# All Questions

2answers
183 views

### Skein or Keccak stream cipher construction

I am wondering if using Skein or the Keccak hash algorithm in this construction (as a stream cipher) is secure: $H$ = Keccak or Skein hash with a 256 bit output $K$ = The main 256 bit random key, ...
2answers
218 views

### OCB nonce usage

I've just come across this piece of code in Bouncy Castle's implementation of OCB Mode: ...
2answers
485 views

### Can I crack an AES string if I have all these parameters?

This is for a challenge at followthewhiterabbit.trustpilot.com: Knowns: The algorithm is AES (Rijndael) Blocksize: 128 Keysize: 256 You only need to find the first 6 bytes of the ...
1answer
295 views

### generate hash of all handshake messages for verify data (DTLS)

I am trying to create a DTLS client finished packet, where I need to generate verify data for handshake hash is need. And here I want to know how to generate handshake hash. As of now I am doing like ...
3answers
147 views

### Do sites store login password with hash? If so, can people can use hash collision to log in?

I was researching about hash, and I thought, If sites store passwords with hash algorithms, then can't this happen: User A has the password 'hello' User B finds out the hash code of the password of ...
1answer
129 views

### Is it possible to get better randomness by using multiple PRNGs?

I don't know if this question even makes sense, but: Is there be any benefit or impact to some sort of hierarchical (e.g. a PRNG drives the decision for which PRN to pull from a set of PRNGs) or ...
3answers
173 views

### Encrypt-then-MAC: full random keys or keys derived from master key?

I have this scenario where I use Encrypt-then-MAC (AES256-CBC and HMAC-SHA256) with keys generated by a CSPRNG (specifically, SecureRandom in Java). I'd like to know which is better: Use the CSPRNG ...
1answer
137 views

### Does this protocol provide Perfect Forward Secrecy / are there potential security flaws?

We have a HMAC key (128 bit/16 bytes) an AES key (128 bit/16 bytes) an AES IV (128 bit/16 bytes) a random salt (128 bit/16 bytes) Each packet is signed with a HMAC (SHA256) After each packet is ...
1answer
94 views

### RSA private exponent primality

I know that the public exponent is always a prime, but what about the private exponent? Is it always a prime too?
1answer
224 views

### Are the MD5 constants an S-Box?

I noticed that several hash algorithms, in this case MD5, defines some constants. MD5 defines 64 constant values (the shift count per round) which also gets expand (via sine) to a summand for a ...
2answers
232 views

### How could Fully Homomorphic Encryption support power operations?

Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) enables arbitrary functions computed on encrypted data, because it supports both addition and multiplication. But I wonder if FHE supports power operations. For ...
1answer
515 views

### TLS Key Block calculation - What is a PRF?

In Section 6.3 of the RFC for TLS 1.2, it is written that the key_block is derived from the following formula: ...
2answers
96 views

### Proving a decision was randomly made [duplicate]

Alice and Bob want to agree on a bit $0$ or $1$. Both know it would be fair to pick that at random, but there's no way they could meet to throw a dice and no third party they could trust. Are there ...
2answers
109 views

### Linear Cryptanalysis - possible without plaintext?

If Linear Cryptanalysis exploits the fact that the plaintext and ciphertext are not completely unrelated, is the attack possible without having access to the plaintext?
2answers
411 views

### Breaking Double Encryption

I am trying to understand how an attacker knows when he has successfully decrypted a ciphertext for an assignment. As such, some pointers/hints for the following questions would be greatly ...
2answers
171 views

### Is it possible to calculate the 'skeleton key' for DUAL_EC_DRBG? What would it take?

According to Bruce Schneier the constants used in the spec of DUAL_EC_DRBG may be related to a secret set of numbers, that could function as a master key for ...
1answer
267 views

### Functional Encryption (for Non Experts)

I recently stumbled across "How to Run Turing Machines on Encrypted Data". Given that it's now possible to run turing machines on encrypted data, what open problems remain in the realm of Functional ...
2answers
222 views

### PRP, PRF and modular arithmetic

Are there any arithmetic or mathematical functions that can be used as PRPs or PRFs ? Since, Conventional block ciphers like AES are that are proven to be good PRPs are not based on mathematics but ...
1answer
125 views

### What makes LSBit steganography detectable? And what would help in concealing it?

In a project of mine I took a 24-bit bitmap image and I performed LSBit steganography over it (saved a black and white image inside each of the planes R, G, B) using pixel shuffling and xor ...
1answer
200 views

### Help in understanding exactly how lattices used as one way functions for hashing

I am doing a cryptography course via long distance and we have been given an assignment which is based on lattice-based cryptography. I have spent the majority of the past week sifting through papers ...
1answer
255 views

### what's the advantages of identity-based systems over certificate-based ones?

Actually, I'm not familiar to how identity-based and certificate-based systems work, so ,can anyone give me a detail and comprehensive answer to this question? Moreover, in what environments the ...
2answers
590 views

### Json AES128: Security against known plaintext attack

I have a system where I am transmitting json messages securely (using for example AES-128), where each message has the same format. For example ...
1answer
392 views

### Distinguishing attack on CBC-MAC

I want to ask about distinguishing attack on CBC MAC, as in the paper published by Ketting Jia, Xiaoyun Wang, Zheng Yuan, and Guangwu Xu: Distinguishing Attack and Second-Preimage Attack on the ...
2answers
1k views

### At what stage is DHE and RSA used during the SSL/TLS handshake?

At what stage of the SSL/TLS handshake is the DHE and RSA used and what is the purpose of using a pre-master secret when you could just use RSA to exchange the symmetric key (i.e. AES) for further ...
2answers
112 views

### Is this algorithm demonstrating “proof of work”

Is this algorithm demonstrating proof of work? This is a algorithm where a "token" is combined with a time stamp and then a cryptographic hash is generated from the combination, next the objective is ...
1answer
132 views

### What kind of Quantum cryptography technology(protocols) can be used for Mobile Ad hoc networks(MANETS)?

Typically ad hoc networks do not have a proper infrastructure and the routing is done only through the base stations which are connecting a wired and wireless network. Does quantum cryptography ...
1answer
275 views

### Is it possible to split a large AES encrypted string and decrypt the parts one by one?

Due to some platform restrictions our decryption algorithm can only handle up to 1 million bytes. The string we receive is larger, having been generated by AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode, ...
2answers
148 views

### Publicly exposed hash of private key

Would exposing a cryptographic hash function's digest (e.g. SHA-3) of RSA private key data compromise the key? If so, what are the possible (cryptanalysis-) vectors for attacking the key if an ...
1answer
128 views

### password generation: random length or max length

In short: Is it cryptographically stronger to have a known length password of the maximum length allowed, or a random length password somewhere in the range of the longest length possible? Does the ...
1answer
264 views

### Why is this MAC based on secure PRF with ordering and randomization insecure?

Is this MAC secure: To authenticate a message $m=m_1||\ldots||m_l$ where $m_i \in \{0,1\}^{n/2}$, choose $r \leftarrow \{0,1\}^n$ at random, compute t:=F_k(r)\oplus F_k(\langle 1\rangle || ...
2answers
479 views

### How should we interpret the cryptanalysis results of SIMON and SPECK?

The NSA recently released SIMON and SPECK light weight block ciphers. Although initial spec release did not have much of cryptanalysis details, two works later appeared providing the cryptanalysis for ...
1answer
869 views

### How good is using AES CTR mode with initial counter as 0?

Is it advisable to use AES CTR mode with the counter initialized to 0? How good is it in security terms?
1answer
435 views

### LFSR using words

If I've got an LFSR, let's say a 16-bit Fibonacci LFSR as shown in the corresponding wikipedia article, which generates maximum length sequences, could I use it to create word sequences instead of bit ...
1answer
107 views

### How do these figures represent a boolean function?

In the Wikipedia article "Bent functions", there are some figures representing those Bent functions: How do these figures represent a boolean function ?
3answers
212 views

### Decryption possible only within a period of time

Time-locked encryption and time-released encryption seem to be security systems focused on making sure that the decryption of certain message cannot take place before a certain time has passed. ...
3answers
198 views

### How should I interpret this note on diffusion of the internal state of a PRNG?

This question is about Tyche, a non-cryptographic PRNG. While the PRNG is not cryptographic the analysis and this question surely is heavily involved with cryptography, so I think it's on-topic here. ...
2answers
273 views

### Could completely public passphrase hashes ever be reliably secure?

This is a hypothetical question and I only have a basic understanding of Cryptography. If one were to follow the very best cryptographic practices for storing passphrases, could it ever be possible ...
3answers
372 views

### Can I dynamically calculate an appropriate number of iterations for PBKDF2 based on the system time, rather than using a fixed value?

Could you choose the number of PBKDF2 iterations based upon the system time? I've heard a few people recommend that the number of iterations for PBKDF2 should be doubled every two years (starting ...
1answer
106 views

### Recasting randomly generated numbers to other widths

Suppose I have a list of randomly generated uint_8's, uniform over the whole range of uint_8. I write them into a file as raw ...
1answer
93 views

### Is it possible to generate a message using the mac and the key?

Say that you have the Key and the MAC value that was generated from the Key using CBC. Is it possible to generate a message with just the mac and the key? If so, how would you do it?
1answer
140 views

### Can stream ciphers (usually) be “run backwards”?

Is it possible to reconstruct the previous output bits of a stream cipher, e.g. RC4, when only the current state is known, or is that computationally hard, or even impossible (due to ambiguous ...
1answer
171 views

### Security of cloud computational protocols in UC Framework?

The universal composability allows one to the analyze security of cryptographic protocols . But it does have some gaps when it comes to analyzing few protocols especially two party cases when there is ...
1answer
146 views

### Camellia cipher - is it a symmetric or asymmetric cipher?

I read a wiki page about Camellia cipher and know that it is a block cipher that can use 128-bit, 192-bit or 256-bit keys. But I cant find any information about if its a symmetric cipher (uses one key ...
1answer
183 views

### Public Keys on Social Media

Is there any problem with using social media (i.e. Facebook) as a directory of public keys? For example, couldn't Alice put a note containing $(g^a \bmod p, g, p)$ on her Facebook page so she could ...
1answer
144 views

### Can OTP still be broken if there are several messages being sent with only a slight variation in a password?

If an attacker were able to get a hold of 2 encrypted messages that were both encrypted in a one time pad with a password that were each similar but had one change in the first character, could it ...
1answer
192 views

### Why must we hash lot of times in rainbow tables?

I don't get the utility to chain and reduce in generating rainbow tables. Hash functions are made to not have collisions, or at least chain only 2 times so we don't return to the concept of the hash ...
1answer
2k views

### How is input message for SHA-2 padded?

I read about how is an input message prepared to be hashed by MD4,MD5 or SHA-1: Step1 Append padding bits The input message is "padded" (extended) so that its length (in bits) equals to 448 ...
1answer
132 views

### Can you explain what the AES paper means by “sharing active S-boxes”?

I am reading the "Biclique cryptanalysis of the full AES" paper. What do they mean by "sharing active S-boxes"? How can this concept can be advantageous to make a bicycle? If there is someone who ...
2answers
1k views

### How does SafeNet MobilePASS generate passwords?

We use MobilePASS at work but the latest version of the android client seems to be buggy so I wanted to have a go at implementing the algorithm myself. You can download the client to play with here: ...
2answers
190 views

### Pseudorandom functions

The usual case to distinguish a pseudorandom function from a random function is to assume that the adversary can choose the plaintext blocks. Is there another case (game) in which the adversary can ...

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