With-Carry Random Number Generator from being a Cryptographically Secure Pseudo-Random Number Generator?

Despite the fact that Marsaglia's MWC PRNG (multiply-with-carry random number generator) is considered to be "the mother of all RNGs", it does not seem to be considered to be a CSPRNG ...
1answer
139 views

### Can you help me understand hash-preserving encryption?

I have rather simplistic understanding of cryptography, so I have to beg a pardon in advance if the question has internal contradictions. Imagine data $A$ with a hash $hashA$. This data is encrypted ...
1answer
114 views

### Can AES decrypt with a wrong key?

The title is asking the question in layman terms, but what I really mean to ask is this: Let $x \in \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace^{128}$ (an arbitrary input block) and let $K \in \lbrace 0, 1 \rbrace^{128}$ ...
1answer
317 views

### Is there a practical zero-knowledge proof for this special discrete log equation?

We have a multiplicative cyclic group $G$ with generators $g$ and $h$, as in El Gamal. Assume $G$ is a subgroup of $(\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})^*$. There are two parties, Alice and Bob: Alice knows: ...
2answers
105 views

### Publicly exposed hash of private key

Would exposing a cryptographic hash function's digest (e.g. SHA-3) of RSA private key data compromise the key? If so, what are the possible (cryptanalysis-) vectors for attacking the key if an ...
0answers
20 views

### User's Privacy in certificateless cryptography

In practically, while doing registration with Key generation center in certificateless Signature,How can be a user do registration to the Key generation center without providing (Global ...
0answers
26 views

### Why have AH and ESP security protocol when we could just encrypt packet with a symmetrical key?

Why have AH and ESP security protocol when we could just encrypt / decrypt packets with a symmetrical key and with some block cipher using that symmetrical key?
1answer
11k views

### What is safer: ZipCrypto or AES-256?

Like in title: which one of these encryption methods (ZipCrypto, AES-256) is more secure and why? I am asking about it because I'd like to know which should be preferred when compressing files with ...
0answers
33 views

### Can you clarify the proof that secure LR-two party protocols do not exist?

In the paper “Multiparty Computation Secure Against Continual Memory Leakage” on pg. 1237, the footnote #1 discuss why it is not possible to construct a leakage resilient two-party protocol. But I'm ...
1answer
50 views

### Can minimum encrypted message length be used to identify public key algorithm or derived some of its features?

Encrypting a very small message using public key cryptography always result in larger encrypted messages. Is it possible to deduce the algorithm used, key length, etc just by looking at the minimum ...
0answers
49 views

### What are the key lengths used in (EC)DHE cipher suites in SSL?

What are the key lengths used in (EC)DHE cipher suites in SSL? Browsers only display key lengths for public key encryption…
0answers
50 views

### How can user privacy be preserved in certificateless cryptography?

In certificateless cryptography, how can a user preserve his privacy from Key Generation Center? If the KGC becomes malicious, how can the user's privacy be preserved? I read "Privacy-Preserving ...
0answers
57 views

### How good is the RandomPool generator in Crypto++ library?

How good is the RandomPool generator in Crypto++ library? I never heard of it before… I wonder if there is a Fortuna C implementation that I could use in an Objective-C project. Also: How secure is ...
0answers
55 views

### Why is Lamport-Diffie secure?

Why is Lamport-Diffie secure? I note that there is a demonstration based on onewayness (in the book postquantum cryptography). But a one way function is not sufficient to ensure that it can not infer ...
5answers
296 views

### How exactly is “true randomness” defined in the realms of cryptography?

Especially in relation to stream ciphers, I frequently read about (sometimes theoretical, sometimes practical) attacks that are able to "distinguish a ciphertext from a truly random stream". What's ...
2answers
344 views

### Kryptos : K1. What is the origin of the “palimpsest” keyword?

I'm studying the Kryptos sculpture with its cryptographic puzzles K1 to K4. I understand that the keyword "palimpsest" was reverse-engineered using the tableau (and brute-force computer processing), ...
0answers
146 views

### What would make it impossible to deny that decryption of a package has taken place?

I'm part of a team designing a system where a user have to be able to read a certain package, if he has preformed an action or series of actions that makes it legal for him to do so. The tricky part ...
3answers
261 views

### Is there a cryptographic method to add noise to a plaintext instead of actually encrypting it?

I'm looking for a cryptographic technique that instead of permuting a cleartext, would add noise to the cleartext to obfuscate the true text among a bunch of garbage. For example, a list of 10 ...
0answers
75 views

### About private keys of certificateless cryptography

While reading Identity Based Cryptography and Certificateless Cryptography , Can any one tell why should private key generator(PKG) or Key generation center (KGC) generate private keys for users..? ...
0answers
106 views

### Certificateless Signature

Consider the following scenario: There are two users: A and B. Users A and B generate a pair of their own public and private keys PUBa, PRIa and PUBb, PRIb. There is one trusted center(TC) that ...
1answer
45 views

### Reusing PGP key when generating SSL Certificate Authority?

Does it make sense to reuse some of the keys from my PGP (gnupg, gpg) keyblock when generating my own SSL Certificate Authority (a toy one for myself and a few web services of mine)? In an ideal ...
1answer
147 views

### Why does plain RSA not work with big messages ($m>n$)?

From what I can remember, RSA is something like this: Generate 2 distinct prime numbers $p$ and $q$ that have similar bit length. Compute $n=pq$ and $\phi(n)=(p-1)(q-1)$ Compute $e$ such that ...
0answers
46 views

### How do “sign” and “verify” algorithms work with certificateless crypto?

I want to know in a practical scenario how could the CL-PKE works. For complete understanding of Certificateless Signature Scheme, I want to implement "Setup,Partial-secret key extract,user-key ...
1answer
59 views

### Authentication using certificateless signature

With traditional PKI approach two parties can communicate with each other in following way Now, How the above approach will be applied using Certificateless Cryptography.? How two parties in two ...
1answer
105 views

### Can homomorphic encryption filter?

Often in articles homomorphic encryption is praised as the holy grail of encryption for cloud storage. This is done by suggesting that it can do any computation, and as such could be used for ...
1answer
111 views

### Can the XOR of two non-collision-resistant hashes be collision resistant?

Suppose I have two hash functions, of which neither (or only one) is collision resistant, and I want to create a new hash function by taking the bitwise exclusive or (XOR) of the results of those two ...
0answers
114 views

### How can I construct a distinguisher given an inverter?

Let $PRG: \{ 0, 1\}^n \rightarrow \{ 0, 1\}^{n+s}$ be a pseudo random generator and let $A$ be an inverter that runs in polynomial time, specifically: \$\large \mathbb P_{d \leftarrow PRG(U_n)}[ A(d) ...
1answer
86 views

### Homomorphic Encryption and Semantic Security using Lattices?

I've been reading Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan's "Efficient Fully Homomorphic Encryption from (Standard) LWE" and I'm still digesting pieces at a time. Under section 1.1, "Re-Linearization: Somewhat ...
2answers
125 views

### Convert a number to sha-1

I have a task to find a the message for which the SHA-1 hash's last 11 symbols in hexadecimal presentation corresponds to an 11-digit number. I have been given the following example solution: For ...
2answers
114 views

### scrypt and bcrypt for benefits of both?

I've been reading about bcrypt and scrypt, and it seems that the general consensus is that bcrypt is more "tried and true", but scrypt is better in theory. Couldn't you just hash something with ...

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