# All Questions

561 views

### Implementing a one-time pad without binary?

This is a program that I found which takes a purely alphabetical message, converts the letters to their ASCII values and combines them with the ASCII values of an alphabetical key (wrapping around ...
181 views

### Difference between statistical PRNG and cryptographic PRNG?

What's the difference between a statistical pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) and a cryptographic-strength PRNG? I've seen a lot of PRNGs that are proposed for statistical uses -- e.g., ...
655 views

### How to perform Multiplicative Inverse Modulo in IDEA

How to perform the Multiplicative Inverse Modulo in International Data Encryption Algorithm? I don't understand on how to perform it… For example, let's say I have a value of ...
398 views

### Does AES CTR mode store header information in encrypted files?

According to the movable-type.co.uk website, In the ‘counter mode’ used in this implementation, a counter which changes with each block is first encrypted, and the result is bitwise xor’d with the ...
165 views

### Isn't the structure of a potential plaintext of a ciphertext generated by a one-time pad dispositive, cryptanalysis-wise?

That is, if I generate every possible result, and analyze the structure against, for example, a dictionary, won't that identify which of the solutions in the domain is most likely the correct one? I ...
1k views

### Malleability attacks against encryption without authentication

Suppose there is a message that is encrypted with AES-128-CBC. The message is as follows, new lines are used to delimit the 16 byte boundary for each block: ...
386 views

### Does AES with whitening mode have the following property?

This mode is that each time a random number $K$ is generated, you XOR it with plaintext $M$ and then pass the result to AES. Since AES is a pseudo random permutation, does AES have the following ...
1k views

### How does one scale encryption strength upwards from 256-bit?

I have seen many examples of encryption up to about 256-bit. But how does one programmatically scale the logic upwards in a language such as PHP or Java to say 1024-bit or even 4096-bit and higher? ...
1k views

### Why is the private key generated first in public key crypto?

I'm still new to public key crypto. I'm trying to understand how it is that the private key is generated first in public key crypto? I would have expected the private and public key to be generated at ...
849 views

### Is python a secure programming language for cryptography?

I know Python is a powerful programming language but is it secure for cryptography? I mean is it possible to reverse engineer the program (written in python) and discover the algorithm of cryptography ...
444 views

### SHA-1:Is there any mathematical result that gives us the minimum number of 1's in a 160-bit SHA-1 hash output?

Is there any mathematical result that gives us the minimum number of 1's in a 160-bit SHA-1 hash output? What is the probability that a 160-bit SHA-1 hash output contains at least 128 1's?
588 views

### Encryption vs. decryption of same plaintext

Does the same encryption algorithm given the same plaintext always produces the same ciphertext? Does this cause any security flaws?
670 views

### Salts, how does the script know what the salt is?

I am new to PHP programming and trying to grasp the idea of hashing and encryption for protecting passwords, credit card details and such. I've done a lot of reading about MD5 which I think I ...
944 views

### Practical brute-force attack on 128 bit encryption

In brute-force attack calculations cryptographers say we should assume an attacker will find the key after $2^{(n/2)}$ tries. If n=128, then n/2=64. We know that this is practical (A 64 bit key is ...
2k views

### When NIST disallows the use of 1024-bit keys, what effect will that have on SHA-3 (with max. 512 bits)?

Quoting the article Gone in 60 Months or Less: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has disallowed the use of 1024-bit keys after 31 December 2013 because they are insecure. ...
740 views

### Could the Enigma algorithm be classified as a Feistel network?

The Enigma algorithm is a encryption method that was developed (I believe) by the Germans in WWII. It went a little something like this: When a letter was typed on the keyboard of the Enigma ...
133 views

### Is it true the longer the key length is the more secure the encryption?

Then why don't we use xxxxxxx bits encryption? what stopping us from using a very lengthy key? I am referring to the encryption we use with SSL
238 views

### Which encryption method supports random reads?

I have a file containing 16-bit samples and I want to encrypt it, but the problem is that I need to be able to read any random 16-bit value from the file, and be to able to decrypt it, without reading ...
1k views

### why DES encryption uses different modes like ECB,OFB?

As without using modes we can also encrypt and decrypt data then what is the need of using modes in DES?
174 views

### Is it safe to use RSA as a proof-of-work system?

Suppose I devised the following challenge-response proof-of-work system: A server generates a 2048-bit RSA modulus, and uses the "public" exponent (usually 65537) to sign a random nonce a fixed ...
2k views

### Is 512-bit RSA still safe for signature generation?

The standard CSP on Windows XP only supports RSA up to 512-bit, which means that it's the maximum key size I can use for authenticity verification of updates. The public key is embedded in the ...
792 views

### Capacity of Advanced Encryption Standard in terms of File Encryption

what is the capacity of AES in terms of File Encryption? is it really good to encrypt a large files in AES? ex. I am encrypting a 8GB of File... is it still good to used AES? is it still good to used ...
446 views

### Can PBKDF2 be used to create an XOR cipher key to encrypt random plaintext?

I want to encrypt a truly random plaintext (a key file) based on a user password. I'll use PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA256 to generate an encryption key from the password, but I'm wondering if I even need to ...
350 views

### Looking for cryptographic secure hash algorithm(s) that produces identical root hash for differently sliced hash list

I have a scenario similar to the one described in Wikipedia: hash list, but with a twist. I'm looking for a cryptographically secure hash function that would create the same root hash for the same ...
519 views

### Can hashing become encrypting?

hashing some data and encrypting data share some similar attributes. Surely this is why "Difference between encrypting something and hashing something" has been asked. The point of this question is ...
232 views

### Reusing message in One Time Pad

One of the main rules of the OTP is, that a key should never ever be reused. But if we use some commutative operation (XOR for example) for generating the cipher text, then I don't see any difference ...
295 views

### Is it possible to attack RSA with a WalkSat derivative?

We consider a large $n$-bit number $N$. We want to find a factor, if it admits any. For $m$ taking values from $1$ to $n$, perform the following three steps (actually, for each $m$, perform many ...
253 views

### PBKDF2 uses HMAC-SHA1 to generate keys, but what is the key for the HMAC?

I was reading up on PBKDF2 and noted the following: DK = PBKDF2(PRF, Password, Salt, c, dkLen) PRF is a keyed HMAC, but I can't seem to find out what they use ...
599 views

### What is the difference between a HMAC and a hash of data?

On a recent question it became apparent that there's a significant difference between an HMAC of input data and a hash of input data. What exactly is the difference between an HMAC and a hash of a ...
8k views

### Where i can find an AES implementation in python?

Where i can find a "reviewed" version of AES implementation in python. Not an API like PyCrypto whereby you can call AES algorithms in a single line.
620 views

### What is the actual difference between security through obscurity and true encryption?

In an abstract sense, aren't both the same? Don't their definitions boil down to the following? security through obscurity: trying to make sure some information cannot be obtained without knowing ...
532 views

### reverse of md5sum

This might be out of ignorance, I apologize, but how complex of a problem might it be to generate a file of size N whose md5sum is X? For example, ...
541 views

### How exactly are GPG keys mathematically related, and prime numbers inside of GPG general

Before anyone suggest it, I've yet to pick up "Applied Cryptography" I'm planning on picking it up the next time I visit amazon. I know that the keys are somehow mathematically related, and I know ...
219 views

### Is there a way to systematically calculate the public exponent $e$ in RSA?

I'm learning RSA in one of my classes and we were given a problem: $p = 5$, $q = 11$ I have done the following steps: $n = 5 \cdot 11 = 55$ $\phi = (5-1)\cdot(11-1) = 40$ I know that to ...
293 views

### In RSA, why does $p$ have to be bigger than $q$ where $n=p \times q$?

In openSSL – during RSA key generation – if $q$ is bigger than $p$, they exchange them. Why is that?
151 views

### Is there an oblivious decryption scheme?

Alice has $K$; Bob has $E(K, m)$; Is there such a scheme that enables Alice decrypts $E(K, m)$ without knowing $m$, and Bob gets $m$ ?
1k views

### Why is a 2048-bit public RSA key represented by 540 hexadecimal characters in X.509 Certificates?

In the public certificate, an RSA public key specified as 2048 bits long is represented by 540 hexadecimal characters. Converted to base-2, this yields 2160 bits, 112 more than the stated 2048.
344 views

### RSA assumption and cryptography

The RSA assumption states that it is hard to find $m$, given $c = m^e \bmod{n}$, $e$, and $n$ (for appropriate choice of $n,e$). Suppose that there exists an algorithm, $D(c,e,n)$, that finds $m$ in ...
844 views

### RSA with composite numbers

It has been said that RSA uses a modulus product of two prime numbers for security reasons. But does RSA even work correctly if we allow composite integers instead? I think that the answer is "NO". ...
147 views

### Can anyone tell me the name of this cipher please?

Can anyone tell me the name of this cipher please? I know it's a simple substitution cipher, I just don't know the name of it. Cipher Key: help Cipher alphabet: ...
143 views

### Why is it that researchers prefer finding secure software solutions over secure hardware solutions?

My understanding is crypto researchers tend to prefer solving a problem in software without the need for secure hardware. Why is this? What is the big problem with using secure hardware if the ...
402 views

### Can ECB mode really leak some characters?

In an Ars Technica article about Adobe's use of 3DES in ECB mode, there's a paragraph The passwords, according to password expert Steve "Sc00bz" Thomas, are encrypted in a mode known as ECB. That ...
630 views

### Combining LFSRs for Stream Ciphers: Why do we need high non-linearity?

Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) can be excellent (efficient, fast, and with good statistial properties) pseudo-random generators. Many stream ciphers are based on LFSRs and one of the possible ...
216 views

### Subgroups generators with respect to group generators of composite order

If I have a group $\mathcal{G}$ of order $N=npq$ and subgroups $\mathcal{G_n,G_p,G_q}$ of order $n$, $p$, $g$ respectively and if $g$ is a generator of $\mathcal{G}$ why then $g^{nq}$ is a generator ...
1k views

### Is my pseudo-random initialization vector secure?

How can I know if I am generating a secure pseudorandom initialization vector? Currently I am planning to generate a pseudo-random initialization Vector using current date and time - is this secure ...
176 views

### How do I generate a number for a lottery and later proves its existence

I want to create a lottery that works like this: I choose a secret number A in the range [0:999] and publish an object B. People must try to guess the number A to win. When somebody wins, I want to ...
246 views

### Any weakness when sha256'ing output of sha256, repeatedly?

Is it significantly easier to reverse a sha256 hash if you know that the input was a 32 byte output of sha256? I assume for most outputs of sha256 there will be zero, one or two possible 32 byte ...
233 views

### Choice of MAC and handling it correctly

I have recently learned that Encrypt-then-MAC is recommended when using symmetric encryption. I have two closely related questions related to that, which is why I am posting them as one: Looking ...