# All Questions

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### Attack on a key-exchange,symmetric-key cryptography protocol

This is an exam question in Oxford 's Computer Security course: Here is the start of a protocol, based on a long-term secret key $k_{AB}$ previously shared between Alice and Bob, designed to offer ...
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### Modulo properties of two prime numbers

I am supposed to prove that x = y mod (p*q) <=> x = y mod p and x = y mod q with p and q are prime numbers. It somewhat sounds reasonable to me, but unfortunately I don't have any clue how to prove ...
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### Encryption time in ECC

In RSA, encryption time is usually much less than decryption time due to having a small public exponent. Can this be achieved in Elliptic Curve Crypto (ECC)?
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### How does this SSL-related flaw work?

I just saw a video at CNN in which it is claimed that, if the server isn't generating a random public key, the server can be hacked. First how HTTPS works… to be sure I’m on the same page: Server ...
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### Understanding math behind RSA key derivation [duplicate]

I was reading through the key derivation for RSA. Here are the steps per wiki - Select strong primes $p$ and $q$ such that $pq = n$ $\phi(n)$ = $(p-1)(q-1)$ select $e$ such that $e$ and $\phi(n)$ ...
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### Security assessment between $g^{a_ix_i+r_i}$ and $g^{x_i+r_i}$ [closed]

Imagine a tagging system whose security requirements imply to learn nothing from the tag about the encoded value. We consider a plaintext space $X \in \mathbb{Z}_p$ and a group $\mathbb{G}$ where ...
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### How exactly are PRNG's used to encrypt material, and what makes one any more secure than the other?

I hope my question isn't as lazy as the title indicates. What I want to ask is how people literally integrate a PRNG with encrypting material. I wrote a silly little script in Python a while back ...
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### Breaking RSA when some bits of one prime are known

RSA primes are 100 bit. You know first 80 bits of one of the primes. In this system, come up with an efficient way to decrypt the cipher-text. This was the question on my quiz. I'm not sure how ...
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### Initialize the eight working variables SHA256

I have a little confusion in understanding explanation of SHA256 by FIPS a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h are being initialized as (this is what i don't understand) 2 . ...
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### How to retrieve the plaintext of a substitution ciphertext?

So the other day, I was piqued by a ciphertext that was trivially encoded through substitution. Solvable only because we can use our eyes to determine word boundary word detection, etc. Trawling the ...
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### On modeling a random oracle hash function which maps $\mathbb{G}_1 \rightarrow \mathbb{G}_2$

How can one model a random oracle hash function which maps $\mathbb{G}_1 \rightarrow \mathbb{G}_2$? (Assume $\mathbb{G}_1$ and $\mathbb{G}_2$ to be additive and multiplicative groups of prime order ...
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### How is an X.509 public key used for TLS?

Wikipedia's TLS article says: The client responds with a ClientKeyExchange message, which may contain a PreMasterSecret, public key, or nothing. (Again, this depends on the selected cipher.) This ...
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### Can 64-bit “PRINCEcore” practically be brute forced?

There is a cipher called PRINCE proposed in ASIACRYPT two years ago. See the paper: “PRINCE – A Low-latency Block Cipher for Pervasive Computing Applications” The cipher divides the 128-bit key into ...
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### How do you test the security of your cipher? [closed]

I got asked this question and I didn't know what to answer. How do you test the security of your cipher? What comes to my mind now would be to test it with famous attacks: padding attacks, ...
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### Why does knowing the number of points on a curve help solve ECCDLP?

Perhaps, this is a really obvious question, but I am still having trouble understanding how this all fits together. Why is knowing the number of points on an Elliptic Curve helpful in cracking it? ...
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### What's the entropy of the output for Tiger Encryption?

I'm tasked to apply tiger encryption to my string(key). Does anyone have any idea how to find the entropy of the hex output by tiger encryption?
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### Using beginning of TLS ecnrypted data to reveal secret [duplicate]

I have the following question about TLS security: Assume TLS-PSK protected HTTP with AES256-CBC cipher. When a TLS connection is established, client sends some encrypted data, where the plaintext is ...
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### Key construction in the Full Cramer-Shoup cryptosystem

The Full Cramer-Shoup Encryption scheme needs to choose six random numbers from $\mathbb{Z}_q$, which we denote them by $x_1,x_2,y_1,y_2,z_1,z_2$. Then the scheme hides these random numbers in the ...
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### Is a tweakable block cipher still considered deterministic in nature?

"a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key. - Wikipedia " But with a ...
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### Showing that security of a elgamal invariant is insecure

Original Elgamal signature is defined $S(m, \alpha) = (r, s)$, where $$r = g^k \bmod p$$ $$s = (m – r*α)k^{-1} \bmod (p – 1)$$ more information on Elgamal signature can be found here. Variant ...
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### Difference between plain AES CTR and “CCM-style” CTR

I am trying to adapt the following function from SJCL, which does "AES-CCM" style CTR encryption, to do "pure CTR" encryption. I am playing around with SIV and would rather use this well-reviewed ...
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### Secret Sharing 1 Required

Devise a scheme so that a message M can be shared among X, Y and Z in such a say that the only way of recovering the message is when X is present with either Y or Z. When X isn't present or each is ...
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### How do I create a short signature? (e.g. less than 100 bytes)

I want to put information into a QR code and have it signed so that the authenticity of the information can be verified. But QR codes have limited storage capacity and when I used e.g. gpg I get ...
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### Hash function and outputs of arbitrary length

I know that Skein can output a digest of arbitrary size, with a kind of counter mode. Blocks of the resulting digest can be computed in parallel. What about Keccak ? I know that a sponge function can ...
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### How to solve custom made ciphers? [closed]

How would you go about solving basic custom made ciphers - e.g. one generated from this website http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Custom-Cipher-Carefully? This is solving it without knowing the method ...
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### Distinguishing Attack on CBC-MACs

I want to ask again about distinguishing attack on CBC MAC, based on the paper published by Ketting Jia, Xiaoyun Wang, Zheng Yuan, and Guangwu Xu: Distinguishing Attack and Second-Preimage Attack on ...
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### Can a monoalphabetic substitution cipher attain perfect secrecy?

Can a monoalphabetic substitution cipher attain perfect secrecy? Definition of perfect secrecy: $${\rm Pr}[\,{\rm Enc}_k(m_1) = c\,] = {\rm Pr}[\,{\rm Enc}_k(m_2) = c\,]$$
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### Finding an x such that xP = (11,44) on an elliptic curve

Given the elliptic curve $$E:y^2 = x^3+17x+5 \mod 59$$ with point $P = (4,14)$, how do I find $x$ such that compute $x\cdot P = (11,44)$ Is there a mathematical method to compute $x$, or do I ...
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### why inverse in diffie-hellman protocol will not give same value?

Security of diffie hellman protocol is $K=g^{ab}$.if sender want to calculate value of $b$(given $a$) he can do $g^{{{ab}^b}^{-1}}$(where K=$g^{ab}$) which will give $g^{a}$ as we are cancelling value ...
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### Can I use asymmetric encryption for more powerful write-protection?

I have a game that I am developing which uses a locally-stored internal database. It does not matter to me whether a user can read the file (which, to me, means I don't need a symmetric cipher), but I ...
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### Check the validity of a rsa key pair with only the public key? [duplicate]

I am currently developing a messaging application that uses rsa end to end encryption. The client generates permanent rsa keys, and sends the public key to my server for account management. As it ...
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### Necessity of changing $p$ and $q$ when your private key is exposed?

Suppose your private key $d_1$ has been exposed. Instead of changing $p$ and $q$, instead you just choose a new public and private key (say $e_2$ and $d_2$) and use these instead. What kinds of ...
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### Homomorphic crypto allowing anonymous yes/no votes?

I'd need a crypto system allowing online yes/no votes but without revealing who voted what. Is a "partial" homomorphic crypto system what I'm after? Would, for example, Damgard-Jurik work in my case? ...
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### Non-interactive Zero-knowledge proof signature validation without public key

I'm looking for a method for a scenario with following requirements: At least 3 people (A,B,C,...) are in a Network where they can broadcast messages to everyone but not communicate with a specific ...
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### Exercise: Attack on a Two-Round DES Cipher

Working through the exercises in Cryptography Engineering (Schneier, Ferguson & Kohno) I have stalled on the following exercise: Consider a new block cipher, DES2, that consists only of two ...
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### Is there a method to combine encryption and ring signing?

There's the well-known question on whether to sign or encrypt first. However, if instead a message is to be ring-signed such that either recipient could be the actual signer, is there any scheme that ...
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### If its possible to derive the public key from a private key, why can't we go in reverse?

I'm looking at source code for BitcoinJ that derives a public key from the private key. ...
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### Current standard for hash function security parameter?

When designing a hash function, what should be the secure input and output lengths? In particular, what lengths do I need for collision resistance?
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### Generating Diffie-Hellman parameters efficiently

I am working on an Android project for school and I am supposed to do a DHKE (Diffie Hellman Key Exchange). Everything works well. The problem is that it takes a lot of time (really a lot) to ...
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### What are some restrictions when converting Montgomery Curves into Weierstrass Curves?

I want to represent a Montgomery Curve (curve25519) in Weierstrass form as a personal exercise. After doing some math and referencing the conversion equation at ...
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### Why does a one-time-pad key have to be at least as long as a message? [closed]

I am studying one time pad and find it hard to understand. What happens if the key is one bit or 100 bits shorter than the message?
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### Is it ok to send part of digital signature if we have bandwidth constraints?

When creating digital signatures is it ok to send part of it when we have bandwidth constraints?
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### How is HKDF-Expand better than a simple hash?

Why do we need HKDF-Expand if we can simply hash the pseudorandom key to make it longer? The docs (in the link) say: The second stage "expands" the pseudorandom key to the desired length... ...
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### Derive both MAC and AES keys from same PBKDF2?

When doing password-based encryption, is it OK to create one instance of PBKDF2 from the password, and then use it to create both the AES key and the MAC key? (Or should a new instance of PBKDF2 be ...