# All Questions

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### Are there any elliptic curve asymmetric encryption algorithms?

RSA offers the functionality of encrypting (short messages, or symmetric keys) with a public key, and decrypting with a private key. However, RSA key generation is extremely expensive, especially for ...
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### does re-encrypting the same value with multiple keys reduce security

I found myself wondering today, how much security is lost if you take a plaintext - assume that its content, including any metadata is unknown to an attacker, for example it may be random data - and ...
152 views

### Zero-knowledge proof for committing a choice?

Let's say there are 100 choices (which are publicly known), each represented as a different string, and today you have to choose one of them. You need not reveal what that choice is right now, though. ...
209 views

### XOR with constant key in CBC mode

I have a hypothetical encryption scheme where somebody uses the one-time pad in CBC mode. That is, the block cipher is $E(k, m) :=k⊕m$, and that block cipher is used in CBC mode. Now, I am assuming ...
85 views

### Compression step of PGP

We do compression in PGP. Does this step increase/decrease or either have any effect regarding the authentication of a message?
144 views

### Homomorphic Encryption - Smart Vercauteren Batching

I'm going through Smart and Vercauteren's paper "Fully Homomorphic SIMD operations" and had a question about some notation used in the paper. In section 2 of the above it is stated that for each ...
135 views

### Quadratic Sieve: what's the next step after it fails?

Factoring some 20-45 digit values n with a (simple) quadratic sieve, the quadratic sieve may end up with pairs of x and y s.t. $x^2 \equiv y^2 \pmod n$, but neither x+y nor x-y has a nontrivial gcd ...
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### What is the importance of the $r$ and $c$ values for the Sponge Construction?

What is the importance of the $r$ and $c$ values? Keccak[r=1600,c=0] is stated on a calculator on the Keccak website to be a checksum. But I figured if c=0, then there's only one possible output? ...
700 views

### SHA-256 Partial Collision of initial 36 bits and more

I was lucky enough to, by brute force, have found two different messages, whose SHA-256 hashes collide in the first 9 hexadecimal characters, which are 36 bits, ...
326 views

### Unpredictability vs randomness

I'm experimenting with creating an entropy source for an environment where I have no hardware available and the language is very high level (executed in a virtual machine). I know it's not a good idea ...
341 views

Trying to find related answer for a long time, but not convinced yet. What I am trying is to encrypt using RijndaelManaged. To create Key, I am passing password, ...
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### Is it possible to tweak AES-GCM so that it is satisfactory for whole-disk encryption (like XTS mode)?

Is it possible to leverage a preexisting implementation of AES-GCM to provide the key security benefits essential for full-disk encryption (similar to AES-XTS)? GCM is a popular encryption mode ...
265 views

### One-time digital signatures

Are there digital signatures for which, given two documents signed by the same key, one could derive the key? With such one-time signatures, one may be able to design a cryptocurrency based on ...
197 views

### Does changing the random number selected for each message increase security in Schnorr's scheme?

I was reading about Schnorr's scheme and in that for signing the signer generates a random number and continues with his operation. I am trying to implement this in a scenario where the signature ...
2k views

### ASCII to same-length ASCII encryption?

I need to encrypt an ASCII string [a-zA-Z0-9:] to an ASCII [a-zA-Z0-9] string of the same length. It doesn't have to be unbreakable, it's sufficient that it won't be readable at the first sight. The ...
365 views

### Is SHA-256 safe when used in this way?

I am wondering whether an attacker can gain any useful information from having several hashes of an unknown plaintext that differs in relatively few bits. For example, if provided with: ...
196 views

### AES: Is it safe to encrypt same cleartext with same key but with million diferent IV?

The encryption mode that I am using is CBC. Algorithm is AES and the key size is 128bit. I will be encrypting a 36 byte string over 1.3 million times with the same key but with a random IV. My ...
119 views

### Where can I find source code for ideal world simulation?

In many crypto papers I see they use a Real World / Ideal World Paradigm. However, I have never see the source code of such Simulators that try to simulate the adversary. Could somebody point me to ...
196 views

### Is differential calculus related to RSA?

I'm writing a high school math paper on RSA and I'm wondering if it's possible to relate calculus to RSA. Is calculus used for any part of RSA? It can be for proving equations/theorems, for generating ...
142 views

### Security Level Estimate when Cascading/Compositing Ciphers?

Way back when, DES had a theoretical security level 56-bits. 2-key TDEA provides about 80-bits of security, and 3-key TDEA provides about 112-bits of security. Obviously, those security levels are not ...
64 views

### Oblivious Transfer where neither party learns the index of the message

In a traditional Oblivious Transfer setting, the sender has a list $(x_1, x_2, ... , x_n) \in G$ where $G$ is the chosen group. The receiver has $b \in \mathbb{N}$, such that engaging in the protocol ...
504 views

### ECB weakness and its exploitation

Lets say that I have a server which encrypts information at the server side using ECB mode with the blocksize of 16. If the server appends data that I control with a secret and sends back the ...
273 views

### Is the following authentication protocol insecure?

I am a student taking cryptography this semester. I was just wondering why can't we use this simple protocol? Alice → Open Connection → Bob Alice ← Cert$_b$ ← Bob Alice → {K$_{AB}$}$_{Bob}$ → Bob ...
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### What vulnerabilities would open up if PGP authentication didn't have integrity checking?

It is my understanding that PGP has both an integrity check and an authentication check. What vulnerabilities would open up if it didn't have that integrity check? It seems like the authentication ...
237 views

### Increased security weaknesses when truncating SHA1

Given the following preconditions: A plaintext A (~512bit length), that is hashed by using SHA-1 and truncated to (the first) 64 bits. I know both, the plaintext and the truncated hash, and want ...
443 views

### File Hash of Encrypted File

Simple question. I have a source file and I have encrypted it with a certain public key. If I take this exact same source file, encrypt it with the exact same key a few hours later would the file hash ...
115 views

### Block Cipher Mode Amicable to Fast Key Change/Rotation Like XOR?

I'm working with documents encrypted in long term storage. When a client requests the document, the document should be delivered encrypted under a distinct key (distinct from the long term storage ...
373 views

### How is an AES Encrypted Message Decrypted with Random Padding?

One thing I was surprised to learn about AES is that random padding can be added to the message to make it a multiple of block size. What I can not wrap my head around is how this random padding can ...
102 views

### Asymmetric Cryptography Confusion - 'Sign' a file to guarantee its source

What I want to do is use asymmetric crypto to guarantee that a file comes from a source. I have software that runs on lots of wireless devices, and each of those has a license file with an encrypted ...
130 views

### Why is $-1$ an illegal message in the Goldwasser-Micali Encryption Scheme

I'm not sure why in the Goldwasser-Micali encryption scheme with a Blum integer $N$, the message $-1$ is always a illegal message. Can you give me some direction for starting? What is illegal ...
380 views

### Appropriate AES key length for short term protection

Currently I'm doing some initial research for a fully connected distributed network communication model. The context here is a peer-to-peer multiplayer protocol, using a majority-voting system. More ...
509 views

### Serpent cipher : Osvik S-Boxes confusion and test vectors

I'm having hard time with the implementation of the S-Boxes by Osvik found in this paper: Speeding up Serpent. At the end of the paper, all the s-boxes are given and then, I just implement them. ...
542 views

### How difficult is it to brute force d in RSA: d = (1/e) mod φ in a CPT attack?

Given that RSA key generation works by computing: n = pq φ = (p-1)(q-1) d = (1/e) mod φ If I was an attacker who wanted to brute force d, could I brute force d given just the public key, the ...
563 views

### Making counter (CTR) mode robust against application state loss

Counter (CTR) mode, which is a block cipher mode of operation, has some desirable qualities (no padding, parallel encryption and decryption), but at the cost of failing badly when non-unique counter ...
329 views

### Friedman Index of Coincidence, pruning multiples of the keylength

I'm trying to write a Vigenere decipher script. I defined a couple of possible keylengths using the Kasiski method, using roughly this method: find recurring strings in the ciphertext between 3 and ...
279 views

### What are the possible cryptographic implications of Zhang's proof of the Twin Prime Conjecture?

Earlier this year, Yitang Zhang published a proof of a weakened form of the Twin Prime Conjecture. I'm wondering if any of the new mathematical machinery he developed has uses in cryptography or could ...
382 views

### some of my confusions about DDH assumption

The wiki defines the decisional Diffie–Hellman assumption as follows: Decisional Diffie–Hellman assumption Consider a (multiplicative) cyclic group $G$ of order $q$, and with generator $g$. The DDH ...
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### What does it mean to be simultaneously hardcore?

In this paper the term "simultaneously hardcore" is defined as: "We say that a block of bits of $x$ are simultaneously hard-core for a one-way function $f(x)$, if given $f(x)$ they cannot be ...
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### Salsa20 in Davies-Meyer mode with a fixed key (message): is it one-way?

Say I have a function that calculates a pseudo random permutation and this function is easy to invert. For example $P(i) = AES_k(i)$ where $k$ is a publicly known key. So anyone can compute $P(i)$ ...
150 views

### Feedback requested on a method of posting a message without revealing the author

So I was thinking about variations on the Dining Cryptographers problem - In some cases, it's useful to be able to post a message without revealing the source, but with the additional constraint of ...
97 views

### ASN.1 OID of bcrypt

What is the ASN.1 OID associated to bcrypt (the key derivation scheme)? For instance, PBKDF2 has 1.2.840.113549.1.5.12 and it is therefore possible to store a ...
9k views

### How does DES decryption work? Is it the same as encryption or the reverse? [duplicate]

If DES decryption is the same as encryption done in reverse order, then how can the reversed S-Box convert 4 bits into 6 bits?
181 views

### salting with password hash to improve security?

Would something like the following improve security (against rainbow attacks, not brute force)? Assume that $P$ is a user-chosen password, and the objective is to obtain a hash $H$ for password ...
159 views

### Finite fields in elliptic curve

I have an elliptic curve defined over finite field where $S_1=aP$ . Is it valid to say that $S_1P$ can also be computed. $P$ is the generator of the group. What my real question is that. Should '$a$' ...
242 views

### How to Compute C^2 in AES MixColumns Matrix?

In mix Columns we have: $$C(x) = \{03\}X^3 + \{01\}X^2 + \{01\}X^1 + \{02\}$$ In Viktor Fischer's Paper on MixColumn and ...
374 views

### Ed25519 choice of private key implementation

This answer to another question describes the different values chosen as private key and public key by various Ed25516 implementations. What are the advantages / disadvantages of each? (Table ...
176 views

### Are there any good examples of Contemporary Mechanical Cryptography?

Are there secure mechanical cryptosystems in use today? Not necessarily alphabetic either, ie digital but mechanical?
I know: Never do your own crypto. But this question is just theoretical. Assume you do a Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange with a server to produce a shared secret $x$. Then use a cryptographic hash ...