# All Questions

211 views

### Why would an Initialization Vector be supplied externally?

My software uses a 3rd party encryption appliance. One of the capabilities they allow is for the client software to supply an IV while doing CBC encryption. Why would they not generate a random ...
84 views

### Checking both Quadratic residuosity and Jacobi symbol simultaneously and efficiently

I have to randomly generate a number $u$ such that $u \in J(N)-Q(N)$ where $J(N)$ denotes the set of elements less than $N$, whose Jacobi symbol value is equal to 1; and $Q(N)$ denotes the set of ...
123 views

### Strange MAC algorithm

I'm working with a payment provider which uses the following algorithm for signing messages: The merchant is securely given a secret key k, known to them and the ...
546 views

### AES VS PRNG+HASH+XOR

I was thinking of doing symmetric encryption using just hashing and simple XOR encryption. It would work as: Alice and Bob share a symmetric key Alice manages to send an (authenticated) IV to Bob ...
301 views

### Practical (and secure) PRGs

Does anyone know if there exists a PRG construction which takes as input an (RSA-sized) integer seed and outputs a fixed number of bits? There are number-theoretic PRGs such as the RSA, ...
815 views

### What was the problem in the SSL version 2.0?

What is the main reason (attacks) the appearance of the protocol SSL version 2.0 to replace version 3.0?
234 views

### Attack against modular inversion operation using side-channels?

I'm building a device that performs a modular inversions using a secret modulus. I would like to know if it is possible to recover all or part of this modulus by side-channels (timing, power, EMR, ...
147 views

### How does secret sharing solve the partial exposure problem?

I have been trying to understand how secret sharing methods like Shamir's secret sharing solve the problem of a share revealing information about the secret. I guess there are some random numbers ...
311 views

### Public-key cryptosystems without poly-time quantum attacks

It's well-known that Shor's algorithm can solve integer factorization, discrete logarithm and discrete log over elliptic curves in cubic time. This implies that cryptosystems like RSA, ElGamal, and ...
279 views

### Isn't the deterministic property of (EC)DSA a security problem?

From what I read in Wikipedia's article "Elliptic Curve DSA ~ Security", the "deterministic" generation of $k$ can help prevent certain type of attacks (such as the one happened to Sony). However, ...
7k views

### How does GCM (Galois/Counter Mode) work? [closed]

Can somebody explain how this mode works? What view has cipher text and how does it help to authenticate input’s data?
190 views

### Is this really the correct way to do an IND-CPA test?

In a description of IND-CPA (indistinguishability under the chosen plaintext attack), I have been reading the following, simple test: The adversary can generate as many messages as he wants. Then, ...
389 views

### Elliptic Curve Cryptography Encryption Results

I'm playing around with a package that does Elliptic Curve Cryptography from http://jecc.sourceforge.net/ Every time I encrypt a value it produced a different result (same private key). However I'm ...
725 views

### Textbook-RSA meet-in-the-middle attack against other RSA based schemes?

A “meet-in-the-middle” (not “man-in-the-middle”!) attack on textbook-RSA was presented to me. The only requirements for it was that the attacker gets the output of RSA and the public key, and that the ...
130 views

### How difficult is it to find the “pre-image” of a block cipher?

Say that I have $$C_1 = AES_{k_1}(M_1)$$ How difficult would it be to find a key, K2 and plaintext M2 $$C_2 = AES_{k_2}(M_2)$$ such that $$C_1 == C_2$$ How would using a block cipher ...
103 views

### Can CBC-encrypted files be modified in-place?

When changing a (small) part of the plaintext of a CBC-encrypted file, how much of the file will have to be rewritten? My suspicion is that everything after the modified block will have to be ...
277 views

### Composition of block ciphers and 3DES

There is some intriguing things about DES and 3DES. Now, I know that DES is weak and 3DES was an attempt to construct a more secure block-cipher from a deprecated one. Having this in mind, what ...
1k views

### Are block ciphers used in public key crypto?

I was reading about block ciphers and most articles state they are being used in symmetric key cryptography. Are they also being used in public key cryptography? if not, what alternative pkc use? ...
2k views

### How to test if a number is a primitive root?

How to test if a number is a primitive root, assuming the modulus is a prime? And if not? Is it not enough if the number is relatively prime to the modulus or prime?
681 views

### What are the potential security impacts of using CRAM-MD5 for Emails, when not using an SSL connection?

Background: My current server-provider tells me it's no problem to store the passwords in plain-text in the database, saying he has to do so because they use CRAM-MD5 for email authentication. But ...
513 views

### Case insensitive verification of HMAC / Base64 signature

I am signing a short message using the base64 of an HMAC, like this (python): ...
814 views

### Simple RC4 key generation scheme

I would like to ask you about your opinion on the following scheme of combining a master key and a nonce and stretching the result to the full 256-bytes RC4 key. Master key $K_m$ is a pre-shared ...
1k views

### Berlekamp-Massey algorithm: case when sequence length is less than double the length of the LFSR

Suppose that we have a sequence of $N$ digits which is produced by a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) and the shortest such LFSR is of length $L$. A very important tool in cryptanalysis of stream ...
2k views

### Which categories of cipher are semantically secure under a chosen-plaintext attack?

I am trying to get my head around the circumstances under which a cipher is (or is not) semantically secure under a chosen-plaintext attack. I can't seem to find a good reference explaining this. I ...
566 views

### A proof-of-work random number generation system for Pokémon [closed]

(The original question that was here was considered too confusing, unclear, and rambling. You can still view it in the edit history, but the content is no longer useful by itself, and cannot be ...
211 views

### Does zero-padding the secret in Shamir's sharing scheme increase security?

When performed in binary Galois fields $GF_{2^n}$, Shamir's threshold secret sharing scheme produces shares that are each the same bit-size as the secret. Though the scheme is "perfectly secure" in ...
648 views

### How can I add more rounds to AES?

I'd like to understand a bit more about the AES key schedule if anyone would mind explaining that. For instance, why is the way the schedule generated (with recursive xors and occasional ...
155 views

### The meaning of “scheme”

This question is a bit different from other questions here, but I think it is suitable to correctly understand the terminology of cryptography. Consider the following two sets of terms: Encryption ...
353 views

### Why pairing based crypto is suitable for some particular cryptographic primitives?

Why pairing based crypto is being widely used in some special crypto primitives as ID based crypto and variations of standard signatures? I mean taking as deep as possible what makes it suitable for ...
1k views

### What is the difference between these AES encryption methods

I am using AES encryption (Rijindael) with Base-64 encoding in Obj-C and VB. I am currently using the following two projects to achieve this: Obj-C: ...
1k views

### Difficulty of breaking RSA for a given key size

Is it true that breaking a 1024-bit RSA key is as difficult as breaking a 128 bit symmetric key (e.g. AES)? I know that breaking a RSA key is equivalent to factoring the modulus $N$. To factor it, you ...
428 views

### How much bigger does a precomputed lookup table get when salt is added?

I am trying to wrap my head around the benefits of salt in cryptography. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_(cryptography) I understand that adding salt makes it harder to precompute a table. But ...
2k views

### What does SSL use? RSA? El-Gamal? Elliptic curves?

I'm not sure what SSL uses to share the symmetric key to both end users, i.e. at the beginning of the communication. Is it RSA? Or El-Gamal? Or something else?
220 views

### Getting the encryption method and key from the encrypted data and the raw data

I have some pairs of plaintext and ciphertext data, from which I need to be able to decrypt the other passwords stored in the database. The password field typically contains something like ...
178 views

### What is sent on the initial communication with Kerberos?

When a user wants to communicate with another user (let's say Alice and Bob), what is sent over the network during the initial communication? Alice uses her Kerberos client and enters her password ...
359 views

### Where can I find useful data for cryptography/coding theory?

When implementing cryptographic/coding theory algorithms one need to use data like big prime numbers, numbers in $Z_n$ and their inverses, irreducible polynomials in $Z_n[x]$ and so on... While ...
124 views

### What's the safest TrueCrypt algorithm and hash?

I have an encrypted file container inside my NTFS pendrive. The root folder Write permission is blocked for everyone. A folder inside it has all permissions unblocked. The dummy file of TrueCrypt is ...
58 views

### 2 party AND computation under passive perfect security

In the book written by Ivan Damagard titled "Secure Multiparty Computation and Secret Sharing", at the end of the third chapter he provides a proof for why it is impossible to securely compute 2 party ...
154 views

### Finding Private key in RSA with public key, cipher text and plain text

Is there a known 'non-brute force' method of determining a private key in an RSA system when all other parameters are know? I found the values of a ciphertext ($C$), its corresponding plaintext ($P$) ...
122 views

### How do I attack an RSA setup where e is even?

As a challenge, we were shown an RSA setup where we have a big $n$ (617 decimal digits), $e=4$, and asked to recover three messages. (However, the messages are padded to the same length as the key ...
122 views

### Why is Paillier Cryptosystem called probabilistic?

The definition of Paillier Cryptosystem says that it is a probabilistic asymmetric key algorithm for public key cryptography. Can some body explain why it is called "probabilistic"?
87 views

### What is the correct name for bytes which are to be signed?

I have some bytes, and I sign them with my private key using ECDSA. The resultant (71) bytes are the signature. But what is the name of the bytes I have signed? (If this were encryption, they would ...
109 views

### Is md5(x)&md5(y&x) secure?

I was wondering if the following hash function f(x) := md5(x) & md5('abc'&x) (with & as concatenation operator) is secure. This schema can be even ...
126 views

### Small Quantum Signatures - Reality check needed

I've been thinking a bit lately about how to get quantum resistant signatures fast and (relatively) small. One idea I've been keen on exploring is finding a crypto PRNG that allows fast-forwarding, ...
67 views

### Hiding identifying data while allowing matching?

I do research with people about their illegal drug use, and for one project I'm doing surveys with them when they visit a needle exchange. So over time the same people get repeatedly surveyed as they ...
219 views

### Encrypt with one cipher and decrypt with a different cipher?

I recently installed an android app called Secret Space Encryptor and think I found a serious flaw in it. Let me explain: This app provides a variety of different ciphers to use and I used Threefish ...
131 views

### What is the difference between the standard representants of $\mathbb Z/q\mathbb Z$?

The symbol $\mathbb Z/q\mathbb Z$ (given that $q$ is prime) represents the prime field $\mathbb Z_q$. Basically, the elements of this field are represented by $\{0, 1, \dots, q-1\}$, let's call this ...
179 views

### Reasons for components of AES

I started reading "Cryptography: theory and practice" by Stinson, and I am trying to understand the reason behind the choices for the different components of AES since they seem quite arbitrary. In ...