2
votes
1answer
72 views

Ring-LWE elliptic gaussian distribution

I am currently trying to understand this Ring-LWE article: http://www.cims.nyu.edu/~regev/papers/ideal-lwe.pdf and I have a question. Firstly, it is mentioned in the paper that we can view the ...
3
votes
2answers
324 views

Is there a multiple asymmetric encryption algorithm, which requires all private keys to reveal the secret?

I am looking for an asymmetric encryption algorithm, which allows to encrypt a secret with multiple public keys, but to reveal the secret all private keys must be used. You shouldn't be able to tell ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Massey-Omura three pass protocol prime modulus share

In Massey-Omura three pass protocol: how many bits long should be the prime modulus $M$ in order to be secure? should be the the $M$ secret? should be the $M$ generated every time or it could be ...
0
votes
3answers
51 views

Computational indistinguishability: are function parameters known?

I would like to clarify something about the definition of computational indistinguishability and pseudorandom number generators. Suppose we wanted to show that linear congruential generators of the ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Trying to understand the constant factors (19 and 38) in Ed25519 ref10 function 'fe_mul'

I would like to transpose the Ed25519 ref10 implementation to a similar twisted Edwards curve that is based on another prime, in order to have the same speed optimizations in place for the new curve. ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

DSSP reduction to DSSI

In “Towards quantum-resistant cryptosystems from supersingular elliptic curve isogenies" by DeFeo, Jao and Plut (PDF), there is a reduction from the Decisional Supersingular Product (DSSP) problem to ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

What is the difference between the standard representants of $\mathbb Z/q\mathbb Z$?

The symbol $\mathbb Z/q\mathbb Z$ (given that $q$ is prime) represents the prime field $\mathbb Z_q$. Basically, the elements of this field are represented by $\{0, 1, \dots, q-1\}$, let's call this ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Brute forcing the secret key in Elgamal encryption

Crypto noob here, I am attempting to do this programming challenge. I do not have the secret key that is used to decrypt the message. However, the key is small enough for a brute force approach. I am ...
0
votes
2answers
50 views

How to compute two EC point multiplication?

I would like to know how to compute multiplication of two valid EC points over a curve E with generator G. i.e. Given only P and Q points then how to compute R = P * Q where $P = p G$, $Q = q G$ and ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Differential addition on Montgomery curve

Point multiplication using Montgomery ladder technique over Montgomery curves only require x coordinate, which in many situation leads to faster implementation as compared to point multiplication over ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Does exponentiation by squaring work on Montgomery curves?

Consider the point multiplication $Q=[d]P$, where $P$ a point on elliptic curve multiplied with an integer $d$ to get another point $Q$ on the same curve. This operation can be computed by a ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

IES: What security has the asymmetric primitive to provide?

I think most of us know the notion Shoup introduced of KEM/DEM (Key encryption material / data encryption material) which is used for example by the (famous) ECIES, where the key is the hash of some ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

Is this commutative encryption protocol secure?

My assumptions are: encryption must be commutative man-in-the-middle is not an issue I would like to implement the following scheme between 2 parties ($A$ and $B$) to exchange a key: Lets $C = P ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

implementation of digit serial architecture

I am working on architecture of SIMON cipher where I have to use either bit serial, parallel or digit serial to implement the algorithm for each round function and also for sub-key generation. So I ...
9
votes
2answers
658 views

Why Elliptic Curves?

What is the benefit of using elliptic curves over the standard finite field, when the cyclic subgroup we consider of the EC's solution group is just isomorphic to some integer residue class of prime ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Multiplicative inverse ($17^{-1} \mod 31$)?

So. Sorry for bothering you with such a simple question, but I can't really get this done. It's just an exam question in which I need to use CRT in order to calculate the RSA signature of a msg ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Is ElGamal IND-CCA1?

We all know that textbook ElGamal falls due to chosen ciphertext attacks, because of its multiplicative homomorphic property ($E(A)*E(B)=E(AB)$). However these attacks require the ciphertext ($E(A)$ ...
2
votes
1answer
281 views

Why should the primes used in RSA be distinct?

The two primes $p$ and $q$ part of the public key need to be distinct. What's the reason for them to be distinct? Is it because factorization of $p^2$ where $p$ is a prime is relatively easier, or is ...
4
votes
0answers
39 views

Elligator-2 against curves over Fq, q mod 4 = 3

It appears that the conditions for applicability of Elligator-2 against many of the SaveCurves curves, where $q \mod 4 = 3$ will inevitably poke a hole in the bit-string set over $(0, 1, .. (q-1)/2)$. ...
1
vote
2answers
86 views

TRNG vs PRNG - Entropy?

How much more entropy gives a Hardware Random Number Generator or True Random Number Generator compared to a Pseudo Random Number Generator? I know it depends on which TRNG is used, but I'm thinking ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

RSA signatures without padding

Suppose I have a message $M$ for which I generate an RSA-2048 digital signature as follows: $H = H(M)$, $H(M)$ being the SHA-256 of the message $M$ $S = H^d \bmod N$ Assume $N = pq$ is properly ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Salting in asp.net?

I have spent the past hour reading up on salting and still don't understand how it is achieved. Forgive me if im wrong, but the way I am thinking of salting is, storing an ArrayList of random strings ...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

What is degree of randomness in individual bits of MD5 hash?

I am researching on Hashing Algorithms and would like to know if we take individual bits of MD5, say we take first 8 bits or any random 8 bits of MD5 then what is the randomness probability of having ...
2
votes
3answers
77 views

Are there transitive ciphers (either symmetric and asymmetric)

Say Alice has information that's already encrypted with Bob's key. She wants Bob to decrypt it without knowing what he just decrypted. So she encrypts it with her key and sends it to him, he decrypts ...
3
votes
2answers
56 views

Does AES(x || x) provide secure message authentication when message fits in a single block?

Suppose I have x = <64 bits of data>. I build a 128 bit block $P = x || x$, and transmit a message $M = AES(K, P)$. The receiver has the same $K$. The ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Is there any good reason to chain HMACs in this manner?

I am looking at some decompiled Java code from an Android app. As a security measure, a signature is passed as a parameter to a number of JSON requests. The method that generates the signature is as ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

How far is public-key crypto involved in “banking world”? [closed]

I would like to know how public key cryptography is used in the banking world. I am not looking for big details, but for example: Are banking card embedding a private key used for signing ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Encrypt with K1, K2 and decrypt in opposite with K2, K1 [duplicate]

When using symmetric cipher, does the following statement holds: E(x, k) means encrypting x with key k in ECB mode ...
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

How does a CA send a digital certificate? [migrated]

I would like to know after approving the Certificate signing request, does the Certificate Authority send the Digital certificate to the applicant by converting the digital certificate to PEM format ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

One cipher to rule them all?

I learned from Dan Boneh's course that many cryptographic primitives (prngs, stream ciphers, hashes, hmac, key derivation functions) can be built from just one a block cipher or PRF. For example, the ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

RSA-PSS salt size in certificate

In RFC 4055, the signature RSAPSS algorithm has the following ASN 1 parameters: ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

one complex password as a “seed” for localy generated per-service passwords

I've stumbled upon a project that suggests a way of having to remember one password, from which a “per-service password” could be generated by salting the service name using scrypt. What could be a ...
3
votes
2answers
103 views

ElGamal against chosen ciphertext attacks

In Hoffstein, Pipher, and Silverman's book An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography, the authors make the following remark: An attack in which Eve has access to an oracle that decrypts ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Why we need ECDSA when we have ECDH?

ECDSA and ECDH give us the following methods: ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

How to crack SHA256 only letters

I recently created a program that hashes a password using SHA256 and potentially using salt. How can I crack that if I know that the password only contains lowercase letters?
2
votes
2answers
90 views

Are all stream-ciphers IND-CPA?

A stream cipher usually generates a stream of pseudo-random bits which get XORed with the plaintext to form the ciphertext. The stream is generated using a given IV / nonce and a secret key. CTR-mode ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Clarify EC point addition and multiplication

Please clarify the below doubt regarding EC point addition and multiplication: $P$-Generator Point; $a$ and $b$ are integers; $X$ and $Y$ are EC points, defined as follows: $X = (a*P) + (b*P)$ $Y = ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Parameter choice Supersingular Isogeny DH

In “Towards quantum-resistant cryptosystems from supersingular elliptic curve isogenies” by DeFeo, Jao and Plut (PDF), the public parameters are defined as: Supersingular curve $E$, and bases $P, Q$ ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Degenerate discrete logarithm in binary field

Given a field $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$, are there any choices of primitive element $g$ that make the discrete logarithm easier for that generator? That is, are there any degenerate cases? For example, if I ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

PK systems using groups in practice

The four Public-key cryptosystems: RSA, ElGamel, DH, and Rabin (all with others) all require some group operations in an integer field or multiplication group of some residue classes. When it comes ...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Where can I find names for cryptographic notation I don't recognize?

I'm new to this space and find myself stumbling over come cryptographic/mathematical notation. Search engines are not very helpful when copying and pasting Greek letters. Is there any reference that ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

RSA algorithm assignment [duplicate]

Alice wants to share a symmetric key with Bob. She encrypts the small (64-bit) secret key $K$ with Bob’s public RSA key $(n,e)$ by padding it with zeroes to 2048 bits (the length of n) and computing ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

seemingly common error with OpenSSL and creating a PKS no certificate matches private key [closed]

I have a JKS store and export a signed cert (from the CSR generated in the store and signed) and the private key - I convert to PEM and attempt to generate a PKS from these two files. openssl.exe ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Why does a question of mine not appear in my profile and activity? [migrated]

I posted a question here back in March 2015: click here The question was closed by the mods. It is not listed in my profile and activity, however, and visible to myself only after I login and click ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

J-PAKE : About Schnorr NIZK proof for ephemeral private keys

Reading J-PAKE Authenticated Key Exchange Without PKI document : J-PAKE Round 1 : Alice sends out g^x1 and knowledge proof for x1, e.g : To prove the knowledge of the exponent for X = g^x1 ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

AES-Paillier Homomorphic encryption [closed]

How can I implement following problem in java code for addition? (here I use Paillier homomrphic encryption): Input would be to generate a new AES key, encrypt the private data with that key, encrypt ...
8
votes
1answer
84 views

How many bits of entropy does an elliptic curve key of length n provide?

A FAQ for an open source project makes the claim: Indeed, an elliptic curve key of length n provides $n/2$ bits of security. I have two questions: What is the practical difference between ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

How bad it is using the same IV twice with AES/GCM?

I understand that initialization vectors should not be used twice when using AES/GCM. I am using a counter as initialization vector. Every time I send out a new packet (I am developing an UDP based ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

RSA: Range of public modulus

I know the public modulus is the product of two primes. For key with length L, the public modulus N should be such ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Ciphertext and tag size and IV transmission with AES in GCM mode

I am completely new to using AES in GCM mode of operation, and I have not a very large background in cryptography as well. I have been playing with OpenSSL trying to encrypt and decrypt some messages. ...

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