1
vote
1answer
267 views

What operations are used in symmetric cryptography and why?

In continuation to Why are bitwise rotations used in cryptography?: what other operations are commonly used in symmetric cryptography? Are there particular operations on numbers that are good for ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Best hash size for hash trees

I want to know if having a 8-byte hash value is better than 16-byte hash value for use within hash trees. My mind tells me that the shorter the hash value, the better. But doesn't a smaller hash ...
9
votes
2answers
432 views

Efficient Incremental Updates to Large Merkle Tree

I have a data set with 300 Million entries and every 5 minutes 4000 random entries in this table change. I need to calculate the merkle root on this data set to validate integrity multiple times ...
4
votes
3answers
226 views

What is the purpose of update() in popular hash APIs?

E.g., in Python's hashlib, update() basically merges in string buffer functionality into the object. Several other digest APIs I've seen have this pattern. Considering this adds functionality that ...
8
votes
3answers
365 views

Building a hard to factor number without knowing its factorization

It is possible to find an efficient algorithm for constructing a provably hard to factor number $N$, together with a witness that shows that it is indeed hard to factor. EDIT, since it was not clear: ...
5
votes
1answer
347 views

AES-SIV security

I am invesigating the AES-SIV (rfc 5297) based block cipher. The construction of the S2V is lying on the AES-CMAC and dbl and XOR operation. Given a AAD the size of L and in the 128bit block ...
4
votes
4answers
535 views

Compare two hashes with different salt

I'm storing the salted hash of a credit card number in a database. What I'd like to be able to do is determine if two different entries in the same database correspond to the same credit card. ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

Probability for collisions of a one-way compression function

Given a one-way compression function $h:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m$ and an attacker that picks $x_1 \ldots x_t \in \{0,1\}^n$ (uniformly distributed), I have to show that the probability to find ...
2
votes
1answer
140 views

The probability of finding a limited set of collisions for HMACSHA256

I need some input on the use of HMAC-SHA256 in an open source project, any help appreciated. The problem I'm solving is session fixation. We have a username, for that username we'd like to generate a ...
2
votes
1answer
444 views

Review of AES encryption concept for an open source project

i'm working on an opensource project, A generator for static (html/js), password protected photo galleries. The generator AES 256 encrypts many images with the same key in PyCrypto, and decrypt them ...
3
votes
0answers
55 views

CBC with random prefix but no IV - secure? [duplicate]

I'm looking at a datagram-based protocol that encrypts a payload. The payload is encrypted with AES or blowfish in CBC mode, and the result is then authenticated with a HMAC. To save space, the ...
2
votes
2answers
249 views

plaintext and its encrypted version known [duplicate]

I have a (long) text in two versions, encrypted and plaintext. I think it was encrypted using a substitution cipher method (I'm pretty sure, indeed). I'm not good in this matter, I know little about ...
2
votes
2answers
968 views

How does SafeNet MobilePASS generate passwords?

We use MobilePASS at work but the latest version of the android client seems to be buggy so I wanted to have a go at implementing the algorithm myself. You can download the client to play with here: ...
2
votes
2answers
346 views

Is OpenPGP vulnerable to the “crypto doom principle”?

From reading RFC 2015 (MIME security with PGP), and from looking at the raw format of (GnuPG) encrypted and digitally signed email messages, it seems that first a signature is calculated from the ...
1
vote
0answers
171 views

IV and Headers inside cipher text

I am a bit confused about the use of IV, and key hash. Is the key hash and IV stored inside the headers of the cipher text? Isn't it a security risk to store this header information? By key hash I ...
1
vote
3answers
201 views

Which area of Maths should I pursue?

I would like to know which area of Mathematics would be most beneficial to cryptography. Surely Algebraic Number Theory and maybe to a lesser extend, Elliptic Curves, are closely linked to ...
1
vote
0answers
104 views

Merkle path authentication

In point 4 of the Algorithm 4.2 (Classic Merkle Tree Traversal) of *"Post_Quantum_Cryptography.pdf"* shows *"Stack_h.update(2)"* each stack receives two updates. I am trying understand to understand ...
2
votes
1answer
261 views

Asymmetric format preserving encryption?

I would like to encrypt a string asymmetrically. I would like the ciphertext to be as short as as plaintext. (or shorter) I've read about format preserving encryption functions - are there ...
1
vote
1answer
366 views

Homomorphic Encryption

Homomorphic Encryption (HE) which supports any function on ciphertexts is known as Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), while Partially Homomorphic Encryption (PHE) includes encryption schemes that ...
1
vote
1answer
432 views

Algorithm for proving Carmichael numbers

I have an application for determining if a number is a prime or not, currently I'm getting a random number, then doing the Fermat primality testing to find out if the number is probably prime (so this ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

Selecting bijective functions for permutations

How would one go about selecting an appropriate bijective function for introducing permutations into a cipher or hash? For example, $f(x) = x+1 \space mod \space n$ is a bijective function, but isn't ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

What parts of AES encryption result are safe to pass on the network

I'm using AES to encrypt the message. both sender and receiver know the passphrase, but only sender knows IV and salt I assume that receiver also needs to know IV and salt to decypher text; is it ...
1
vote
1answer
315 views

Four-Square cipher and its keyspace

Am I thinking about this correctly? Consider that the keyspace of the Playfair cipher is equivalent to all permutations of the alphabet, e.g. the number of distinct permutations of 25 objects, and ...
2
votes
1answer
889 views

Creating a PKCS#12 file where public key doesn't match the private key

For testing purpose, I want to create a PKCS#12 file in which the private key doesn't match the certificate. Is there any tool which will help me do this? If I use ...
10
votes
9answers
439 views

Physical analogue for MACs

What would be a good analogue with which to describe Message Authentication Codes to a person who has little to no understanding of cryptography? For instance, a vault is a reasonable analogue for ...
6
votes
1answer
195 views

Difference between actual attacks and theoretical attacks on SHA cryptographic series

Could anyone tell me what the difference is between a THEORETICAL ATTACK (Like the one done on SHA-1) and an actual attack (Like the one done on SHA-0). Is a theoretical attack a proposed method of ...
3
votes
3answers
212 views

Stream cipher with Diffie-Hellman and Cryptographic Hash Function? [duplicate]

I know: Never do your own crypto. But this question is just theoretical. Assume you do a Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange with a server to produce a shared secret $x$. Then use a cryptographic hash ...
1
vote
1answer
152 views

Merkle Signature Generation

In the section 2 (page 42) of the book "Post Quantum Cryptography", it says: Then he generates the one-time signature $\sigma_{\text{OTS}}$ of the digest using the $s$-th one-time signature key ...
-1
votes
1answer
103 views

Why is it said that if we know few bits of pseudo random sequence we can predict the whole of it?

I am new to this cryptography and in the source from which i study it is said that if we know the first few bits of a pseudo random sequence we can predict the whole of it.How is it possible? The ...
2
votes
2answers
175 views

Pseudorandom functions

The usual case to distinguish a pseudorandom function from a random function is to assume that the adversary can choose the plaintext blocks. Is there another case (game) in which the adversary can ...
1
vote
1answer
285 views

RSA padding: what is it and how does that work?

If I am not mistaken, plaintext RSA is not secure. So, I have read that padding and hashing is needed to make the RSA algorithm secure. However, I am confused on what does padding or armoring mean in ...
4
votes
1answer
208 views

AES-CTR with ephemeral keys vs IV

Let's say that we have a key exchange of some sort, which leaves A and B sharing the long-term secret $S$. Then, A and B want to use AES-CTR for the communication, which leaves us with several ...
0
votes
0answers
167 views

How to safely sign a 6 characters String?

I have to decide, whether a document, which I am given, was correctly signed by a private key. my Ideas is to sign the document id using RSA with the private key and to print the following onto the ...
4
votes
0answers
135 views

Do Gap-CDH groups exist?

A Gap-CDH group is such that, given group elements $g, a = g^x, b = g^y$, it is hard to compute $g^{xy}$, but, given a group element $c$, easy to verify if $c = g^{xy}$. While such groups have been ...
2
votes
0answers
90 views

BLS signatures in the G-valued Random Oracle Model

This paper on semi-generic algorithms considers "non-standard properties of the employed hash function". For BLS signatures whose main group is $G$, I'm curious what can be shown when the hash ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Merkle signature + PRNG?

In the section 3 (page 44) of the book "Post Quantum Cryptography", it says: Then each one-time signature key must be generated twice, once for the MSS public key generation and once during the ...
2
votes
1answer
684 views

Is it possible to change PGP / GPG Key Size on an exisiting key?

Is it possible for myself to change the key size (say from 2048 to 4096) on an EXISTING PGP / GPG key, and just republishing that key? Or do I have to generate a new key all together? I want to say ...
4
votes
4answers
643 views

Decrypting files with an unknown method but a known result

I am assuming there is a very simple way of working this out by brute force, but I am not sure if there is a better way. I have a file of data that I wish to get (my data, generated by a machine). ...
1
vote
1answer
115 views

how does https key get shared?

I am only a beginner and doesn't know much about https. I have heard that they uses somekind of a key and is shared between them. If an attacker wishes to attack could he be able to capturebthe key ...
2
votes
1answer
217 views

Are SSL modes with forward secrecy vulnerable to the BEAST attack?

From the original BEAST paper, it seems to me that you need the same session key when encrypting data, so you can check if the original plaintext block is the same as your chosen plaintext (which is ...
7
votes
2answers
642 views

Is FIPS 140-2's “Continuous random number generator test” practical?

Section 4.9.2 of FIPS PUB 140-2 specifies, amongst other things, a "Continuous random number generator test." Here are the relavant bits: If each call to a[n] RNG produces blocks of n bits ...
1
vote
2answers
160 views

Is there a problem with this non-ECDSA message signing?

Is there a problem with signing a message like this? ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Using a Hash as a secure PRNG

I was just looking at some NIST PRNG recommendations, specifically at Hash_DRBG. I read briefly through the algorithm, and even though it is not overly complex, it still seems unnecessary to me. I ...
7
votes
1answer
484 views

Is it possible to actually verify a “sponge function” security claim?

When using a “sponge function” to create a cryptographic hash, we can look at the flat sponge claim, which flattens the claimed success probabilities of all attacks using a single parameter: the ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Decimal point in keyspace notations? (eg 2^54.15)?

I was reading up on CryptoCat's (pretty ridiculous) programming issues and how is dramatically reduced the key search space (link to bug synopsis) One thing that caught my eye was So 2^54.15 ...
-6
votes
2answers
242 views

Snowden Challenge II: Can we solve Snowden challenge quantumly? [closed]

Suppose that tomorrow is July 7, 2050 and Snowden is still stayed in Sheremetyevo airport. Further, let us suppose that quantum computation and quantum commincation are available to everyone, and ...
3
votes
1answer
138 views

How to compute the attacker's probability?

Given a random bit string $R=r_1r_2\cdots r_n$, let us encrypt each bit $c_i=E(r_i,k_i)$ where $k_i$ is taken from the stream of encryption keys. Suppose that an attacker can guess the correct $r_i$ ...
3
votes
1answer
267 views

Relation between attack and attack model for signatures

I would like to know: What is the relationship between an attack and an attack model. For example, let $\Pi$ be the Lamport signature scheme. This signature has it's security based on the one-way ...
2
votes
0answers
143 views

Is this ECC encryption key sharing method okay?

Is this encryption key sharing okay to use? Or is much better to use ECIES? $G$ = base point $a$ = Alice’s private key $b$ = Bob’s private key $A = aG$ = Alice’s public key $B = bG$ = Bob’s public ...
4
votes
6answers
423 views

A block cipher with independent keys for each round

I want to modify a standard block cipher in the following way. I replace each round key by a key picked at random. Is this block cipher as secure as the original one ? Thank you. EDIT Some missing ...

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