# All Questions

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### How to generate a large random number from smaller ones?

I'm using a function randInt that takes as input two integers as upper and lower bounds (inclusive) and outputs a pseudorandom number in that interval. ...
87 views

### How can recovered 5-letters plain text help me to recover reused OTP key

I have 10 cipher texts ciphered with One Time Pad (OTP) using the same key. I need to recover the key (or in other words, to recover the 11th cipher text which I assumed would require me to recover ...
59 views

### Public SRP verifiers or public hash chain “public keys” when secret is low entropy password

I want to set up the following: An untrusted server should host user sessions and authenticate users without knowing their passwords or being capable of creating a fake user session in the user's ...
89 views

### Extend OTP on random data?

If Alice and Bob both start with a shared OTP $P_0$, which is 256-bytes long, and Alice wants to send a 512-byte message, would it be secure to send the first 256 bytes with standard OTP (...
126 views

### Is there any such thing as “proof of location”?

I'm looking for a way for someone to prove to me their geographical location without a trusted third-party. Imagine wanting to prove to someone you're actually physically in a specific place. I'd ...
122 views

### How can I generate a good password from a SHA512 hash?

I have to change local administrator passwords on machines. I don't want to store password in a database. I have to generate a password that I can find later to connect to the machine again. So I ...
65 views

### Is authenticated encryption basically a lockable box?

I recently used a custom construction as a commitment scheme, which was taken from the standard picture you give people while explaining commitment schemes. Basically commitment schemes can be ...
66 views

### How does DPA work on AES?

I am really not much of a crypto guy so I don't really get how a differential power analysis on AES works. Can somebody explain it to me how it basically works?
100 views

### Does authenticated encryption add any protection to a signed digital envelope?

The general scenario of hybrid encryption is to use public key cryptography for the exchange of a one time session key that can be used for the encryption of the plaintext with a symmetric encryption ...
121 views

### Proof that two parties can communicate

Suppose we have three parties, Alice, Bob, and Carol. Alice can receive messages from Bob and Carol individually, but can only send messages to both simultaneously. Additionally, Alice cannot tell if ...
139 views

### Is there a scheme that allows to use RSA based challenge response protocol limited to signing only 8 bytes to create a secure signature of any data?

I have a tiny device that has a challenge-response authentication mechanism where the device signs 8 bytes of any data with it's internal 2048 bit RSA key. I would like to be able to certify any data ...
147 views

### Key exchange using ECDH vs ECIES

I'm a beginner to ECC crypto programming. Does any one explain to me the difference with using ECDH for shared key exchange and use of ECIES by encrypting shared key with the public key of the ...
88 views

### LED cryptography algorithm

I would like to better understand the operation of the LED algorithm, especially the process of substitution and permutation of the blocks and especially the use of the keys in each round. The keys ...
114 views

### Do hand-based hash functions / MACs exist?

Is there research on a hash function or a MAC that can be executed without computers? I know there's a lot of history on hand-based ciphers and the OTP can easily be excecuted by hand. (By using ...
83 views

### How to make PKCS conformation oracle for trying Bleichenbacher’s RSA attack?

I was trying to understand Bleichenbacher’s CCA attack and thought of work it out in python. Can some one throw some light on the the logic behind the oracle used to check PKCS conformation? Will a ...
105 views

### Paillier cryptosystem preserve ordering of sums for two integer sequences

According to Paillier cryptosystem the product of two ciphertexts will decrypt to the sum of their corresponding plaintexts. I have two separate integer sequences X and Y that have same number of ...
133 views

I'm having a hard time understanding why people use constant-time techniques to counter time-attacks, when blinding seems as good and cheaper to implement. Why do people avoid blinding in ECC?
116 views

### Is it possible to combine true streaming with AEAD?

It seems there is a difference between "streaming" in cryptographic sense (as in CTR) and "streaming" in general programming sense (as in "accept a file larger than RAM from socket and save it on ...
233 views

### Definition of the Decryption oracle

In the context of public-key encryption, what would be a formal definition of the decryption oracle? I know the informal definition (i.e., a function that is available to the adversary and that ...
287 views

### Achieving 32-bit verification code with 16-bit CRC? [closed]

I am programming an embedded chip that has a hardware 16-bit CRC module. I have to protect some data bytes $d_0,d_1,...,d_{n-1}$ against corruption caused by sudden loss of power; a 32-bit CRC would ...
222 views

### Smart Card - Entropy during on-board public key generation

I know that some (advanced) smart cards or tokens allow generating key pair directly on the device, but I wonder how the card can gather entropy during the process. Any idea ?
111 views

### Security concern about reducing hash value using modulo operation

As stated in the title, what I am looking for is information about a "technique" that I would like to use in some of my algorithms. Sometimes I need to map a hash function's result into a range of ...
147 views

### How many times can a key be used for HMAC-SHA256 before it needs to be rotated?

If I wanted to use hmac for proving that a value hadn't been tampered with, how many times can I use a key before it needs to be rotated?
268 views

### Real life systems that use concepts of crypto computing [closed]

Are there any working cloud/internet solutions/products that operates on encrypted data such as systems using homomorphic encryption, secure multiparty computation, electronic voting, private ...
202 views

### How can a good pseudo-random number generator be made?

I am trying to make a pseudo-random number generator so that I can use it in a synchronous stream cipher for encrypting plain text. I want it to generate numbers which are as random as possible. What ...
104 views

### Use of ElGamal encryption for signature generation

If RSA (textbook RSA that is) generates a digital signature by using the sender's private key, couldn't any cryptosystem (the only two that come to mind are RSA and ElGamal) capable of asymmetric ...
454 views

### What is the difference between “secp…” and “sect…”?

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommended elliptic curve domain parameters to have names such as “secp…” and “sect…”. For example: “secp224k1” and “sect571k1”. What is ...
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162 views

### What is the technical name for a public key container in DER format?

I have a public key in the following (format-neutral; the type is specified by the DER bytes) format: ...
205 views

### Last Round in DES

I am studying DES for my Cryptoexam .As far as I understood , the initial plaintext is permuted and then the left half is called L0 and Right half is called R0. After that for each round the process ...
598 views

### Why does FIPS 186-4 require specific sizes for keys?

In FIPS 186-4, page 32, about FFC crypto it is required that the length of $p$ will be exactly 1024 bit and the length of $q$ will be exactly 160 bit. Why is the requirement not stated in terms of ...
77 views

### Is using SHA256 to extract entropy from a p-rand nonce a good way to create keying material?

Using $SHA256(N)$, where $N$ is 64 bytes of output from the Microsoft Windows CryptGenRandom function. Are there any known vulnerabilities with using this method to ...
168 views

### Which public key encryption scheme is re-randomizable? How can I re-randomize an encryption scheme?

Which public key encryption scheme is re-randomizable? Is there any library for re-randomizable encryption scheme? If not, how can I re-randomize a given public key encryption scheme? I cannot find ...
92 views

### Question on Waters IBE

I'm reading “Efficient Identity-Based Encryption Without Random Oracles” by Brent Waters. In Page 9, I don't know how ...
209 views

### PBKDF2 Salt and Password Ordering

I am currently reading about PBKDF2, and understand that the salt is used only once, while the password is used multiple times in the computation of the final key (see this question). How would the ...
169 views

### Proving Non-Existence of ECC Backdoors

In light of the NIST Dual EC DRBG scandal, I was intrigued by a NIST slide (slide 9) that said the two points P and Q can be chosen so that the chooser can prove they don't have a backdoor. This ...
243 views

### Regular MACs vs Carter-Wegman MAC

Carter-Wegman MAC variants (VMAC, UMAC etc) are known to be very fast and efficient when compared to MAC algorithms that are based on block ciphers and compression functions (like HMAC, CMAC etc). ...
117 views

### Is this an acceptable All-or-Nothing Transform?

I was thinking about AONTs, and designed the one below, I call it CHANT for Chained-Hash All-or-Nothing Transform; it's my very first shot at something of the sort, and was hoping I could get your ...
159 views

### Indistinguishable encryptions in the presence of an eavesdropper equivalence

I'm trying to prove that definition 5 and definition 6 in this document are equivalent. This is what I've done at the moment: Asume that the scheme has Indistinguishable encryptions in the presence of ...
133 views

### What is the quantum-resistant signature scheme with the smallest signature + pubkey?

After playing cat and mouse with an number of quantum-resistant signature schemes and coming up with nothing with small enough signatures, I'm turning to Crypto.SE. I need a quantum-resistant ...
252 views

### What does it mean for an adversary to run in PPT?

I've been reading this question where a detailed description of mine is given, I've understood that a polynomial-time adversary is an adversary for which the only feasible strategy are those that take ...
238 views

### Using PBKDF2 twice with different argument order

I'm pretty sure this is a really bad approach (in theory), but one of my clients is doing this and I was wondering… How bad it is to perform pbkdf-2 in this way (with 2000 iterations)? ...
151 views

### Twisted curves in protocol

I've come to understand that twisted curves, as for instance defined in the Brainpool specifications, are $F(p)$-isomorphic to their regular $F(p)$ equivalents. So brainpoolP256r1 is isomorphic to ...
183 views

### How to handle the GCD(V,P) != 1 case when doing point addition or point doubling in elliptic curve cryptography

The equation for a finite field Elliptic Curve is of this form: $$y^2 \equiv x^3 + a * x + b \pmod{P}$$ When we do common EC operations like point doubling or point addition we need to calculate the ...
696 views

### Cryptographic hash function for 32-bit length input keys

Since I'm unfamiliar with cryptography area I haven't been able to find cryptographic hash functions for 32 bit integer keys. It seems all such functions (as I saw here) are designed to digest a ...
2k views

### Number of keys when using symmetric and asymmetric encryption?

Quoting part of my homework/assignment: How many keys are required for secure communication among 1000 person if: Symmetric key encryption algorithm is used? Asymmetric key encryption ...
297 views

### Is ISAAC Cipher Cryptographically Secure?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISAAC_(cipher) This question was asked before but the answers seem vague, and I want to know about ISAAC specifically, not ISAAC+. It seems some cryptanalysis was ...
293 views

### Nonlinearity of the J-K Flip Flop

In Encryption Schemes for Computer Confidentiality, Pless describes how to use the J-K flip flop as a nonlinear combiner for linear feedback shift registers. This generator was broken because the J-K ...