All Questions

2
votes
1answer
115 views

What are differences between $E(F_p)$ and $E(Z_p)$?

When I read some books about elliptic curve cryptography noticed that. sometimes symbolized elliptic curve over $F_p$ is $E(F_p)$ and sometimes symbolized elliptic curve over $Z_p$ is $E(Z_p)$. I ...
2
votes
1answer
338 views

Precomputation attacks on RSA

Are precomputation attacks - such as outlined in RFC 3610 chapter 5 - possible on RSA PKCS#1 v1.5 signature generation? If yes, are such attacks taken into account when calculating the cryptographic ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

Efficiency of chaining AES “groups” of blocks

From ISO/IEC 23001-7:2012/Amd 1:2012 10.2.2 Creation of Initialization Vector (Informative) Decryption efficiency may be improved if subsequent initialization vectors use the value of the last ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

How does CBC work with read-write volumes?

I have read an article about an attack on LUKS in CBC mode and had a look at the WP article about CBC and now I am confused. If I have understood that correctly then changing the plaintext of a block ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

How is padding oracle attack mitigated by encrypt-then-MAC?

Let us suppose Alice sends a message to Bob. As far as I know, the most popular scheme of MAC-then-encrypt is as follows: Alice computes the HMAC of the plaintext using her private key, and then ...
2
votes
1answer
145 views

SIMONs Cryptoanalysis

I'm reading Cryptanalysis of the SIMON Family of Block Ciphers. In Section 3.1, it says: For SIMON, consider an n-bit input difference $\alpha= x\oplus x'$ to $F$ of Hamming weight one. As the ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

Is there a number of tries after which Hashcash is guaranted to be solved?

Hashcash is a proof-of-work system in which the Sender needs to find $Y$ such as the first (let's say 20) bits of $H(X+Y)$ are zeros where $H$ is a one-way hash function, $X$ is a fixed value and $+$ ...
2
votes
2answers
123 views

Is it necessary to generate a private key for each encryption process?

I read about Asymmetric key cryptography like EG-ECC , RSA, ECDH. I understand the concept of mathematics to these algorithms. But I have wondered about the public key for sender and private key for ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

What are the two parts of SHA1's compression function called?

SHA1's compression function has two distinct parts: one where 16 words are expanded into 80 words, and one where the 80 words are used over 80 rounds. Are there specific names or terms for each of ...
2
votes
1answer
148 views

PRF and hash functions

Is there a difference between PRF and a hash function? For example: Creation of a secret key is using PRF and creating a secret key is using hash function.
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Solving Vignere Encryption

I'm currently trying to crack a cypher that I believe is Vignere Encrypted and I'm currently stuck. I calculated the key length by finding repeated sequences in the cypher and calculating the the ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

Security of permutation cipher

I would like to understand how secure the permutation cipher is. I would specifically like to understand the following concrete setup: If the alphabet is $L = \{0,1,\dots , 255\}$ and $\sigma_1, ...
2
votes
2answers
267 views

RSA Key Generation Parameters - public exponent, certainty, string-to-key count

I want to know what values are appropriate for the public exponent and certainty when generating an RSA Key (for example using Bouncy Castle RSAKeyGenerationParameters function). What is the ...
2
votes
1answer
218 views

How is the curve equation used in ECC?

I have a hard time learning exactly how the elliptic curve equation is used in the ECC. $$y^2 = x^3+ax+b$$ If someone knows and could explain to me in simple steps how this is done or a link to it ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

distribution for a subset of md5

I need to uniquely assign a 32 bit integer to a collection of human readable strings (i.e. they will not be generated with hash collision in mind). I don't expect more than a few thousand strings. I ...
2
votes
1answer
181 views

Is this an acceptable implementation of ARC4 encryption for my system?

I am building an open source hardware system that will be used to control things over the internet. The system consists of a Base Station and Modules which use wireless communication at 2.4GHz to ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

Where can I download a database of RSA keys?

I'm looking to do some research into how RSA is used in the wild. I've read through a few papers and it seems other researchers have had no trouble collecting millions of keys to perform analysis on. ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

Reseeding a PRNG with the generated PRN

Would reseeding a PRNG with the PRN from the previous generation have any effects whatsoever on the quality of the generated numbers; if so, does this depend on the PRNG used, or are the effects ...
2
votes
1answer
326 views

Attack of an RSA signature scheme using PKCS#1 v1.5 encryption padding

My best interpretation of this question is that Java's crypto API has been subverted to perform RSA signature using PKCS#1 v1.5 encryption padding. Assume the signature $S$ of a message $M$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
160 views

Why should a signature use PSS padding in RSA?

Suppose I send a message using AES (private keys already negotiated securely) and I send a hash of this message using RSA (encrypted with private key) with OAEP to verify the authenticity and ...
2
votes
1answer
265 views

Find out which keying option is being used in Triple DES?

As far as I know, there are three standard options for the three keys $K_1$, $K_2$ and $K_3$ used by 3DES: Three distinct keys. The first and last key are equal: $K_1$ = $K_3$. Three equal keys: ...
2
votes
2answers
150 views

One-way function and uninvertible function [closed]

How can I prove the following: If $f$ is a one-way function, then it is an uninvertible function?
2
votes
1answer
198 views

Predicting Java's PRNG using partial output

I have a program (a game) that uses Java's nextInt function with parameter 0x10000 to get a random 16-bit number. Java's ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

Shamir Secret Sharing Modular Reduction

Say players use Shamir's secret sharing to share a value $k$ such that each player now holds $k_i$, a share of $k$. How can they securely compute $k \bmod m$ for some $m$. Of course they can ...
2
votes
1answer
136 views

Efficiently computing the neutral element in a ring isomorphic to Z/NZ?

Edited to clarify question So my question is whether anyone knows of an efficient way to compute the neutral element (I'm gonna call it 1, but the operation doesn't have to be multiplication) in an ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Digicipher and other proprietary systems?

I've always been curious as to how Pay-TV and other Conditional Access systems actually stay secure for any amount of time, given that they are usually one way and (I'm assuming) use symmetric keys ...
2
votes
2answers
121 views

How to ensure that a “received value” is not altered?

I have a program (whereby people can download and run on their own computers) that will calculate a couple of unknown values each day. For simplicity sake, let's assume that the calculation is simply ...
2
votes
1answer
169 views

RSA key length choice for TLS when confidentiality not important?

I've a couple of questions about this, the scenario is embedding a key pair in a hardware device which will speak with other hardware devices over tls. computing resources are an issue so i want to ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Proof of shared secret through key derivation

Alice gives a random key $K$ (e.g. 32 bytes long) to Bob through a secure channel. Bob want to prove to Alice through an unsecured channel that he knows the key. Is it secure for Bob to send ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Significance of repetition in XOR cipher text

I'm attempting to recover plain-text ($P_1, P_2$) from two uneven cipher-text strings ($C_1, C_2$) that I suspect used the same key ($K$). When I XOR $C_1$ and $C_2$ together to obtain ($P_1 + ...
2
votes
1answer
920 views

Calculation of time to crack SHA-256 hash

A problem is given: 1 million users are authenticated with 9-digit PIN codes (e.g. 343534643). The PIN values are stored as hash values in a database. The hash is SHA-256, and is computed as: ...
2
votes
1answer
190 views

Does SpongeWrap (from the Keccak team) absorb ciphertext or plaintext?

I have been reading the Cryptographic sponge functions paper, but I'm still confused. Does Keccak in authenticated encryption mode absorb ciphertext or plaintext? Edit: Are there any test vectors to ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

Can you help me with this DES variant analysis?

I'm struggling with some DES variant that I got as an exercise (exercise taken from Katz-Lindell Ex5.14). The variant is as follows: The left half of the master key is used to derive all the ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

What does this step in this protocol for the Yao's Millionaire Problem mean?

I was reading “An Efficient Protocol for Yao’s Millionaires’ Problem” (Ioannidis and Grama 2003). In the proposed protocol in section three, it is written: (Step 4) For every $i$, $1 \le i \le d$, ...
2
votes
3answers
145 views

Help me about Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Suppose $E_k$$(a, b, c)$ is encryption of values $a, b$ and $c$ with key $k$ through encryption algorithm AES (AES-128) and each $a, b$ and $c$ are 300 bits integer values. Also Suppose this ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

What is adaptive zero-knowledge?

In this paper on pg. 1241 the authors discuss bullet point on Adaptive Zero-Knowledge : I am new to Zero-Knowledge and I am having trouble understanding what they are saying. I think they are ...
2
votes
1answer
174 views

How to prove this LFSR equation?

I am having difficulty solving part (ii) of Excercise 5.17 from Becker's Cipher Systems. Exercise 5.17 $\quad$If $f(x),g(x)$ are any two polynomials over $GF(2)$ with $f(0)=g(0)=1$ show that ...
2
votes
2answers
90 views

MD5 theoretical question

Ok, so this is a very possible stupid question, but one of those things that has sat at the back of my mind for a while. We all know that MD5 has issues, and these have been known for about a decade. ...
2
votes
2answers
288 views

Are there any bijective one-way functions not based on number-theoretic hardness assumptions?

I'm trying to find a bijective function $y=F(x)$ which should be easy to compute in one direction but hard to compute in the other, where the one-way property is not based on a number theoretic ...
2
votes
2answers
291 views

Computing p and q from private key

We are given n (public modulus) where n=pq and e (encryption exponent). Then I was able to crack the private key d, using Wieners attack. So now, I have (n,e,d). My question is, is there a way to ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

How do I know if a given curve requires a FpCurve F2mCurve or ECCCurve?

I'm trying to read a public key into Bouncy Castle (secp256k1) and need to choose from the following objects FpPoint; FpCurve; or ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

How do I prove that this PRNG is easily distinguished from a random sequence of numbers (modulo m)?

I was studying Crypto, and this question came up. Using a PRG like the multiplicative congruence generator: $b_{i+1} = a \cdot b_i \mod m$ How do I prove that the output of this PRG, or any PRG's ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Can I use the ChaCha core as a 256-bit to 256-bit one-way function?

I'm looking to implement Lamport signatures as a little fun project, and I need a fast one way function that maps $\{0,1\}^{256} \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{256}$. I was wondering whether I could safely use ...
2
votes
1answer
112 views

Genuine encryption from only one source?

Is there any technique so that if I encrypt data, the ciphertext would be genuine and if someone else tries to encrypt the same data the ciphertext could be determined as fake or just invalid? I want ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

What is the security risk if an encryption key is not random?

Ok, I just jumped into crypto and now struggling with some points… I read lots of resources, most of them mention how important the strength of the encryption key is. However, I could not find much ...
2
votes
1answer
616 views

Two different approaches for Key Expansion using the AES-256 algorithm?

I am implementing AES 256-bit Algorithm from the Theory given in the book, "Cryptography and Network Security" by Behrouz A. Forouzan. The Algorithm described in the Book in relation to ...
2
votes
1answer
156 views

Can we decrypt in this order when the message is encrypted twice?

If we encrypt a message twice with symmetric key $k_1$ first and then $k_2$ like $E_{k2}\{E_{k1}\{m\}\}$ , ideally we should decrypt with $k_2$ first and then $k_1$ but is it possible to decrypt with ...
2
votes
2answers
230 views

Is OTP useful in modern electronic communication?

I have seen from time to time questions about various OTP schemes and "OTP" (i.e. stream cipher) schemes. The most common OTP troubles appear to be: How to extend size of previously generated key or ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

Repeated Encryption using same/different Encryption systems [duplicate]

I would like to know if there are any security risks/gains from encrypting twice, i.e. $$\text{plaintext}\xrightarrow{encrypt}\text{intermediate text}\xrightarrow{encrypt}\text{ciphertext}.$$ I would ...
2
votes
1answer
285 views

Is using Ed25519 parameters in ECDSA safe?

I recently discovered the Curve25519 key exchange lib and the Ed25519 signature lib. Due to the speculations about NIST-designed curves, there is a chance that I ditch them and use the curves above ...

15 30 50 per page