# All Questions

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### Find a polynomial time algorithm for the following problem

Let $p$ be a prime number and let $c \in \mathbb{Z}_p$ and $e \in (\mathbb{Z}/(p-1))^{\ast}$. Put $c \equiv_p m^e$. Find a polynomial time algorithm that given $p$, $e$, and $c$ will compute $m$. I ...
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### Do all stream ciphers (and AES-128-CTR in particular) produce equal output size as the input size?

I'm particulary interested on knowing if the output of the AES-128-CTR ciphertext is always going to have the same size as the input plaintext, or it could be padded somehow. It seems so from my tests ...
163 views

### Is cryptanalysis of CTB-Locker really impossible?

It seems that CTB-Locker make a lot of victims nowadays, and yet, the full encryption scheme of it is now publicly known [1,2]. Would any of you could find a weakness to exploit in this encryption ...
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### IV's for different AES encryption modes

I wanted to know if my understanding is correct! I have been reading up on aes encryption and modes(specifically CTR and CBC) and it took me sometime to understand the concept of IV. If the IV is ...
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I built a system that allowed users to generate an unlimited number of email addresses. Instead of storing each one in a db, I created addresses dynamically and made the address an hmac signed ...
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### SHA-512 Length Field - What is it?

If I am using SHA-512 on a message and need to determine the padding field and length field, how do I determine the length field? I think I understand the padding, but not the length field. For ...
147 views

### Alternative sources of random numbers

Considering that algorithmic methods for generating unpredictable streams are hard to come by, I've wondered if any of these potential sources are good for making keys, seeds, and the like: stocks, ...
47 views

### How does the attacker include input before compression and encryption in CRIME?

I have read this article about the CRIME attack against TLS and SPDY. The article says that: What is not yet clear is how the attacker is including their input in the source material before it ...
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### Requirement for the exponent generation during DH protocol [duplicate]

The setting is classic DH protocol. Alice computes $A = g^a \bmod p$. Alice then sends $A$ to Bob. Then Bob will send $B = g^b \bmod p$ to Alice. Are there any requirements for the values $a$ and ...
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### Crypto++: How to re-generate pseurandom integers in Crypto++

I'm using Crypto++ to implement my protocol to mask a value $y_i$ by a seudorandom value $r_i$ such that $m_i=y_i \cdot r_i$. Since there are many $r_i$'s I want to generate them using PRG and then ...
134 views

### Evaluating Algebraic Complexity of a S-box

While studying the design and the desirable properties of an AES S-box , I came to know that Algebraic Complexity is also an important property of an S-box which is usually considered while evaluating ...
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### Counter Mode (CTR) and mult-CPA

I am not sure if Counter Mode (CTR) encryption is mult-CPA (chosen-plaintext attack) secure or not.
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### How to accurately calculate Unicity Distance for English?

The Unicity Distance for the DES cipher is around $8.6$ characters, and can be calculated using the $U=H(k)/D$ formula, where $D = R - r$, and where $R = 8$ is the number of bits in a byte (ASCII is 7 ...
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### Factoring two RSA modulus with known $|p_1 - p_2| < \ell$

I have two 1024bit RSA modulus $N_1 = p_1q_1$ and $N_2 = p_2q_2$ such that $0 <|p_1 - p_2| < \ell$, and $\ell$ is at most 64bit integer. Can I factorise $N_1$ and $N_2$? What's the answer when ...
208 views

### Anonymous Gravatar Problem

Gravatar is a service that serves avatars for users based on md5(email_address). The hash is embedded on websites, so it's public. One of the problems with this ...
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### Hashing - Digital Signing and Trivial Stretching

Two very basic questions: 1. Digital Signing Why is it not possible to just simply replace the hash value from the request? Examples: ...
146 views

### Symmetric mutual authentication with client using a derived secret

I'm attempting to find a client/server authentication protocol that allows the client and server to authenticate each other when the client doesn't know the server secret but does have a sensitive key ...
145 views

### Which characters to take into account when calculating unicity distance?

I need to calculate the unicity distance of a block cipher. Assuming I know that the plaintext is an English message I considered using 53 as the size of the alphabet, since the message could contain ...
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### Explanation of each of the parameters used in ECC

I'm having a very difficult time finding a clear explanation of the parameters used elliptic curve cryptography. I know for certain that $p$ is the number or order or whatever of the given field that ...
91 views

### Java RSA Padding: no libraries used

I'm trying to implement RSA without using any java libraries using the algorithm from wikipedia HERE So, anyone can clearly see that it is a raw RSA, and can directly be attacked. The question is ...
111 views

### Is Pseudo-Random Generator (PRG) in OpenSSL uniformly distributed?

I need to know can we use PRG of OpenSSL as a PRF?
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### Text in random image encoder: is it flawed?

I have created a small cryptographic programme: You input your text A random image is generated Random coordinate pairs in number equal to the chars of the message are generated. The red component ...