# All Questions

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### Byte location of plaintext vs ciphertext when using a block cipher or stream cipher

I know that when you use a stream cipher you are just XOR'ing the plain text with the PRNG stream, such that you know if a specific byte is in position 3 of the plain text it will still be in ...
247 views

### Regarding matsui's Paper on Linear Cryptanalysis of DES

I's going throught the the Paper by Matsui on Linear Cryptanalysis of DES . In that he says $NS_{5}(16,15)=12$ And then in the next paragraph he says considering the expansion and permutation phases ...
3k views

### RSA Proof of Correctness

Can anyone provide an extended (and well explained) proof of correctness of the RSA Algorithm? And why is it needed? I can't say that this or this helped me much, I'd like a more detailed and newbie ...
156 views

### Separate Read and Write Keys in TLS Key Material

Why does the TLS protocol use different symmetric keys for receiving and sending data? Isn't it enough to have a single key used for both reading and writing?
205 views

### Transparent cipher

I'm trying to implement this protocol: Alice has her permanent key $K_1$. She computes $E(K_1, P)$. She wants to share $P$ with Bob, Carol and Dave. For each of them she: 2.1. Generates $K_2$. ...
625 views

### Recovering the key in an ElGamal Signature Scheme variant

From page 318 in Stinson's "Cryptography: Theory and Practice", question 7.3: Suppose that Alice is using ElGamal Signature Scheme. In order to save time in generating >the random numbers k that ...
252 views

### Public Key Encryption with forward secrecy

Is there a known non-trivial system with plausibly secure public key encryption where: 1. $\;\;$ the $\:$ time $\:$ function is efficiently computable 2. $\;\;$ [pubkey,privkey] $\:$ pairs are ...
77 views

### Distributed knowledge problem

I need a way to distribute knowledge among multiple parties - lets start with two. The idea is while the knowledge is originally created by one party I need to transform it into a situation where no ...
374 views

### How are the primes used to generate RSA keys?

I am confused about how keys in RSA asymmetric encryption are generated and what the implications for open communications are. Textbooks say the one-way function is merely two primes (with some ...
727 views

### ECC algorithm pollard's $\rho$ complexity

One of the methods to break a ECDLP is Pollard's rho algorithm. When ECDLP is defined over a finite field $F_p$, and given a relation $S=w.T$, where S and T are a member of $F_p$. Then ECDLP is to ...
796 views

### RC4 : Keystream reconstruction?

First up: it's a step in some challenge found on the Internet, where we get an application and a file. The application must be feed with that file and a password (the password is the flag for the ...
110 views

### Secure Remote Protocol - Are these 2 equations equivalent?

I'm implementing the Secure Remote Protocol that is specified to have this equation for the parameter S, the premaster secret. ...
220 views

### Shannon entropy calculation: is $H(A|R·A) = H(A)$?

Suppose I generate a random $m×m$ matrix $R$, where each of its elements belongs to $\mathbb Z_n$. I ensure that $R$ is invertible in $\mathbb Z_n^{m×m}$. Now I take a non-random $m×m$ ...
215 views

### synchronization of counters in HOTP

How is synchronization of counter values achieved in the HOTP protocol? As I understand it, the server increments its counter value only if a match (of the OTP value) is found. What happens at ...
522 views

### DES Crack simulation

I wish to simulate an implementation of a DES Cracker using verilog. But every paper I read give only abstract hints but no concrete steps or how really to go about it. How is it usually done? For ...
243 views

### AESManaged Trade Compliance Issue in United States

I am currently using AESManaged encryption for my silverlight application. Does AESManaged encryption have a severe trade compliance issue in Bureau of Industry and Security in terms of shipping the ...
1k views

### Cryptanalysis Affine Cipher: Brute-Force Search Vs. Meet-in-the-middle

Affine Cipher: $Enc(x) = (ax + b) \mod m$ $Dec(x) = a^{-1}(x-b) \mod m$ For a brute-force key search, we need to do $a \cdot b$ encryptions in the worst case. For a meet-in-the-middle attack, how ...
551 views

### Is there an effective way for public key generation in homomorphic encryption schemes?

Is there any way to effectively generate valid distributed public key in schemes like ElGamal or Benaloh for a number of participants? There's no need in private keys since there's no intent to ...
51 views

### Zero knowledge-proof for discrete log that is not honest-verifier

Take a cyclic group of prime order. The Schnorr-protocol for proving knowledge of the discrete logarithm of some group element is honest-verifier zero-knowledge, meaning that if the verifier chooses ...
100 views

### What use is the signature without the message under RSA?

Using RSA for signing & verification, is there a way to take a valid signature for an unknown message, and for someone else to generate a valid signature using a different key against the valid ...
69 views

### Is there an existing authorative definition of the cryptographic term 'pepper'

I can attempt to define the term 'pepper' as: In cryptography, a pepper is a something that is added to another value (for example a password) prior to a the value being hashed using a ...
85 views

### Stacked LFSR - why not used?

New to cryptographic, weak in math. I have designed a PRG which consist of 33 LFSR's, each 32 bits wide. I use one of the LFSR's as "selector", using the 5 LSB from this register to select one of ...
32 views

### Discrete log accumulator without pairings

Here $g$ is some fixed generator of a discrete log group. I don't want the group to be bilinear for efficiency and BDH-skepticism reasons. Is anyone aware of a discrete log accumulator? What I mean ...
58 views

### Is this an example of a zero knowlege proof?

My Math Structures professor mentioned the strange concept of a zero knowledge proof to me after class one day, and I decided to do some reading about it. After reading the relatively famous "How to ...
48 views

### Can IGE mode be parallelized?

As far as I know, in IGE mode (infinite garble extension) each block depends on the previous one. In that case, can the encryption be parallelized? Is there some way to do it?
113 views

### What is the advantage of using the socialist millionaire protocol to authenticate vs HMACing some random number?

Say Alice and Bob have a shared secret $s$. Alice and Bob establish an encrypted channel and verify that it hasn't been MitM'ed by exchanging $r_1$ and $r_2$, where $r_1$ and $r_2$ are randomly ...
58 views

### Is format preserving encryption suitable for use with words or names?

Is it possible to use FPE to encrypt names and language words like 'Bob' 'the' 'tree', in order to preserve both length and format (like keeping characters within a certain range like A-Z a-z) The ...
43 views

### Differences between Work Factor and Time Complexity

I am interested to know if work factor means the same thing as time complexity. Quoting Work Factor : Uncovering keys in cryptosystems The Work Factor of a cryptosystem is related to its ...
82 views

### Does key derivation with known parameters add any security?

First up: this is a question about a concept that I try to wrap my head around; it is not about the specific implementation. Anyway… I have the following scenario (simplified to show the problem I ...
155 views

### SHA1 Partial Collision

I'm working on a little python script that reads in two fairly similar English sentences (they're in text files - reading them in) and I'm trying to force a SHA1 partial collision (e.g. first 32 bits ...
86 views

### Definition of the Decryption oracle

In the context of public-key encryption, what would be a formal definition of the decryption oracle? I know the informal definition (i.e., a function that is available to the adversary and that ...
97 views

### Is this a valid “fix” for deterministic encryption in encrypted databases?

It appears (after doing some light research) that for encrypted databases to be practical enough to be usable, deterministic encryption is required, specifically with regard to the type of encryption ...
85 views

### How does BLAKE2 ensure that hash(A) != hash(B) when B = A||0 and both A & B have the same number of blocks?

Suppose I have two arrays : A = a single byte, being zero. B = two bytes, both being zero. B = A||0 (i.e. B starts with A, and differs only by appending a zero byte) BLAKE2(A) != BLAKE2(B) Yet, ...
105 views

### BEAST attack confusion

I understand that BEAST is a CPA using javascript injected onto the browser's webpage. Apparently the thing that BEAST exploits is the fact that the IVs are predictable. What I'm confused about is why ...
66 views

### Encrypting decryption key

What's that property called when a scheme is secure even if you encrypt the decryption key? Some schemes have problems when your plaintext is the decryption key (or just the key if symmetric).
95 views

### Is AES-GCM length extension attack possible using authenticated decryption?

I am looking to encrypt a piece of data using AES-GCM with a full 16-byte GCM Tag and send it over the network using UDP. Is it safe to assume using the AEAD nature of AES-GCM that performing ...
85 views

### How to implement homomorphic multiplication for Elgamal?

I want to add the homomorphic property to Elgamal in libgcrypt. This is the core code I added to the library. ...
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### Use of ElGamal encryption for signature generation

If RSA (textbook RSA that is) generates a digital signature by using the sender's private key, couldn't any cryptosystem (the only two that come to mind are RSA and ElGamal) capable of asymmetric ...
111 views

### Why don't we use bcrypt and scrypt together?

Everyone is comparing bcrypt to scrypt. Bcrypt is proven, lots of cryptoanalysis and no vulnerabilities so far, but uses very low memory. While scrypt uses a lot of memory, but it's too early in its ...
204 views

### What is the difference between “secp…” and “sect…”?

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommended elliptic curve domain parameters to have names such as “secp…” and “sect…”. For example: “secp224k1” and “sect571k1”. What is ...