9
votes
2answers
909 views

What is the difference between Shannon entropy and saying that tossing a 6-sided die 100 times has more than 256-bit entropy?

I'm confused. I thought that tossing a 6-sided die 100 times had a greater than 256-bit entropy because $6^{99} < 2^{256} < 6^{100}$. (A similar concept appeared in this XKCD comic, where ...
-1
votes
1answer
23 views

How ECDH algorithm selects modulus value?

I am curious to know how an ECDH algorithms select a module value, if both ends A & B can generate same shared key using the public key of each other ? If I understood DH correctly, both A and B ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Small subgroup attack on Diffie-Hellman

I am trying to understand the small subgroup attack on Diffie-Hellman. I will present the attack and try to explain why it works. Let be a group $\mathbb{Z}_p^*$ where $p$ is a large prime, so the ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

keytool -genseckey -alias TDES -keyalg DESede -keysize 128 works within jre/bin folder but not when the keytool.exe is on another location [migrated]

I would like to create a TDES key with size 128bits and 2KTDES key with 192bits for authentication in a Desfire smart card. Hence I have used the keytool to generate the jceks with the following ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Why isn't a table used to solve the large number factoring problem?

Lots of modern encryption (RSA comes to mind) are based on the fact that factoring large numbers is hard. However, multiplying large numbers is much easier, and table lookups are very easy. Since ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

What is this encryption system called?

Let's say you want to break down a message, for simplicity it is just a bit $0$ or $1$, $m$ into two messages $(m_1, m_2)$ as follows: If $m =0$, then $(m_1, m_2) = (0, 0)$ with probability $1/2$ and ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

public key cryptography and authentication for cross-platform network application

I'm developing network based application for control and telemetry on Linux based embedded system. I'm using ZMQ network library and Google Protocol Buffers serialization library for communication ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Testing PRNG quality from ECC public keys?

Having a large set of ECC public keys $P_i = n_iB$ on a fixed curve $E$ over a prime field, is there a way to determine if coefficients $n_i$ were generated using a bad PRNG? In other words, can a ...
7
votes
4answers
174 views

Is it possible to get an RSA encryption key by comparing the unencrypted and encrypted file?

Exactly what the title says. If I have a RSA encrypted file, and the exact same file but decrypted, can I tell the key that was used from that information?
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Small n attack, how it works

I'm studying the Lamport's Hash one-time password scheme. This is the scheme: Alice wants to authenticate herself to Bob from a workstation that knows nothing about her. Alice only knows her ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

File encryption with AES CTR mode

I understand that encrypting files in CTR mode is not perfectly safe, because it potentially leaves the files open for cryptanalysis, if the attacker has access to previous versions of the same files. ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Javascript equivalent to new SecretKeySpec(bytes[], “HmacSHA512”) [migrated]

what javascript equivalent code for following java code. SecretKeySpec key = new SecreatKeySpec(Bytes[], "HmacSHA512"); how can i acheive this in javascript ?? ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Strong LRSW assumption for type 3 pairing groups

Why does the "strong LRSW" assumption by Ateniese et al. [Untraceable RFID Tags via Insubvertible Encryption, CCS'05] hold ONLY for type 3 pairings and NOT for symmetric pairings? Whereas, the LRSW ...
1
vote
0answers
106 views

Example describing Baek and Zheng’s threshold identity-based decryption scheme

I am trying to work through an example of Baek and Zheng’s “threshold identity-based decryption scheme” and I tried a lot to solve this, but somewhere I’m doing something wrong. I hope someone can ...
17
votes
0answers
502 views

Hardness of finding mutual discrete logarithms of small generators in $\mathbb{Z}_p$

Suppose you want to select a prime $p$ such that finding e.g. $log_2(3)$ in $\mathbb{Z}_p$ is expected to be either at least as hard as the general Discrete Logarithm Problem in $\mathbb{Z}_p$, or at ...
7
votes
2answers
291 views

Is calculating HMAC from hashed input a good idea?

Original HMAC algorithm is as follows: H(K XOR opad || H(K XOR ipad || text)) What if text would replaced with H(text)? ...
4
votes
1answer
55 views

Usage of Zero-knowledge proofs for NP-complete languages

It is well known that if OWFs/PRGs exist, then there is a zero knowledge proof for any NP-complete language, say G3C (graph coloring in 3 colors). The zero-knowledge notion maintains that any ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Prove that H(s) = G(!s) is a CPRNG if G(s) is one

Given a cryptographic pseudo-random number generator $G$, prove that $H$ with $H(s) = G(!s)$ is also a cryptographic pseudo-random number generator. Here $s$ is a binary string; $!s$ is its ...
3
votes
1answer
463 views

AES Affine Transformation in $GF(2^4)$

in $GF(2^8)$ the AES affine transformation is defined as \begin{equation*} b( x ) = ( x^7 + x^6 + x^2 + x ) + a ( x )( x^7 + x^6 + x^5 + x^4 + 1) mod (x^8 + 1) \end{equation*} where the polynom $( x^7 ...
7
votes
2answers
83 views

How does the simulator of the special-honest verifier zero-knowledge property works?

I’m a bit confused about what the simulator of the special-honest verifier zero-knowledge property of a $\Sigma$-protocol is supposed/allowed to do and how to prove that it is indeed efficient (i.e. ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Session key Exchange, some doubt

I have to find a solution to this problem: I have a network composed by 1 server and some client. The server has a couple of keys (public and private) and it shares a secret key with each client. My ...
3
votes
0answers
67 views

Why not to use curve over field of $p^m$ with $p > 2$ for ECDSA?

I'm reading the ECDSA paper and they say you can only use ECDSA with odd-power fields $p$ or with binary fields $2^m$. Why not other power prime fields?
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Extension of a password hashing algorithm using Fibonacci

I am right now taking a class named Applied Cryptography and our final project is to create a password hashing method using at least one existing algorithm and then add additional steps to make it ...
6
votes
1answer
109 views

Can it ever be impossible to invert a PRNG?

I've read about the possibility of inverting the Mersenne Twister after 624 numbers of output. 624 matches the state size of my implementation of the Twister. Coincidence? If the generator only ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

bare metal crypto library [migrated]

I am writing an application that will be run on bare metal, i.e. it will not run on a kernel and therefore cannot invoke system calls. There will also be no C runtime. Is there a crypto library I can ...
5
votes
2answers
150 views

How to verify the integrity of RSA encrypted messages?

I need to encrypt messages using PublicKeyCrypto and send it to the server, where the message should be decrypted. I'm aware of the Padding Oracle Attack and want to apply a server side integrity ...
10
votes
3answers
3k views

Why is the P-521 elliptic curve not in Suite B if AES-256 is?

In the NSA's document, "The Case for Elliptic Curve Cryptography" (archived), we have ...
6
votes
1answer
81 views

Is there a formal definition of what a distinguisher is?

I've often been reading about (polynomially bounded) distinguishers in books or papers. Although by name and intuition it is somewhat clear what a distinguisher is and does, but i am asking myself ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Proving security of TLS handshake with ProVerif

Background For my dissertation I am working on an application protocol for which I require a TLS session. I am looking to achieve Perfect Forward Secrecy, which means I have selected ephemeral ...
4
votes
1answer
436 views

Understanding a Blowfish cryptanalysis

I'm reading a cryptanalysis on Blowfish, and I've come across something that I don't quite get. Let's denote $$\delta = a \oplus a'$$ where a and a' are bytes that cause a collision in some S-box ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Are digital signatures using preprocessed paper pads possible?

My idea was, given that a computer could produce some sort of lookup tables on paper, could then a human use those lookup tables to create a system for digital signatures? This was really an idea for ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

how many pairs of plaintext-ciphertext are needed before we break AES? [duplicate]

Imagine a set of words ($plaintext$) each are encrypted using AES-ECB mode and due to some leakage in the system an attacker could gain access to some pairs of $plaintext$ and $ciphertext$. But once ...
10
votes
2answers
10k views

HMAC-SHA1 vs HMAC-SHA256

I have three questions: Would you use HMAC-SHA1 or HMAC-SHA256 for message authentication? How much HMAC-SHA256 is slower than HMAC-SHA1? Are the security improvements of SHA256 (over SHA1) enough ...
4
votes
0answers
78 views

Would the encryption of bigrams and trigrams weaken the code?

Supposing a rotor machine of the 1940s or 50s, with 36 characters instead of 26. Would the encryption of the ten additional characters as the most frequent bigrams or trigrams weaken the code? What ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Cryptography in wireless medium

How do I implement asymmetric key algorithm into wireless medium using NS 2.35? For example: node $A$ is a sender and $B$ is a receiver. Now, $A$ is sending a packet using $B$s public key ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Collision probability of MD5 over different attacks

I am researching the collision probability of MD5 and various attacks against it. Can someone help me how to learn the least probability that there will be a collision in a specific attack on MD5? ...
4
votes
3answers
69 views

Why is it good to split a CTR-mode counter into nonce and counter?

When discussing the CTR mode of block ciphers, Wikipedia says the following: Simply adding or XORing the nonce and counter into a single value would completely break the security under a ...
1
vote
2answers
55 views

Perfect secrecy with n-time key

How can you encrypt $n$ messages with the same key, and have the same theoretical security you'd have encrypting a single message with a one time pad? For example, how can you encrypt two messages ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

How hard is the Solitaire cipher to crack?

Assuming your deck is completely random and that it is not retrivable, how hard would it be for a casual person to decrypt a message encrypted with the Solitaire cipher?
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Hash and salt or salt and hash?

People say "hash and salt", but aren't you supposed to salt password the first, and then hash it? So that means its called "salt and hash" right?
3
votes
2answers
71 views

Why must we generate the signature before any compression being done at PGP?

I have done some research on PGP and I found out there are of two reasons why we must generate the signature before doing any compression. Yet, I am not sure I really understand them both. One ...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Is RSA vulnerable to the padding oracle attack?

I know that AES in combination with CBC mode is vulnerable against the Padding Oracle Attack. RSA also uses some kind of padding, hence can this attack be apply to RSA encrypted messages too?
9
votes
3answers
660 views

How useful is NIST's Randomness Beacon for cryptographic use?

NIST have just launched a new service called the NSANIST Randomness Beacon. It has been met with some initial skepticism. Perhaps the cryptography community would have used it before June 2013 when ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Mathematically / statistically “safe” way to differentiate between crypto and random blob?

I assume the United Kingdom will impose (as opposed to just talk about it) restrictions on crypto software that may be used within it's borders. Me, quite the border clown (yes, I always bring a up ...
4
votes
1answer
113 views

EC: Why does $h>200$ need to hold?

From BSI-TR-03111 (PDF), on page 15: The class number of the principal order belonging to the endomorphism ring of E SHOULD be at least 200. This value commonly is referred to as $h$ in that ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Details related to the ZIP algorithm used in PGP message encryption? [closed]

I am very new to PGP. PGP encryption works with hash function, asymmetric encryption, symmetric encryption and a zip algorithm (LZ77). What I know is that the zip algorithm is used to reduce the ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Anonymous offline digital cash scheme

Can a digital cash scheme exist that is anonymous and offline using blind signature and anonymous signature?
10
votes
2answers
110 views

Attacking RSA signature verification that ignores padding

I am looking at a RSA signature verification that is quite obviously flawed and am wondering if there's a way to exploit that flaw in practice. Signature is generated using RSA with PKCS 1.5 padding, ...
1
vote
2answers
55 views

How badly does disclosing an M-bit prefix of an N-bit private key compromise security?

I apologize profusely for knowing nothing about cryptography, please go easy on me! I'm working on a project where I have a 2048-bit RSA private key and a public certificate generated from the ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Can someone explain the ECB Penguin?

I've seen the ECB Penguin used to demonstrate why ECB is not a recommended method of encryption, but I do not understand how this translates to text or passwords. Aren't the people who create these ...

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