0
votes
0answers
87 views

Proof that this is not a secure pseudorandom function

$p$ is a large prime number. Consider the following function $F:\mathbb Z^*_p \times \mathbb D\rightarrow\mathbb Z^*_p$ where $\mathbb D=2,....,p-1$. $F_k(x)=x^k \bmod p$ Proof that it's not ...
1
vote
1answer
152 views

Limitations of Elliptic Curve Cryptography?

Simple question, what are the limitations of ECC, both in terms of application and how secure it is? I heard that the NSA were able to read emails a few years back due to a backdoor they had ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Using Montgomery ladder to calculate the coordintes

In one of my assignments I need to solve the below: For a Montgomery curve $3v^2 = u^3+u^2+u$ over ${\mathbb{F}}_{11}$ and point $P = (9,8)$. I need to compute $x$ coordinate of $3P$ using ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Which ciphers produce random ciphertext?

I already know AES produces a "random" output. 5e4e6440826d6afc4535fbf078455f791159701a9df624ddd4e4dda84523b6a7 Its ciphertext doesn't follow a pattern and is ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Proving pseudorandom generators

Can anyone please help me on how to prove or disprove (by counterexample) whether the following function $G'$ is a PRG (Pseudorandom Generator) given that $G$ is a PRG. $$G'(s) = \operatorname{trunc}...
1
vote
4answers
147 views

Is it safe to use XOR to encrypt data key using master key

I am implementing a hierarchical key system with a randomly generated master key and many randomly generated data keys that should be encrypted using the master key. I am wondering what the best way ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Is this a secure keyed hashing construction?

I need a PRF for use with PBKDF2, however, the only thing I have is the AES block cipher primitive. I'm attempting to derive a keyed hash function from the block cipher. The design is based on the ...
12
votes
10answers
3k views

Are there any advantages in using proprietary encryption?

Proprietary software generally relies on the fact that in keeping the encryption algorithm private, it gets an extra layer of security implying "Security through Obscurity." Obviously this phrase has ...
3
votes
0answers
71 views

Why reveal MAC-keys after using them?

As far as my understanding goes MACs are used to determine whether the received message comes from a source that has access to a MAC-key which is known by both parties. Some crypto protocols reveal ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Algebraic relationship between Original Key and Sub Key of DES

Does there exist any sorts of algebraic relationship between Original and Sub Key of DES? I understand that by solving K-Maps of 64-bit Input/48-bit Output, I can get 16 algebraic relationships ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

Practical attack on an impractical implementation of Rijndael (AES?)

My understanding of the cryptanalysis of AES, is based on what I've read on Wikipedia and my intuition, I have nothing but self-taught education on the subject. So I want you to imagine: I have only ...
7
votes
5answers
315 views

Does frequent key change weaken encryption?

Following scenario: We are using OTR for communication between Alice and Bob which means after each successfull message exchange a re-keying happens for both parties leading to new AES-keys for the ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Encrypting and Authenticating The Simplex Communication Between Embedded Devices

I am planning to build temperature sensor nodes for my home heater control. Central device will control the heater using temperature data read by nodes. These nodes will send temperature data to ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Why gcd(r,(p-1)/r) needs to be 1 in benaloh cryptosystem

I recently discovered the benaloh cryptosystem. I am working with the system as it is discribed in the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benaloh_cryptosystem However I need some help in ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Are there any disadvantages of using libsodiums helpers for en-/decoding/comparision instead of the native ones?

Libsodium has some helpers, which allow hexdecimal decoding, encoding and also constant-time string comparison. So if you use the php binding libsodium-php you ...
0
votes
3answers
63 views

Defining Symmetric vs Asymmetric cryptosystems

I'm writing a project on the advantages and disadvantages of symmetric vs asymmetric cryptosystems. At the moment I am trying to define both systems using mathematical notation. Under the heading "...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Encryption technology for DARPA

I'm working on a short story taking place in the near future in which a hacker gains access to the DARPA mainframe and files related to a highly classified DARPA project. Being ignorant about state ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

4 x E = D in Simplified AES how it's possible?

Can anyone explain how it's possible through hexadecimal or Binary 4 x E= D
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Does the time to evaluate a hash function depend on the function input size?

Suppose we have a (variable-input size) hash function modeled as a random oracle. Can it be consistent to say that the time to evaluate this function depends on the input size ?
5
votes
1answer
147 views

Can somebody help me understand RC4 Spritz? (Three Questions)

So ever since I first took a stab at understanding stream Ciphers, not one stood out more than RC4, because it's so fantastically simple. As most people reading this will know, with its fantastic ...
7
votes
2answers
125 views

Instantiating a random oracle

I am studying about RO model and just got this question that what are the factors that make it not possible to instantiate a RO with a Hash function. To give a reference on how far I know about them ...
1
vote
0answers
113 views

Example of FHEI scheme?

I am reading this paper Toward Secure Multikeyword Top-k Retrieval over Encrypted Cloud Data. I am trying to work out an example of the FHEI (Fully homomorphic Encryption over Integers) scheme ...
4
votes
3answers
158 views

Proof of non-membership on a merkle tree

Assume a user U and a server S. User uploads its data and wants later to perform an authenticity check. It also sends a merklee tree to the server. Lets say we would like the user to ask for a ...
5
votes
1answer
314 views

Affine Cipher over an Affine cipher

I would like to know your view about the title, encrypting a plain text with an affine cipher then encrypting that ciphertext once more using the same cipher, but of course different keys. Would it be ...
-1
votes
1answer
283 views

Should I use RSA encryption since RSA is said to be broken by NSA? [closed]

I am developing a simple web app that uses asymmetric encryption, but I am not sure whether to chose RSA for the reasons mentioned above. What are your suggestions? Also if I decided to go with RSA ...
3
votes
2answers
73 views

Are low security curves for ECDSA not supported?

I am working in a very bandwidth restricted environment, and we are looking to implement ECDSA digital signatures. Although they are no longer recommended, we might be looking to use curves that are ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

Containers for secret key

What 'container' is used normally to store/transport secret keys (for symmetric algorithms)? I have come across PKCS12 format where a public key certificate as well as a private key can be bundled ...
7
votes
1answer
754 views

What is difference between meet in the middle attack and man in the middle attack?

From my understanding man-in-the middle attack works as follow: Alice and Bob agreed to use Diffie-Hellman using $a$ and $q$. Alice sends $Y_A$. Before it reaches Bob, Charlie ...
1
vote
1answer
531 views

Difference between AES CMAC and AES HMAC?

Can someone elaborate on how 'signing' is done using AES- CMAC and AES-HMAC? HMAC Signing as I understand: Compute the HMAC( Hash the key and the input concatenated in a special way) Verification: ...
6
votes
1answer
134 views

Generating a key to use with AES

I'm going paperless, and I want to encrypt the documents that I scan. I'd like to use CommonCrypto to perform AES-XTS encryption on each file. I'm a software engineer, and I like the idea of being ...
3
votes
1answer
164 views

Can a book cipher be cracked without key?

Book cipher works this way : Choose a reference book. For each word find its position in the book. replace each word by its coordinates (ie: 2,3,4 = page 2, 3rd line, 4th word). How would ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Can we break ECDLP with this machine?

Let $P$ and $Q$ are two points of NIST elliptic curve $E$ (defined over $F_{2^m}$ with prime $m$) and $k$ is a private key such that $k.P=Q$. Also we have a machine that is able to leak some ...
1
vote
1answer
206 views

Simplied DES why 10-bit key?

In Simplified DES algorithm, the plain text is 8-bit & the key is 10-bit, why is that, why can't both be of 8-bits each?
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Faster alternative to HKDF

HKDF is used in one of my projects to derive separate keys from a common master key. But profiling has shown it to be the performance bottleneck under certain circumstances. Is there any faster ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

References for cascade [closed]

I have found many sources against cascading encryption, however I am having trouble finding arguments FOR using cascading. AES-256 + BlowFish + RC5 etc... each with a different key. This is for ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Are the ECDSA public keys of a stable/fixed length relative to curve size? [duplicate]

I am working in an environment with strict bandwidth requirements, and we need predictable bit lengths of the stuff we send. We need to broadcast ECDSA public keys, and we are using OpenSSL to ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Can I shorten the large ECDSA public key output file from OpenSSL?

I am working in a very bandwidth restricted environment where I from time to time have the need to distribute public keys. The distribution happens in bit format, so there is no need for encoding, at ...
3
votes
2answers
155 views

Understanding the length b used in MD5

I am trying to understand MD5 hash algorithm from the link http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1321.txt At first I was not able to understand padding of MD5. Then I asked a question in this link: To ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

What is the canonical way of creating merkle tree branches?

I'm currently looking into creating some compact merkle tree branches to prove that a given hash was included in a given merkle root. My initial thought was to list the leaf, the merkle root and all ...
-3
votes
1answer
53 views

1 bit shannon entropy CPU instructions?

It has been proved, that the xor operator is suitable for entropy accumulation, due to its theoretical shannon entropy of 1 bit. There are six truth tables with ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Does a “commutative” asymmetric system exist?

Completely crypto noob here. I'm looking for a cryptosystem made of a func f + key1 + key2 such that they satisfy: g(f(msg, key1),key2)=msg g(f(msg, key2),key1)=msg key1 != key2 Does such a ...
4
votes
0answers
48 views

Security parameter p =O(n)

In many homomorphic encryption scheme, a security parameter is calculated as p =O(n). How to use the complexity order as values? Is there any specific method with an appropriate example?
4
votes
1answer
157 views

Is finding collisions in a part-hash not often enough a bad problem?

My situation: I've been working now for a couple of months on my own unique hash function, I've changed it many times and had two main versions but I won't bore anyone with the details of my work; at ...
1
vote
2answers
94 views

Homomorphic encryption diagram and trouble about a paper

I'm reading a paper based on Homomorphic Encryption: “Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers: From Theory to Practice” (PDF). Now, I need a diagram of this algorithm if possible with all the ...
3
votes
1answer
304 views

Periodic One Way Function

Is there any notion of a periodic OWF? I.e. an OWF $f$ that on every input $x$ in its domain it holds that $f(f(f\ldots f(x))\ldots )=x$ when $f$ applied many times, each time on the previous output....
6
votes
2answers
229 views

Scrypt not “old enough” to be safe?

I just check all the questions with scrypt tag about that and usually it's said that scrypt is nice in theory and theoretically better than bcrypt and PKDF2, but it's too young to be "completely safe"....
5
votes
0answers
99 views

Performance of ECDSA, ECKCDSA and ECGDSA

It is proven that ECDSA algorithms are faster in key and signature generation compared to RSA. In addition, the signatures are much shorter. However, I would like to know the performance difference ...
1
vote
0answers
89 views

PBC library: group of composite order for pairing operation

How to generate composite order group using PBC library? With PBC library, element_init_G1(g,pairing) statement creates element $g$ for group of prime order. I want ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Is the length limit of AES-GCM per key or per (key, nonce) pair?

AES-GCM has a limit on the length of the plaintext it encrypts: $2^{39} - 256$ bits. But is this limit per key or per (key, nonce)? That is, if I encrypt a message with the maximum length, and encrypt ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

Why is CBC-MAC with length appended not secure?

I've just read about CBC-MAC for the authentication of arbitrary length messages. In particular I cannot figure out why appending the message length before computing the MAC yields a non-secure MAC. I'...

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