# All Questions

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### Safety when disclosing hashes of secrets used to calculate other secrets

In my application, I am generating a big random number and publishing a SHA256 hash of it. After the hash it published (but not the secret), anyone can submit any number, and the system will calculate ...
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### Questions about Key Derivation Functions

My understanding is that a KDF is a function that takes a master secret and generates multiple keys. It is secure as long as the keys are "independent". If this is true, the following definition would ...
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### NIST temporarily closed — will that have a negative impact on the future of cryptography?

For those who didn't notice yet, in the USA, the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) has been shut down temporarily because of the poor fiscal situation of the USA. The text at their ...
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### Where can I find useful data for cryptography/coding theory?

When implementing cryptographic/coding theory algorithms one need to use data like big prime numbers, numbers in $Z_n$ and their inverses, irreducible polynomials in $Z_n[x]$ and so on... While ...
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### two public keys with same passphrase insecure? | can two hashes be compared?

Suppose someone had generated a 2.048-Bit RSA GPG/PGP key pair and published the public key on the usual key servers. Then he withdraws this key and generates a new one in 4.096-Bit RSA using the same ...
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### Bleichenbacher 1998 “Million message attack” on RSA

I have been reading Bleichenbacher's 1998 paper on a forged message attack on RSA. The paper assumes access to an Oracle that takes a ciphertext $c$ and will check the decrypted text for valid PKCS #1 ...
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### Secure MAC implies that probability of same tags on different messages is negligible

So let any secure MAC (message authentication code) be given. Intuitively, I think it is clear that the probability of getting the same tag on two different messages is very small, i.e. negligible. I ...
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I would like to know how much padding OpenSSL algorithms expect.
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### Symmetric vs. Asymmetric cryptographic approaches to data security

I know the basic differences between Symmetric vs. Asymmetric cryptography, but I'd love to know more details: Exactly why is the asymmetric approach slower than the symmetric? Why does it make ...
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Does the order of a block cipher cascade (e.g. in TrueCrypt) make a difference to the security provided, assuming independant keys? For example: ...
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### How do these figures represent a boolean function?

In the Wikipedia article "Bent functions", there are some figures representing those Bent functions: How do these figures represent a boolean function ?
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### What are the advantages of a static ECDH key?

What are the advantages of using "static-ephemeral ECDH" over "ephemeral-ephemeral ECDH"?
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### When do ECC patents end?

As the topic says, since when can ECC cryptography be freely used? Isn't it widely used because of patents? There is no alternative to it on embedded devices and smart cards. Just to mention: I am ...
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### Encryption of small messages

Some time ago, I asked how to encrypt small messages like e.g., four decimal digit numbers (banking PINs). I've got my answer, but also a warning like it makes no sense as it's easy to guess: Even ...
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### Increasing number of rounds in AES

AES-128 requires 10 rounds ( AES Description, Wikipedia ) However Bruce Schneier has recommended AES-128 use 16 rounds ( Schneier on Security: New Attack on AES ) Could that be implemented as two ...
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### How exactly was the finalist chosen in the NIST AES competition?

I was just reading the Stick Figure Guide to AES and came across an interesting table explaining how the winner was chosen: Unfortunately the NIST site is down so I can't gain further information ...
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### How to hack the new save encryption on ipad for uplink? [closed]

The new iPad version of Uplink appears to be using some newer saving mechanic than the PC/Mac version. Macs and PCs use the REDSHIRT format, but the iPad appears to instead be using ...
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### Is there way to combine secrets first and later split them?

Shamir's Secret Sharing allows a secret to be split into multiple shares so that it can be reconstructed later. Is there a way to do the reverse? Can we combine a few secrets first and later split ...
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### What is the security risk if an encryption key is not random?

Ok, I just jumped into crypto and now struggling with some points… I read lots of resources, most of them mention how important the strength of the encryption key is. However, I could not find much ...

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