3
votes
3answers
472 views

How to break AES/CBC/PKCS5 when key and IV are reused?

I'm doing a code review for a crypto solution that reuses the same key with a constant IV. I want to demonstrate that this is not the right way to do things by figuring out the key and decrypting all ...
1
vote
1answer
133 views

Recovering the random number r

For a padded message, M, using the El Gamal encryption schema, how can we determine the random number $r$, when we are given $p$, the prime number, $g$ which is the primitive root of $p$, $b$ and $x$ ...
2
votes
1answer
166 views

Brute force attack expected running time

I am a bit confused about the expected running times of brute force attacks on different cryptosystems. So let's assume a key size of $2^n$ bits. Symmetric key cryptography: $E(brute)$ = ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

What scheme will allow merging and splitting the result of a function?

I am wondering if it's possible to have a scheme as follows. Here is the scenario: we have a set of objects (e.g. strings) {O1, O2, ..., On} we have a set of users {U1, U2, ..., Um} each user asks ...
1
vote
2answers
104 views

Encoding multiple fields with same AES key and vector?

I'd like some advice on cryptography best practices. I need to store on my web app the users' credentials (login & password) for 3rd-party sites. I'm using AES-256 with random key and ...
0
votes
1answer
110 views

Hashing/encrypting an integer to produce an unique integer in the same range

I'm looking for a function or set of functions that can produce a pseudo-random permutation on an input set of arbitrary size. Given a set of $M$ values in range $0..M-1$, where $M$ is positive ...
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Homomorphic Encryption, LWE, and Practical Applications

I've been reading Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan's Efficient Fully Homomorphic Encryption from (Standard) LWE. When the authors discuss a small modulus p used for the transition from (n, log q) to (k, ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Private Information Retrieval with a pre-prepared database

Informally, Private Information Retrieval (PIR) is a protocol between a user $U$ and a Server $S$, that meets the following conditions: $U$ obtains enough information about a database hosted by $S$, ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

Authentication of machine before installation (to stop piracy) [closed]

I have a web-software project which needs a bit of protection in form of authencitation… This web based software runs on an intranet. There is no access to the internet from these terminal machines. ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

how to truncate a PRF on n bits to PRF on t bits where t < n? [closed]

Dan Boneh's courersa lecture on format preserving encryption at 5.50 mins , talks about truncating a PRF on $n$ bits to PRF on $t$ bits. The approach is by appending $(n-t)$ zeros to input $t$ bits ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Applying differential cryptanalysis to ciphers with addition mod $2^{32}$

I am studying differential analysis and have a question. Consider the following simple cipher: $$c_1 = S(m_1 \oplus k_1) \oplus k_2$$ (Plaintext $m_1$ xor with key $K_1$, then result goes into an ...
1
vote
2answers
136 views

hill cipher encryption way 1x3 plaintext matrix

Can someone help me with a Hill cipher? When do I have to use: 1x3 plain text matrix (p1, p2, p3) * 3x3 key matrix 3x3 key matrix * 3x1 plain text matrix Or they are both correct? I tried to ...
0
votes
1answer
118 views

Is it possible to decrypt an RSA ciphertext with only $N$ and $e$?

Is it possible to perform RSA decryption if one only knows $N$ and $e$? Failing that, what is the maximum key length where brute-force is still practically feasible?
1
vote
1answer
98 views

How does the length of the plaintext affect the cipher strength?

Let the block length 64-bit, 256-bit key, cipher text accordingly - 64 bits. What is the strength of the block cipher, if any unknown attacks, which could reduce its strength. We can only brute force. ...
4
votes
2answers
209 views

Is the following symmetric design secure?

Assume: $O$ be a reversible random permutation oracle on a finite set and $O^{-1}$ the inverse permutation (pretty much equivalent to a random permutation: What is the difference between a bijective ...
3
votes
2answers
131 views

Merkle Tree High Tree

I'm reading Merkle tree signatures and I like know if the security of the that scheme depends, also, of the high of the tree or only depends that hash function is resistant to collision?
7
votes
2answers
484 views

When using Curve25519, why does the private key always have a fixed bit at 2^254?

When using Curve25519, the private key always seems to have a fixed bit set at position 2^254. Why is that? Is there any good reason to use a fixed positioned most-significant-bit in the private key? ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

How to prove this LFSR equation?

I am having difficulty solving part (ii) of Excercise 5.17 from Becker's Cipher Systems. Exercise 5.17 $\quad$If $f(x),g(x)$ are any two polynomials over $GF(2)$ with $f(0)=g(0)=1$ show that ...
4
votes
2answers
281 views

How can I implement the elliptic curve MOV attack myself?

I understand and have implemented elliptic curve signatures in Python without the use of libraries like Sage, and would like to implement the MOV attack against certain weak types of elliptic curves. ...
1
vote
1answer
133 views

Secure function evaluation

Consider 3 parties, Alice, Bob and Charlie. Suppose each party has a bit as input, i.e. Alice, Bob and Charlie hold $a, b, c \in \{0, 1\}$ respectively. Show how construct a scheme with which ...
0
votes
0answers
72 views

hybrid PKE scheme CCA2 insecurity

I'm reading a paper here say: As we know, in hybrid PKE schemes XOR alone cannot perfectly hide challenge bit to the CCA2 adversary The author does not define hybrid PKE schemes. What is ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

Perfect secrecy over Stirling numbers

For all $c_0\leftarrow m_0 \oplus k$ there exists a $k'$ such that $c_1 \leftarrow m_1 \oplus k'$, where $m_0 \neq m_1$ and $c_0 = c_1$. Assuming a truly random $k$, the first assignment is a ...
5
votes
1answer
308 views

Why does the crypto_box functionality in NaCl library exposes the nonce to the programmer

The idea of crypto_box API in NaCl library is to shield the programmer away from the technical details and provide an easy to use functions for encrypting and encrypting messages. Given what I've ...
2
votes
1answer
232 views

Is CBC mode encryption vulnerable to a reordering attack?

I know that, if CBC-MAC is used in such a way that the tag is the concatenation of all the blocks' outputs (and not just the last one), it's insecure under CPA for the simplest case of 2 blocks ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Is the following aggregation scheme private?

Is the following scheme private? By private i mean an untrusted aggregator (UA) cannot reveal anything other then an aggregate function output on plaintext data Each party holds a secret key $k_i$ ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Difference between computational and statistical indistinguishabilities

What is the difference between the two notions of computational and statistical indistinguishability?
2
votes
1answer
417 views

A key-derivation function that is as strong as the stronger of PBKDF2 and scrypt

I want a key stretching system that's as strong as the stronger of scrypt and PBKDF2. The consensus now is that scrypt is by far the better system, but that might change if in the future, a weakness ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Why send a challenge with CHAP?

I have been reading about the Challenge-Handshake authentication Protocol (aka CHAP). Why send a challenge to the user and ask them to hash that challenge with the symmetric key and send that hash ...
0
votes
3answers
193 views

Why not just generate random strings for one-time password (OTP)?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-time_password#How_OTPs_are_generated_and_distributed Why have so many methods to generate OTPs, why not just use just random strings?
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Can we build authenticated encryption using Feistel Networks?

Most of the encryption modes of Feistel Networks especially the ones used to build fixed length block ciphers just provide confidentiality . Can we build authenticated encryption using Feistel ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

Efficient parameters for group Diffie-Hellman

I want to implement a basic version of Diffie-Hellman key agreement for groups. So, my key is $K=g^{abc} \mod p$. Following this, the parameters I would need to transfer would be $K_a = g^{bc}$ etc. ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Biometric authentication [closed]

I see in some “Authentication schemes with biometric” papers that those authors wrote a phase as password and biometric update phase. My question is that why we may needs biometric update phase? Is ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

What is the difference between a one-shot MPC protocol and a unbounded invocation of multiple MPC protocols?

In this paper on pg. 1236, under the section "Security Against Continual Leakage", the authors say: "We further remark that the weaker security notion previously achieved cannot be extended ...
2
votes
1answer
166 views

Bellovin 96' attack on IPsec ESP protocol on encryption only option

Can you explain the actual attack? Why does the attacker need to firstly send some arbitrary UDP packet? How can the attacker break the privacy between A and B? Link: The article of Bellovin I'm ...
1
vote
2answers
179 views

Why can we always assume that $Gen$ algorithm choose key uniformly?

Talking about a (symmetric) encryption scheme $\Pi=(Gen,Enc,Dec)$ where $Gen$ take the security parameter $n$ as input and generates a key $k$ of length $n$. Generally speaking we say that $Gen$ ...
2
votes
2answers
289 views

what is the state of the art algorithm to encrypt credit card data

We have a business requirement to keep credit card data. What is today's (Nov 2013) state of the art algorithm to encrypt credit card data that will be saved on disk? Additionally, I'd appreciate ...
3
votes
1answer
347 views

Elliptic Curve Encryption Ciphertext Size

I'd like to know how much bigger is the ciphertext when encrypting a message using ECC encrytpion? ECIES (or ElGamal)
1
vote
1answer
53 views

order between adversaries and type of resources given

We have a game $G0$ for which an adversary $A$ has access to a certain amount of ressources. Let us suppose that the maximum advantage for the adversary to win this game is $Adv_{G0}$. If we modify ...
1
vote
0answers
87 views

Could MITM securely identify identity?

Consider protocol like QUIC or MinimaLT which are essentially layer4 replacement for TCP/UDP (riding on top of UDP currently because of fear of random firewalls dropping new L4 protocol). From crypto ...
1
vote
2answers
131 views

Any real world implementation using message recovery?

During my master thesis I came across RSA-PSS-R which is in my opinion a quite elegant way of saving bandwidth and space using digital signature. But I didn't find any information about any real world ...
2
votes
2answers
195 views

Scalar Multiplication on Elliptic Curves

In the elliptic curve: $y^2 = x^3 + 20x + 13 \bmod{2111}$. Using the point $P=(3, 10)$ I am wondering how to multiply this point by the scalar $57$? I realize I can write $57*P$ as $2^5*P + 2^4*P + ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

MD Construction Doesn't Propagate TCR

I'm reading a proof of the proposition of CollisionResistant Hashing Towards Making UOWHFs Practical Suppose there exists a compression function $F: \Sigma^k\times\Sigma^{c+m'} \rightarrow ...
6
votes
1answer
233 views

Blinding twice in RSA

I understand that if you have a message $m$, you can blind it by selecting a random $r$ and then multiplying $r^e\times m \pmod{n}$ Someone else then signs it with $d$, raising to the power of $d$: ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Why do the outputs of parties in an MPC protocol have to be indistinguishable from the ideal / real world (as opposed to inputs)?

In this paper at the bottom of pg. 1235 and beginning of pg. 1236 it says: An MPC protocol is said to be secure, if for every real world leakage adversary A there exists an ideal world ...
5
votes
2answers
404 views

Has threefish successfully been attacked (practically or theoretically)?

Reading Schneier's "The Doghouse: Crypteto" dated September 30, 2009, I noticed Bruce Schneier stating: Threefish, the block cipher inside Skein, encrypts data at 7.6 clock cycles/byte with a ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Why have 4th and 5th steps in Needham-Schroeder Protocol?

Why have 4th and 5th steps in Needham-Schroeder Protocol? It is said "These steps assure B that the original message it received (step 3) was not a replay.". But what is a replay here? And I don't ...
1
vote
1answer
143 views

Why routers don't just use Diffie-Hellman protocol?

Routers could just use Diffie-Hellman protocol with any computer who tries to connect to that router. Then it would be impossible to eavesdrop for anyone. Only router and computer would know the ...
2
votes
2answers
854 views

What happens when a root CA has its private key compromised?

What happens when a root CA has its private key compromised? Then all children in the tree are compromised too? And then all certificates are compromised? What needs to happen then? Related: - How ...
0
votes
1answer
157 views

I've got my private key compromised. How does CRL work?

How does certificate revocation list (CRL) work? How can I send a request to the CA to add my current private key to the CRL, so no one except me can add my certificate to the CRL? Related: - How can ...
1
vote
1answer
165 views

How can we get CA's public key?

To get a public key of some organization or someone we want to send an encrypted message to, we need to make a request to CA asking that organization's public key. CA then returns X509 certificate. It ...

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