# All Questions

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### How to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b) in spritz cryptography

I try to implement spritz cryptography like this paper . But I don't know how to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b). In paper page 7. ...
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### Is there an algorithm to hide text in another text, while preserving the meaning of the latter?

Is there a way to hide a text message $A$ inside another text $B$ using a cryptographic cipher/algorithm, while preserving the sense/meaning of $B$ and without anybody being able to notice there is a ...
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### Can you explain “k out of n” from the VCS paper by Naor and Shamir

I am new to visual cryptography. I’ve just read the paper “Visual Cryptography” by Moni Naor and Adi Shamir and I'm stuck on the chapter about the “$k$ out of $n$” construction. I am aware that, on ...
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### How to compare performances of lattice-based and pairing-based IBE schemes

I try to compare the performances (cost of Enc, Dec, ... size of keys, ciphertexts, ...) of IBE schemes using lattices (LWE hardness assumption) or pairing (Diffie-Hellman hardness assumption). I've ...
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### Is it usual for a signed message to contain the public key of the signer?

In protocols/systems which use ECDSA, is it common for the message to contain the public key of the message signer? If not, how do recipients know that the message has been signed by the correct ...
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### What is the correct name for bytes which are to be signed?

I have some bytes, and I sign them with my private key using ECDSA. The resultant (71) bytes are the signature. But what is the name of the bytes I have signed? (If this were encryption, they would ...
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### Forcing participants to be honest in Secure Multiparty Communication

Alice and Bob engage to compute a secure function f(a,b) where a and b must be present in a ...
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### Usefulness of ability to calculate $m^{p+q}$ with RSA

I noticed that with only an RSA public key, it is possible/tractable to calculate $m^{p+q} \pmod n$ for any $m$ without knowing $p$ or $q$. Namely, $m^{p+q} \equiv m^{n+1} \pmod n$. (This follows ...
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