2
votes
1answer
90 views

Exchanging session keys over symmetric-key channel?

I know session keys are exchanged (in SSL e.g.) over public-key cryptography channels but I was wondering if there are already known algorithms/methods for exchanging session keys over a symmetric-key ...
5
votes
1answer
257 views

How come Shamir Secret Sharing uses Lagrange interpolation?

I've read that Newton polynomials have better computational complexity, but Shamir's uses Lagrange polynomials instead. Does anyone know if there are particular reason why Newton polynomials aren't ...
2
votes
1answer
253 views

LFSR Output Sampling for Berlekamp-Massey

Looking at the use of Linear Feedback Shift Registers in cryptographic algorithms, I have learned that the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm can be used to find the (shortest) LFSR that generates a given ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Pohlig-Hellman Algorithm: Adding up the solution via CRT

I have a question about the Pohlig-Hellman Algorithm for the discrete log problem. I understand the concept, but doing the exact calculations I get confused at one point; to illustrate, let's look at ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Minimum length of PKI key for signature [duplicate]

I am looking for data which shows how time it would take to brute force (or crack by any other method) different sizes of RSA/DSA keys used for a digital signature. I am looking to use as small a ...
4
votes
1answer
319 views

Paillier can add and multiply, why is it only partially homomorphic?

I've seen that it's widely accepted that before Gentry's breakthrough (which is not practical yet) in 2009 there were no known full homomorphic encryption scheme. I've read here in another answer ...
3
votes
1answer
130 views

What is the quantum-resistant signature scheme with the smallest signature + pubkey?

After playing cat and mouse with an number of quantum-resistant signature schemes and coming up with nothing with small enough signatures, I'm turning to Crypto.SE. I need a quantum-resistant ...
4
votes
1answer
237 views

Elliptic Curve Crypto, is a distributed signing method possible using Shamir's Secret Sharing?

Note: A distributed signature scheme exists for RSA: Practical Threshold Signatures, Victor Shoup. Is it possible to adapt such scheme for ECC? A centralized signing machine is vulnerable to ...
6
votes
2answers
123 views

Is there a way to compress multiple signatures of the same data?

So, I'm working with a system that allows individual users to each have their own private-public key pair. I would like to allow multiple users to use their private key to sign the same piece of ...
1
vote
0answers
73 views

A question or few about Mental Poker

I have spent some time studying the "Mental Poker" protocol (sometimes called SRA), initially proposed by Shamir, Rivest, and Adleman -- ...
1
vote
1answer
768 views

Fastest random number generator

I just read High performance physical random number generator by K.H. Tsoi, K.H. Leung and P.H.W. Leong. It proposes a physical RNG of speed 400 Mbps. Is this the fastest random number generator at ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

How to adjust scrypt parameters for Moore's Law?

I have been examining the scrypt paper, and I noted the claims in table 1. For 10 random ASCII characters, the cost at that time for scrypt set to $(2^{14}, 8, 1)$ is estimated to be $175T/yr. ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

In public key cryptography, how many keys are required for secure communication between n parties?

In public key cryptography, how many keys are required for secure communication between n parties? In my view the answer should be $n^2$. Reason: There are ‘$n$’ Parties. Every Party has One (1) ...
6
votes
1answer
111 views

Are poly1305 authenticators distinguishable from random data?

Assume Alice authenticates a message $M$ with nonce $N$ and secret key $K$, creating authenticator $A$. She then sends $A$ across the network. The Poly1305 paper does not seem to specify whether it ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

How to prove NIZK proof of knowledge?

Assuming we have an El-Gamal pk tuple $(G,q,g,g^s)$. Someone, knows only the first three parameters. In round $i$, I send him $X_i=(g^s)^{t_i}$ (the $t_i$ values are chosen randomly for each round), ...
1
vote
2answers
201 views

Deriving 2 keys using HKDF

I have an encryption scheme that uses a 256-bit master key, from which 2 separate keys (one for AES-256-CTR encryption and one for a HMAC-SHA256) are derived using HKDF. However, I'm not sure exactly ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Is there a deterministic number generator that allows me to share some (not all) numbers I've generated using a smallish seed?

I was just wondering, is there a type of deterministic number generator that allows me to share some (not all) numbers I've generated using a smallish seed? I have pairs of random numbers and need to ...
4
votes
1answer
151 views

How do I decide what mode to use?

I'll be using AES from OpenSSL. I understand why I don't want to use ECB from reading pages like this Wikipedia article, which has a great example of what happens when you attempt to encrypt with ...
1
vote
0answers
94 views

Modulo settings for successful encryption?

I saw this awesome video which shows how encryption works using "discrete logarithm". The example says: $3^x\mod17$. I understood that $3$ is called “generator”, because it has no "straight" root and ...
1
vote
1answer
201 views

Is 256 a reasonable length for a Diffie-Hellman safe prime?

There's a program that uses the following OpenSSL function... DH_generate_parameters(256, 5, NULL, NULL) ...to create DH parameters which are later used for ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

What does it mean for an adversary to run in PPT?

I've been reading this question where a detailed description of mine is given, I've understood that a polynomial-time adversary is an adversary for which the only feasible strategy are those that take ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Is email an example of public-key cryptography?

It seems like email is at least analogous to public-key cryptography, the public portion of the key being your email address, and the private portion of the key being the password to the email ...
1
vote
1answer
199 views

How can I find the multiplicative inverse in the first transformation of the SubBytes() transformation in AES?

In FIPS-197 §5.1.1 , it says the first transformation in the SubBytes() transformation is: Take the multiplicative inverse in the finite field $\text{GF}(2^8)$ described in Sec. 4.2; the ...
2
votes
0answers
99 views

Is it possible to perform a rudimentary asymmetric key encryption algorithm by hand?

I have at least three, distinct motivations for having a simple way to use asymmetric key encryption by hand or without modern computers. First, I was recently demonstrating to a 12-year-old how ...
-1
votes
1answer
138 views

Pseudo Random Generator with fixed Hamming Weight [closed]

I'm searching for way to generate secure pseudo random sequence with a fixed Hamming weight using a seed. I found below code but I need a seed to generate a sequence ... (and need know if is possible ...
1
vote
1answer
130 views

Public and private key lengths

I am generating RSA Public and Private keys with node.js instead of reading them from pem/crt files as I can hide them inside a private object using this module https://www.npmjs.org/package/private ...
3
votes
2answers
109 views

Could scrypt salts contribute to entropy if passwords & salts are only stored in human memory?

I'm unsure of how exactly the salt is manipulated by scrypt and its potential contribution if any to overall password entropy if passwords & salts are stored only in human memory for a ...
5
votes
1answer
628 views

Description of signatures with message recovery (as in ISO/IEC 9796-2 and EMV Signatures)

I'd like to get an overview of how the signatures with message recovery work, especially in case EMV and other smart card systems. Is there a nice overview available without being required to read the ...
1
vote
1answer
184 views

Where do I truncate the bits in SHA 256 hash algorithm?

I'm implementing SHA-256 in PHP using strings. Where do you truncate in the algorithm? There are a lot of places where there's binary addition happening so the number of bits in $W(i)$ keep ...
-1
votes
1answer
166 views

How to calculate bit strength of Integer Factorization Cryptography (IFC) such as RSA using Python

I would like to know how to calculate the bit-strength of Integer Factorization Cryptography (IFC) such as RSA by using Python. I gathered it is based off the complexity of factorizing the modulus ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Is HMAC padding the same as bcrypt?

I have been watching Christof Paar on his YouTube lectures also I used bcrypt to store two passwords with salts and I find that I have a few questions. I am interested in what bcrypt does to the ...
3
votes
2answers
117 views

Ballot box with multiple parties. All can read it, or none can read it

I am trying to create a decentralized moderation system for the game Diplomacy, a game for seven players. In each round of a face-to-face game, each player writes their moves on paper then puts it in ...
2
votes
2answers
256 views

Password-based encrypted key storage?

RFC 5959 specifies the encrypted storage of private keys based on PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA-256 and AES encryption (in ECB mode). Is there a particular reason AES is used, instead of simply XORing the key ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

User-specified PBKDF2 password, salt, and iterations limits

For a decentralized login where a user is left to select the password, salt, and iterations, what minimums for each should be enforced? In other words, because none are ever stored by the ...
1
vote
1answer
110 views

Protocol composition [closed]

I have been trying to wrap my head around different definitions of protocol security (stand alone, sequential composition, parallel composition, universal composition) and how the proofs of any of ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

Is either brainpoolP320r1 or brainpoolP320t1 a SafeCurve?

Not all elliptic curves are safe to use for cryptography, especially from an ECC safety perspective. The site http://safecurves.cr.yp.to/index.html shows that two tested Brainpool curves, ...
4
votes
1answer
181 views

Parallelized Pollard's Rho algorithm for ECDLP + Jacobian coordinates

My implementation of the parallelized Pollard's Rho algorithm is using Jacobian coordinates to avoid the costly inversion operation when performing point addition. I am wondering if there are any ...
6
votes
2answers
272 views

Fast hashing into elliptic curve

Is there a fast algorithm for mapping $n$-bit numbers $s$ (for fixed $n$) into a cyclic subgroup of an elliptic curve (over a finite field) in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem is hard? By fast, I ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Fiat–Shamir: why do r and s have to be smaller than n?

I have a question regarding the Fiat–Shamir identification protocol. In this source (pdf) for example it says on pages 9 and 10 that the random commitment $r$ and the private key $s$ have to be ...
4
votes
2answers
118 views

Does knowing multiple hash of the same content make it more likely to generate original plain text?

Say I'm trying to brute force the original plain text of an SHA256 hash, does knowing the RIPEMD160 hash of the same text help? In other words, does providing access to hash values of the same text ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

LFSR and Markov chain question [closed]

This may seem an elementary question about LFSRs, and their link to Markov chains. LFSRs show Markov chain behaviour in that there can be a transition matrix defined over the LFSR, this follows from ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Modes of Operations Exercise

I am currently stuck at an exercise for my Cryptography Class in University which is: Alice wants to send a message $M = (M_1,M_2) =$ "Pay Bob \$100 from bank accout $12345$" to her bank (encrypted). ...
1
vote
2answers
157 views

Signing a document: which algorithm to use?

What I want to do is to digitally sign a document. I am new to cryptography and was wondering what issues to take into account. The only criteria is that a textual document signed should produce a ...
1
vote
0answers
91 views

Mutual authentication with Public Key and session Key

I am trying to understand two protocols for mutual authentication and if they are secure or not. $K$ is the session key, and it's calculated $k=H(TimeStamp)$. Are the following both cases secure? ...
3
votes
2answers
226 views

Using PBKDF2 twice with different argument order

I'm pretty sure this is a really bad approach (in theory), but one of my clients is doing this and I was wondering… How bad it is to perform pbkdf-2 in this way (with 2000 iterations)? ...
4
votes
1answer
110 views

Length-preserving all-or-nothing transform

Is there any known way to construct a length-preserving all-or-nothing transform? In other words, a secure all-or-nothing transform where the length of the output is the same as the length of the ...
8
votes
5answers
367 views

Choose a random number that is different from a bunch of other secret numbers

I'm looking for an algorithm where n participants each have a different secret number between $[0..x]$ (and where $x$ is known) and where the participants then select randomly another, non-secret, ...
1
vote
1answer
193 views

SHA1 collision event probability after n iterations

There are String1 and String2 - some variables-strings. The probability of collision for different ...
5
votes
1answer
276 views

Is HMAC needed for a SHA-3 based MAC?

HMAC does nested hashing in order to prevent Length Extension Attacks. Given that you use the SHA-3 hash (which is resistant against length extension attacks), would you still need to go through that ...
0
votes
2answers
80 views

SHA1 multipart calculation

Is it possible to combine SHA1 digest values to get the SHA1 of the concatenated parts ? I know the "S1" SHA1 of "part 1" and the "S2" SHA1 of the "part 2" and I would like to know the SHA1 of the ...

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