# All Questions

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### RSA Encryption problem for Discrete Math

I am doing practice problems for my upcoming final exam, and am having trouble with this RSA encryption problem. If any one could check to see if i did these correctly, it would be greatly ...
65 views

### ORAM over Third Party DB

Oblivious Ram (ORAM) is a cryptographic technique that is used for secure DB querying without leakage on the access patterns. There are several schemes for ORAM, amongst the most popular ones, there ...
55 views

### Safe MD5 digest

So I've heard that MD5 is broken because it's possible to engineer collisions. So instead we should use, say, SHA256. The problem which SHA256 digests is that they are long. So I've come up with this: ...
185 views

### State recovery of Micalli-Schnorr random number generator modulo a prime

Let $p$ be a public prime of $n$ bits. Define the sequence $x_i=z_{i-1}^e \bmod p$, where $z_i$ is the $k$ high-order bits of $x_i$, and $r_i$ the remaining $n-k$ bits of $x_i$ (thus ...
1k views

### NIST Diffie-Hellman prime: how was it picked? Where did it come from?

According to this Matasano Crypto challenge, the NIST "likes" the following prime modulus, which appears to be expressed in hexadecimal: ...
59 views

### Does sending the same message with 2 different keys in OTP leak information?

Suppose a common message ($M$) is XOR'ed with two different keys $K_1,K_2$ producing two ciphertexts $C_1,C_2$. Thus, $$M \oplus K_1 = C_1\\ M \oplus K_2 = C_2$$ On observing $C_1$ and $C_2$, an ...
31 views

### Does revealing shares of the result reveals shares of the inputs?

Suppose Alive and Bob have shares of two polynomials $P,Q$, say, Alice knows $P_A,Q_A$, Bob knows $P_B,Q_B$ s.t. $P=P_A+P_B$ and $Q=Q_A+Q_B$. They perform some operation $f$ over the shared values, to ...
85 views

### Is Using Digital Signatures to prove identity a zero knowledge proof?

Suppose Alice publishes a book with a public key in it, and later wants to prove that she wrote the book. She could sign challenge messages with her private key, and others could verify those signed ...
71 views

### Can CMAC be used as a 128bit Key Derivation Function?

I want to derive a key a number of times for a deterministic scenario, where I can get n keys from a single one. The logic looks something like this: ...
56 views

### How can I show RSA OAEP IND-CPA secure

How can I show, that RSA with OAEP is IND-CPA secure by using G,H one way function?
99 views

### How much weaker is AES-64 than AES-128?

It's hard to say exact QC specs, but let's assume we have decent a quantum computer using Grover's algorithm that is able to half AES-128 keyspace to that of AES-64. How long will a bruteforce attack ...
16 views

### finished message layout in TLS version 1.2 [duplicate]

Is there anyone that can explain what wrong with my understanding about 'finished message layout' in TLS version 1.2 ? I'm trying to implement it for my own purpose, upgrading host-to-host ...
49 views

### Given a hash function how to find all/some inputs that hash to 0? [duplicate]

Say I have a simple hash function where $x$ is a sequence of integers: $$h(x)=(a_1\cdot x_1+...+ a_n\cdot x_n) \bmod N=\sum_i a_i\cdot x_i \bmod N$$ where $a_1,a_2,a_3,...,a_n$ is the coefficient ...
37 views

### Yao's Garbled circuit: Does Bob ever see the circuit?

I asked a question about whether the circuit structure for Yao's garbled circuit needs to be rearranged. I understand from Yehuda Lindell's response that the circuit structure itself does not need to ...
34 views

### What are the pros and cons of SIP media encryption types SRTP, ZRTP, and DTLS?

I'm just getting used to SIP for my first time using Linphone. Which encryption is better and why? My Settings > Network > Media Encryption has the options of SRTP, ZRTP, and DTLS.
46 views

### Encrypting/Decrypting using RSA and AES; standards?

I'm looking for a standard way of encrypting and signing a message using RSA and AES. I understand that in pseudo code the actions taking place are like this: Alice's actions for sending a secret, ...
54 views

### How to find collisions in a hash function knowing its coefficent?

Say I have a simple hash function where $x$ is a sequence of integers: $$h(x)=(a_1\cdot x_1+...+ a_n\cdot x_n) \bmod N=\sum_i a_i\cdot x_i \bmod N$$ where $a_1,a_2,a_3,...,a_n$ is the coefficient ...
24 views

### Proving CCA security for scheme constructed from secure PRP

We have a $PRP : \{0,1\}^{3n} \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{3n}$ and encryption scheme constructed from this $PRP$. $E_k(x\|r\|0^n)$, where $r$ is randomly chosen from $\{0,1\}^n$ and $0^n$ is a block of ...
64 views

### Diffie-Hellman: Calculating the private key from the public key with Java

I have the task to calculate the private key from the given public key and have the hint that the secret exponent lies in the range from $-2^{31} < e < 2^{31}$. To find the exponent I ...
39 views

### DROWN Attack - Which is the SSLv2 vulnerability exploited?

In order to get the session key used in TLS communication, an attacker must capture X TLS handshakes based on RSA key encryption, and switch to a server supporting SSLv2 protocol, and sharing the same ...
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### Handshake SSLv2, SSLv3, TLS

Can someone confirm that SSLv2, SSLv3, and TLS have the same Handshake process (ClientHello/ServerHello, ..., ClientKeyExchange ...)? If not, can you tell me the main differences between theses three ...
80 views

### Why are MACs not included when defining Protocols?

I see often in literature related to cryptographic protocols that MACs (Message Authentication Codes) are not included in protocol definitions. For example: ...
89 views

### Noise in Homomorphic encryption

What is the noise in homomorphic encryption schemes? (or where does the noise come from, I see that its inbuilt in the scheme and is not a side channel or disturbance noise) Is it also due to the ...
295 views

### An example of of an information theoretically secure protocol that is not cryptographically secure

Does there exist a protocol $\pi$ for some functionality $F$ which is information theoretically secure protocol that is not cryptographically secure for some threshold number of corrupt parties? ...
45 views

### How do you prove an encryption scheme is IND-CPA or IND-CCA?

I know for proving a scheme is not IND-CPA or not IND-CCA you can construct an Adversary which has an unfair advantage in an experiment/game, but how would you prove a scheme is IND-CPA or IND-CCA?
70 views

### RSA: select $e$ given $n$ and $\varphi(n)$

I have a question for a course I am doing. In an RSA question, it asks "Is it possible to select $e$ in such a way that it coincides with the corresponding private key $d$? If it is possible, provide ...
25 views

### A question about pseudo random generators with seed that starts with a 0

Given that G is prg, is the following always a prg? G'(s)=G(0•s) I know that if there was a random bit instead of the leading 0 it was a prg, but I don't know about the leading 0. Thanks a lot
49 views

### Yao's Garbled Circuit- Why does Alice need to rearrange the circuit?

My understanding of Yao's Garbled Circuit (based mostly on this summary) is as follows: Alice creates a garbled circuit based on the function f to be computed. She then hard-codes her input into the ...
164 views

### How many qubits are required to break RSA 2048 or 4096 with a universal quantum computer?

So in the news this week, IBM have created a universal quantum computer with 5 fully functional qubits. Logic and Moore's law dictates they will be able to scale this up to a lot more qubits within a ...
60 views

### How to find $e$ when $p,q,d$ are given?

I have solved till here ..... $$n=p*q$$ $$n=5*11$$ $$\varphi(n)=(p-1)*(q-1)=4*10=40$$ Now, how to find $e$, when $d$ is given as $27$ and message for encryption is $\text{abcdefghij}$. We have to take ...
44 views

### How can bit slicing be constant time, when Mix Columns is in the cipher

I'm reading about bit-slicing techniques, and one thing about it caught my mind. The strength with bit sliced implementations are (apart from that they are fast) that they are running in constant ...
43 views

### Attacking AES-CTR mode with known prefix [duplicate]

My question is the following: Consider a 128-bit AES-CTR mode encryption on a plain-text $m$ . The structure of $m$ is constant. First comes a string, let's say : "JustSomeText\" followed by 5 ...
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### BB84 quantum protocol

In BB84 protocol, when Alice and Bob make key distribution, what is the private thing? They select randomly bases and then make a measurement according to these bases. Used bases are private? I mean ...
167 views

### Should HMAC-SHA3 be preferred over H(C(k,M))?

If I understand correctly SHA-3 (Keccak) is resistant against more attacks than SHA-2. This would make it possible - again if I understand correctly - to use SHA-3 with a simpler scheme than HMAC. ...
39 views

### MD5 - Length extension

I am currently trying to get a working understanding of MD5 length extension. I have been following the first exercise located here: https://www.cis.upenn.edu/~cis331/proj1.pdf (it looks like the ...
10 views

### Charm-Crypto: Got <terminated, exit value: 139> when trying to serialize object [migrated]

I'm implementing a Dabe scheme with Charm and I need to share the public parameters over multiple entities. I'm trying to serialize the charm object containing these parameters using objectToBytes() ...
523 views

### Are there attacks on AES with 16-bit keys? [closed]

Are there known attacks on AES that uses a 16-bit key? Assuming the data can be 95MB size, and that I can request the same data over and over. For example, can someone explain to me how this code ...
27 views

### Validating subset of a password

Is anyone aware of an algorithm/method that allows me to validate just a few letters (or other characters) from a password. For example, the application asks for the 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 9th letters from ...
135 views

### Why do cryptographic hashing and symmetric encryption use different functions?

Something about encryption and hashing has always bothered me. Given a cryptographically secure hash function $H$, I can produce an arbitrarily long key from any seed $s$ by recursively applying $H$ ...
46 views

### Book recommendation about MPC? [closed]

I have hard time finding introductory book talking about details of secure multiple party computation. Is there any recommendations? Thanks for the help. Hope this is not off topic.
43 views

### In Fortuna, can I use ChaCha20 instead of a block cipher and Blake2b instead of iterated SHA256?

In the Fortuna CSPRNG, can I use ChaCha20 instead of a block cipher and Blake2b instead of double SHA256, and still retain security? My hypothesis is "yes" because: The block cipher's only use is ...
45 views

### Encrypting using “Cryptography.HMACSHA1”, how to decrypt (VBA)

I have an encryption routine that works very well in VBA. But now I need to program the decryption routine, and I'm stuck. For encryption I'm using HMACSHA1 and transferring the encrypted byte to base ...
36 views

### Encryption program help

First I must say that I don't know which coding language is best for creating an encryption program. But I have an idea for an open source encryption program that uses the program itself to encrypt or ...
31 views

### Why ssh-gen makes difference between PEM and PKCS8?

Correct me if I am wrong, but PKCS8 is format to store private key info. It could be binary-enoded (DER) or Base64 encoded ...
84 views

### Decrypting an RSA message given $a^2 \equiv 1 \pmod n$

I need help with a practice problem for an upcoming test. I've learned the answer to the problem is "well done", but don't know how to get there. Any help is greatly appreciated. Suppose that the ...
57 views

### SipHash's (non-)collision resistance

I'm very new to cryptography, and I need help understanding the security claims made in Aumasson and Bernstein's paper on the SipHash. In particular, I'm trying to understand the following statement ...
32 views

### Does a password that's cracked someone's account increase the chances of cracking someone else's account?

For every find in password that cracks someone's account, does that particular password have a higher probability of cracking someone else's account more than a brute force dictionary choice? How ...
26 views

### Symmetric Cipher Providing full and partial decryption

Let us have Video Data $D$ and we want to encrypt the data in such a way that upon decryption we have multiple decryption keys which will give us full or either partial decryption depending on the ...