# All Questions

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### Understanding the PRINCE cipher linear layer

I am struggling to understand how to implement the PRINCE cipher linear layer. (https://eprint.iacr.org/2012/529.pdf) From my understanding I need to multiply the state with M, and with M' in between ...
95 views

### Is the inverse of a point on an elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ always in the group?

I'm working on a zero knowledge proof system that uses ECC over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ (currently using NIST P-256 since mbed TLS doesn't support group operations on Curve25519, but the problem should be ...
94 views

### What's wrong with an iterative (with counter) hashed salted KDF?

It seems like the brain-dead simplest KDF would have a key-stretching structure that is not substantially different from $\text{hash}(S | P | S | P |\dots|S|P)$, where $S$ is a salt and $P$ is a ...
41 views

### How to find an impossible differential?

Given an arbitrary SPN-based cipher with X rounds. How to find an impossible differential for this cipher? What are strategies to find one?
63 views

### zero knowledge framework for c programs - how to prove correct C program execution with private inputs

I am looking for a zk framework that could be used for proving correct execution of programs written in C (or any other high level language) such as: I know x s.t. SHA-256(x) = y (y is public, x is ...
89 views

### Vigenère cipher frequency analysis not working

I'm writing a C++ program to use the Kasiski method to crack the Vigenère cipher. I'm testing it with a bit of Shakespeare encrypted with the key ABCDEFGHIJKL. It ...
154 views

### Secret key and Decryption oracle in the revised Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation

Recently, Fujisaki and Okamoto provided a revised version of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation [1], a generic transformation for achieving IND-CCA2 security in the Random Oracle model. This new ...
81 views

### Tweaked Square Roots and Rabin-Williams

I'm reading Bernstein's RSA signatures and Rabin–Williams signatures: the state of the art. In section 6, Bernstein states: Recall that Rabin’s system needed to try several values of r, on ...
192 views

### RSA public key recovery from signatures

Is it possible (how) to recover public (512 bit long) RSA key from multiple signatures having corresponding plain texts. Padding is not randomized. I need it to verify any future message comming from ...
151 views

### Is there a cryptographic algorithm which is immune to side channel attacks?

Is there any cryptographic algorithm immune to side channel attacks based on scan chain? In VLSI point of view.
109 views

### Converting ECC Code from python to Java. Extended Euclidean Algorithm not working. [closed]

I'm in the process of converting a Python program I found for calculating ECDSA public keypairs from a given private key. In this particular case it's on the Bitcoin curve. ...
80 views

I've reading on GPG since yesterday and I have a doubt: the whole system of double key encryption does make sense but it looks to me like either way you are compromising something in terms of ...
125 views

### Physical entropy source: How many bits entropy per byte is sufficent?

8 bit / byte would be perfect obviously. head -c 1M /dev/urandom | ent gives ~ 7.9998 bits per byte. Now, if I have a physical entropy source, how much entropy ...
135 views

### How to generate new LWE samples

Assume we are given a small fixed number of LWE samples with secret $s$ and error $e$, where the error distribution is taken so that the LWE problem is hard. My question: How can one further ...
143 views

### Is it OK to encode data using key equal to data

For some project, I need to store some short string in encrypted form. It would be ideal for the current purposes to encrypt it using itself. ...
185 views

### Is it possible to choose which point will have the public key of a given Elliptic Curve?

I am wondering if there is a feasible way that, given a specific elliptic curve (such as secp256r1), I could create a keypair where the public key has a given $x$-coordinate. If it is not possible, is ...
123 views

### PQ Key Exchange based on Elliptic Curve Isogenies

I was reading the Wikipedia article on Post Quantum Cryptography and was interested in opinions as to whether the Supersingular Elliptic Curve Isogeny Diffie-Hellman listed there would be a good Post ...
73 views

### Is randomsound for increasing entropy pool not doing what it is supposed to do?

I am using randomsound because I thought it would be a good idea to inject some additional entropy into the entropy pools of my linux machines (clearly those machines have a corresponding sound card). ...
79 views

### Unicity Distance - AES

I am quite confused calculating the unicity distance and I was hoping that someone can clarify some things for me. My main issue comes from somewhat a difference of the calculation given by our ...
120 views

### computational complexity class of decryption of AES [closed]

I haven't really seen what computational complexity class of decryption of AES is. Can anyone provide reference papers or answers here?
44 views

### AM protocol for 2 distinct objects

Prover is going to convince verifier that 2 objects are distinct, do you know any Arthur-Merlin protocol for this problem?
45 views

### Correlation attack on Lagged Fibonacci Generator

Say that one uses a known LFG (2 known lags $a$ & $b$, known inner state length $N$, known modulo $m$) to hide some text with a basic à la Vigenère cipher: $C_i=(P_i + {PRNG}_i) \bmod 26$. Say ...
146 views

### Key exchange using ECDH vs ECIES

I'm a beginner to ECC crypto programming. Does any one explain to me the difference with using ECDH for shared key exchange and use of ECIES by encrypting shared key with the public key of the ...
218 views

### Why does anyone use elliptic curves for a CSPRNG?

I saw Martijn Grooten's talk on elliptic curves at BSides London this year, and it helped me understand how elliptic curve crypto works, especially in the case of Diffie-Hellman (ECDH). He also ...
73 views

### What is meant by - computational complexity $2^x$?

Recently Bi-clique Cryptanalysis allowed to obtain following results on full AES ES that claim to have The first key recovery attack on the full AES-128 with computational complexity $2^{126.1}$ The ...
153 views

### SHA-256 hash of null input?

What is the SHA-256 hash if the input is null, i.e. an empty bitstring? (Not the hash of 0 or "0".)
75 views

### Distinguishing attack on stream cipher created from a block cipher in counter mode

A block cipher in counter mode creates a key stream by: $$z_i = E_K(IV || i)$$ Where $IV$ is some chosen initialisation vector (with some length $l$ less that $n$ bits) and $i$ is the binary ...
97 views

### Will adding space to the Vigenère block make it truly unbreakable?

I just have gotten into cryptography and learned about the Vigenère block. I think it's a very good idea because, if used correctly, it is unbreakable. But the only downsite is, the key must be the ...
97 views

### Cryptanalysis of Marvin32 compared to SipHash

So I am curious about the security analysis of Marvin32, the randomized hash algorithm used in .NET (to prevent hash-table DoS). I found the source code here: ...
2k views

### Is the one-time-pad a secure system according to modern definitions?

Occasionally I hear people say that one-time pads are "useless" or even "broken". "modern cryptography knows more security definitions, under some of which the one-time pad is completely ...
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### Why is a Feistel network bijective?

EDIT: Fixed for clarity of intention I was reading "The FFX Mode of Operation for Format-Preserving Encryption" when I came across Figure 1 (see below). It's obvious why it's reversible (top-down ...
55 views

### Are there security issues with adding plaintext length to TLS packets?

I have quite a big problem, because of a software implementation of TLS I had to adapt I had to create something which is now biting me. It all comes down to this: I need to know the length of the ...
202 views

### What makes SHA-2 and SHA-3 have security levels half their output hash length?

The tag wiki for sha-256 says, in part: SHA-256 ... processes the input in 512-bit block and has a 256-bit output, for a 128-bit security level. I'm not a cryptographer, just an interested ...
66 views

### Is it right about an example of bilinear map $e$?

The equation for the elliptic curve is $y^{2} = x^{3} + x$ and is defined over the field $F_{q}$ for some prime $q\equiv 3 \pmod 4$, and set $q=307$. Choose random generator $g=[182, 240]$. My ...
58 views

### Solving discrete logarithm when p is not a safe prime

If you have the cyclic group of integers modulo $p$, where $p$ is not a safe prime, as well as a generator $g$ with which for all factors $q$ of $(p-1)$, $g^{(p-1)/q} \ne 1$, This answer says that ...
22 views

### Generating whitening keys through encryption

Question, if I generated whitening keys by encrypting the plaintexts of 0000... and 0A0A... would this reduce vulnerability to meet in the middle and related key attacks? If so, any rough idea of how ...
86 views

### Is it possible to encrypt a message's destination as well as its content?

I have imagined a way to break through any kind of censorship but since I don't have enough professional knowledge of cryptography I don't know whether it is feasible or not. If there is a method ...
53 views

### Share two secrets between two parties

Alice has a secret A, Bob has a secret B. They have a secure channel and a MAC. They each want to know the other's secret, but don't particularly want to give up their own. However, neither will not ...
4k views

### How do we know a cryptographic primitive won't fail suddenly?

It took more than a decade from when MD5 looked like it was going to break to the point when it was actually broken. That's more than a decade of warning. How can we be sure that when our ...
391 views

### Trying to understand the use of ECC in TLS certificates

I was looking the certificate of this website: https://www.cloudflare.com that has an ECC based certification. I'm just curious to know if is possible to understand which elliptic curve is used and ...
88 views

### Is it OK to substitute a PRF for a random oracle?

Random oracles don't exist, but aren't PRFs essentially indistinguishable from them? So why can't we substitute pseudorandom functions wherever we use random oracles? And if we can do this, why is ...
82 views

### Brute Force on Key

If you are brute forcing a key and trying trillions of combos, how will you know when you accidentally hit the right answer? Clearly you can't look at each decoded answer to see which "looks right".
124 views

### Is it OK to use a hash of the key as nonce for AES GCM?

I don't see an immediate risk of using the hash of the key as the nonce for AES GCM. Is there something I could be overlooking?
249 views

### How is information disclosed by modular multiplication?

Consider the case that $c = a \cdot b \mod p$ where $p$ is a known prime and $0 < a < p$ and $0 < b < p$ are unknown integers numbers. Furthermore, some bits on the value of $c$ are ...
93 views

### Sending the next one-time pad key in this one-time pad message? [duplicate]

I am doing a research project on cryptography next year, and I'm really new to cryptography. This isn't some really advanced thing or anything, and I'm just trying to come up with something basic. ...
99 views

### Secure content-defined chunking

I am writing an app that needs to split a stream of plaintext bytes into variable-sized chunks (for deduplication). The way this is traditionally done is using a rolling hash function defined over ...
56 views

### Anyone familiar with domain of hash functions in bilinear pairing based system?

I need a clarification regarding domain of hash functions. I have defined a bilinear pairing based system as follows: Let G1 and G2 be cyclic multiplicative groups of prime order p generated by g1 ...