1
vote
1answer
216 views

Problem with testing MD5 collisions

I am trying to test MD5 collisions presented in “Collisions for Hash Functions MD4, MD5, HAVA” (PDF) by Xiaoyun Wang, Dengguo Feng, Xuejia Lai, Hongbo Yu; 2004. I wrote a PHP script to test it, but ...
1
vote
2answers
94 views
2
votes
2answers
141 views

Do all attacks against PKCS1 v1.5 encryption require an oracle

As far as I know, all attacks against RSA PKCS1 v1.5 require an oracle; is that true? Or are there any other attacks against it which are able to break it without an oracle? Background: I need to ...
0
votes
1answer
84 views

Working on subgroup of $\mathbb{Z}^*_p$ in practice

It is said that, given a group $\mathbb{Z}^*_p$, we can always have a subgroup whose order is prime. To this end, for a safe prime $p=2q+1$, compute $x_i^2 \bmod p$ for all $x_i \in \mathbb{Z}^*_p$. ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Question on Miller's algorithm (change the input m)

From the book titled " An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography" (Chapter 5,page 322), we know that the miller's algorithm returns a function $f_P$ whose divisor satisfies $$div(f_P) =m[P]-[mP]-(...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Question about keyed hash functions

Maybe the answer to my question is obvious, but I have doubt... I have noticed that hash functions are studied in two forms, keyed hash functions or unkeyed. In general, lecture notes present hash ...
2
votes
2answers
761 views

I hashed my bag and in it I put… “Is there a hash for unordered items?”

(By items I mean hashable objects.) As an example (with obviously way too short hashes for readability), say I packed my bag and in it I put a shovel (hashed to S)...
2
votes
1answer
188 views

Why is a Feistel network bijective?

EDIT: Fixed for clarity of intention I was reading "The FFX Mode of Operation for Format-Preserving Encryption" when I came across Figure 1 (see below). It's obvious why it's reversible (top-down ...
4
votes
1answer
113 views

Parallel authentication of encrypted data. What AE type to choose?

I've got a system with a slow data transfer channel. Transferring a message through several channels does increase the transfer speed significatnly. AES-CBC+HMAC is good except that verifying the MAC ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Meaning of pseudocode “$(C, S):=$”

I've seen pseudocode of this form in the Montgomery Multiplication related theses: $(C, S) := a[j]*b[0]+C$. What's the meaning of "$(C, S):=$", or what is the real code that converted from this ...
4
votes
3answers
207 views

Reasons for components of AES

I started reading "Cryptography: theory and practice" by Stinson, and I am trying to understand the reason behind the choices for the different components of AES since they seem quite arbitrary. In ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Does anyone still use BAN or GNY logic in practice?

I want to implement a simple protocol, and I'd like to verify it through BAN or GNY logic. I would assume that if these logics are still used that there would be some programs available that would ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Does XTS provide random write access?

I'm trying to find a sufficient encryption mode that supports random read and write access. It seems like XTS is a perfect fit, since in my use case authentication and integrity insurance are handled ...
6
votes
3answers
428 views

Can passwords be stored securely so that a similarity comparison can be made?

On the Pro Webmasters StackExchange site, someone asked a question about a webapp (in this case cPanel) that refused to allow a password change because it was too similar to a previous password. I ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

RSA: If I sign the same digest with same key twice, will the signatures be identical? [duplicate]

If I don't have public keys to verify the signature, can I use this to discover that two signing services are using the same key? Can you send a reference?
1
vote
1answer
165 views

What is a man-in-the-middle attack (for instance in Diffie-Hellman)?

I'm new to cryptography and I just started learning about the Diffie-Hellman key agreement. I read that this system is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack when used alone. What kind of attack is ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

One-one correspondance complete function

I am reading the paper by John B. Kam and Georges I. Davida (1979) titled Structured Design of Substitution-Permutation Encryption Networks. On page 749 it reads ...
4
votes
1answer
244 views

Will hashing over and over eventually give the same hash?

There are many cases in maths where doing the same thing over and over again will bring you closer to a value. Derivation of polynomials is the striking example: no matter what you start with, you end ...
5
votes
2answers
336 views

Encryption of small messages

Some time ago, I asked how to encrypt small messages like e.g., four decimal digit numbers (banking PINs). I've got my answer, but also a warning like it makes no sense as it's easy to guess: Even ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why should the input value on a DPA attack be non-constant?

I actually was wondering if anyone could help me out with the following problem: Let's assume we are attacking the first SubBytes() operation on AES with the help ...
3
votes
2answers
133 views

Does authenticated encryption add any protection to a signed digital envelope?

The general scenario of hybrid encryption is to use public key cryptography for the exchange of a one time session key that can be used for the encryption of the plaintext with a symmetric encryption ...
10
votes
4answers
2k views

Is the one-time-pad a secure system according to modern definitions?

Occasionally I hear people say that one-time pads are "useless" or even "broken". "modern cryptography knows more security definitions, under some of which the one-time pad is completely broken."...
6
votes
6answers
3k views

Relative security of a Vigenère cipher

Within a closed computer network, I am ciphering some plaintext data as an added security measure. This is below several other layers of protection. For various technical reasons, I am restricted to ...
3
votes
1answer
233 views

How often does RSA-OAEP have a leading zero?

We are working with a third party vendor who is very tight lipped about their security protocols, and one of our customers who used this vendor's products is claiming that approximately one in every ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Creating a license system based on asymmetric encryption (RSA or ECDSA)

I’ve spent a couple of days researching the topic of creating a license system for my desktop software. While I fully understand that there’s no perfect copy protection, this approach seems to have ...
3
votes
3answers
248 views

A specific way for deniable encryption

I read the summary of deniable encryption on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deniable_encryption Then I read a question, by doom123 on security.SE: https:/...
2
votes
5answers
3k views

“123456” and “password” as crack standards

I know that when we encrypt, we use standard encryption technologies and to store data it's often stored as a hash. By encrypting a common password, for example "password" using ...
1
vote
1answer
538 views

Suggestion : CRC vs SHA1

I need some suggestions about the use of the CRC in my application. I need to be sure about the BIOS run by the CPU. I have a FPGA between the BIOS flash and the CPU that sniff every read performed by ...
2
votes
3answers
66 views

Frequency tables for HTML page source

Are there online resources with an ASCII character frequency table for HTML? There's tons of them for english, but I can't seem to find one for page source. I know that this is something that's ...
1
vote
3answers
178 views

DH and PKI for KeyExchange

My question is fairly simple. I have more than two nodes which needs to communicate very efficiently from computational point of view. One of the nodes can become a coordinator between the nodes. ...
0
votes
1answer
167 views

ElGamal scheme attack when one message is known and ciphertexts are intercepted

Let $G$ be a finite cyclic group of order $p$ and let $pk = (g, h=g^a)$ and $sk=(g,a)$ be Bob's ElGamal public/secret key pair in $G$. To encrypt a message $m$, a random number $r$ is selected and a ...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

Simulation aborted because the adversary doesn't use the random oracle

I'm trying to construct a proof for an encryption scheme in the Random Oracle model. This encryption scheme is like a PKE scheme but with an additional function that kind of "alters" ciphertexts ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

RSA function over $Z_t^{*}$ where $t$ is prime

RSA function is defined over $Z_N^{*}$ where $N=pq$ with $p,q$ primes. A public key is a pair $(N,e)$ and a private key is $(N,d)$ where $d=e^{-1} \mod \phi(N)$. Assume that RSA function is defined ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Interesting malleability property of Goldwasser-Micali PKC

GM is a cryptosystem with a modulus $N = pq$ ($p$, $q$ prime) and quadratic nonresidue $r \in (\Bbb Z / N\Bbb Z)^*$ as the public key. You can see the details on Wikipedia. Anyway, let's say that $N &...
4
votes
2answers
197 views

Power analysis and exponentiation by squaring

I am trying to understand how one can retrieve the secret exponent via a simple power analysis. Lets suppose that the exponentiation by squaring algorithm is implemented in its simplest form : ...
7
votes
2answers
14k views

How much computing resource is required to brute-force RSA?

It's been over 30 years since Rivest, Shamir and Adleman first publicly described their algorithm for public-key cryptography; and the intelligence community is thought to have known about it for ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Are covert and rational adversaries same?

Aumann and Lindell defined covert adversaries in 2009 which is informally adversaries which have a epsilon-deterrence to cheat. Some authors (for ex. John R. Wallrabenstein) have defined similar ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

Ring signatures in ECC

Are ring signatures possible with elliptic curves? If so how. The original paper by Rivest, Shamir, Tauman seems to require an invertible trapdoor function. But I've only seen algorithms for secret ...
1
vote
1answer
261 views

Collision attacks on digital signatures

After reading this document about MD5 collision attacks, I still don't understand how collisions can make digital signatures insecure. In the paper, the researchers created two files with the same ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Proving membership of a group without revealing identity

I have an interesting problem for which I've failed, so far, to find an elegant solution. Imagine that a user needs to repeatedly prove to public observers that they are a member of a trusted set ...
-1
votes
1answer
136 views

Double the key in block cipher - which approach is better?

Assume than you have a block cipher $E(k,m)$ for which the only attack exists has complexity of $2^{64}$. You consider to double the key size by either: $E'_1(k_1,k_2) := k_1 \oplus E(k_2,m)$ $E'_2(...
2
votes
1answer
235 views

Extracting a WinRAR password

If I have an original file and a WinRAR password protected .rar file containing that file, than can I extract the password?
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Fast mental encryption algorithm? [duplicate]

Are there any algorithms that exist to encode messages written with pen and paper such that the messages can be encrypted/decrypted mentally? For example, Bob thinks of the text "This is my plaintext",...
0
votes
1answer
659 views

How many attempts does it take to crack a 32-bit password hash with this scenario?

How many attempts does it take to crack (match) a 32-bit password hash from a database of 4 million password hashes? Correct me if I'm wrong, but to crack a 32-bit password hash would take roughly 2^...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Ideas for non duplicate cryptographically secure numbers

My Boss asked me this today. I am not a math major. He needs to generate 50 billion non-sequential non-duplicate (no collisions) cryptographically secure random numbers. I work in GO. Any ideas?
5
votes
1answer
212 views

EdDSA Signature Algorithm - hash of secret key

Why does EdDSA use the (SHA512) hash of the secret key as the exponent for the public key rather than using the secret key value directly? This seems inefficient and I can't see how it adds any extra ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Partial Homomorphic Schemes that are probabilistic

As mentioned in wikipedia there are many Partial Homomorphic Encryption(PHE) scheme like RSA, Elgamal, Pailler etc. Pailler encryption scheme seems to be probabilistic Are there any other PHE ...
2
votes
3answers
502 views

Key derivation of public key without knowledge of private key

I'm looking for a convenient way to share a set of public keys across multiple services, while preserving privacy by preventing these services from tying the identity of these public key sets together ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

How to select parameters based on some condition

I am implementing a protocol for authentication where parameters need to be selected with $gcd(\mu,\phi)=1$ where $\phi=(p−1)(q−1)$. What is the best way to select the parameters while implementing
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Forgery attack on OCB

When using same nonce in OCB mode of authenticated encryption, how forgery attack can be done?

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