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1answer
260 views

modulo operations in crypto algorithms

Am not a mathematician. Every crypto specification I see uses the modulo operation. For example RSA - If $e$ is the public key and $m$ is the plaintext with a modulus $n$ - the cipher text is $c = ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is Triple DES not vulnerable to meet in the middle attacks?

Consider the Triple DES encryption calculated as: $$C= E_{K_1}(D_{K_2}(E_{K_1}(P))).$$ For a chosen plaintext attack, given plaintext $P$, we compute the result of $D_{K_2}(E_{K_1}(P))$ and store ...
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3answers
109 views

About using mistakes as part of a code

Could a code be developed where one uses intentional errors say in english, as a text to encode? For example someone might have a message 'Agent X must report to station 5'. This could be distorted ...
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2answers
1k views

Why do some block cipher modes of operation only use encryption while others use both encryption and decryption?

In Chapter 6, Question 6.8, of his book “Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practices”, William Stalling asks: Why do some block cipher modes of operation only use encryption while ...
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2answers
251 views

Wrong Test Vector for HKDF with HMAC-SHA256 [closed]

I have implemented HKDF by myself and it seems to work good. I managed to replicate all the test vectors listed here but... except this one: ...
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1answer
167 views

Encrypting the same message using different schemes

$E_1$ and $E_2$ are IND-CPA secure encryption schemes. $E$ is defined as: $k_1,k_2 \leftarrow K_1 \times K_2$ . $E_{k_1,k_2}(m) \leftarrow E_{1,k_1}(m)||E_{2,k_2}(m)$. Hope the notations are in an ...
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1answer
80 views

How does the key size per data bit influence the security?

The likelihood of breaking, for instance, an AES-128 cipher is 100% after $2^{128}$ tries in brute force, meaning that I've got to try $2^{128}$ keys to certainly break it. What if I (hypothetically) ...
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2answers
170 views

64 bit Elliptic Curve key?

For a simple proof of concept project i'm (attempting!) to do, i've started looking into openSSL elliptic curve cryptography. However instead of the standard key lengths, 160-512. I'm interested in ...
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4answers
1k views

How does TLS generate the shared secret?

From many readings, I got to know that TLS generates master shared secrets using pre-master keys and uses the DH algorithm to generate the shared secret/Master secret. What values during the hello ...
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1answer
94 views

Does a cofactor of an elliptic curve have to be an integer?

What are the implications of a curve having a non-integer co-factor for its generator point? Is that even possible?
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1answer
407 views

Encrypting firmware with AES and no IV [closed]

I have an embedded device with a AES CBC engine on it that is used to ensure the integrity of the firmware. I know that CBC mode requires unique IVs to be any good, but I'm unsure if it makes a large ...
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1answer
241 views

Hash 22 byte secret into 512 bit hash: Full entropy?

Does it make sense to hash a 22 byte secret (which may not have full entropy since it is chosen by the user) into a 512 bit hash (using Keccak-512)? More precisely, will the 512 bit hash have full ...
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1answer
140 views

Decryption honeypots

When performing a key search, I've always wondered how you reliably detect a successful decryption once you hit the right key. I assume that you have to analyze the data and look for patterns: words, ...
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2answers
379 views

Where is my private key stored when I communicate to a website that uses SSL/TLS?

If I communicate with a website that uses SSL/TLS, my browser will generate a private key. Would the browser store that key on the hard disk or would store just it in the RAM?
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1answer
549 views

Pollard’s Rho Method

I can't get my head around Pollard’s Rho Method for solving discrate log problem I have read in a book: The basic idea is to pseudorandomly generate group elements of the form α^i · β^j ...
1
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1answer
199 views

Outsourcing arbitrary computations securely

Consider the following scheme. Alice wants Bob to make some computations for her, but she doesn't want to reveal the data on which he's going to do it. So, she encrypts the data, sends them to Bob, he ...
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2answers
339 views

How does Google's “authenticator number generator” work?

I have two-factor authentication enabled on my Google account, and I have this app on my phone which generates a number I have to type when I'm logging in to Google-Mail. But I don't understand how ...
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1answer
729 views

Why does plain RSA not work with big messages ($m>n$)?

From what I can remember, RSA is something like this: Generate 2 distinct prime numbers $p$ and $q$ that have similar bit length. Compute $n=pq$ and $\phi(n)=(p-1)(q-1)$ Compute $e$ such that ...
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1answer
141 views

Encrypted query parameters via HMAC

I have an unsubscribe link, which needs to be passed a customer id, and a product id, producing a query string something like: ?cid=100&pid=2 I would like to ...
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1answer
124 views

How to design a secure data container?

I want to design a secure data container that can be used to transfer encrypted data over a public network that can defeat common attacks. Data is already encrypted before entering this container so ...
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1answer
124 views

Are there any practical examples of breaking a system using linear attacks?

I've read some papers about linear cryptanalysis. But since I am going to give a lecture about it I am looking for an example of breaking a system using this attack. Is there such an example ...
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3answers
766 views

Estimating random number entropy for input into 256 bit hash

Assuming a random number generation process outputs lots of numbers between 0-9. First I gathered up a bunch of the numbers, converted them to binary and created a bitmap. Not so random as you can ...
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2answers
546 views

garbled circuit vs fully homomorphic encryption

Consider an outsourced database to an untrusted cloud (think CryptDb), the question is how to compute a function $f(.)$ on the data. I think I understand how (fully or partially) homomorphic ...
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2answers
4k views

How does GCM (Galois/Counter Mode) work? [closed]

Can somebody explain how this mode works? What view has cipher text and how does it help to authenticate input’s data?
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2answers
216 views

What is the intuition behind AES or SPN?

I'm new to cryptography and have just encountered AES and SPN. I would like to know how the S-box, permutation step and the MixColumn step help improve security. It seems to me (perhaps mistakenly) ...
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2answers
437 views

What are requirements for this grille?

I'm trying to program a Cardan grille, but I can't find requirements for grille. In my case, grille is square matrix A with $N$ x $N$ size, and elements are $0$ or $1$ (where $1$ means that it is ...
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1answer
110 views

Is there a developer's resource that ties encryption methods and strengths to the appropriate usage scenarios?

I'm not looking necessarily for implementations in any language (although it would help to list those resources as well), but what I am most interested in is a discussion of what advantages and ...
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1answer
545 views

RSA Decryption with Private Key but no public exponent

I manually set the RSA private key, given the private exponent and modulus. When I use this key to decrypt a message encrypted using a public key (also set with public exponent and modulus) seems to ...
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1answer
281 views

Does CBC encryption of a hash provide authenticity?

Given a message $M$ and a cryptographic hash function $H$, let $f(M) = E_K(M || H(M))$ where $E_K$ is AES-128-CBC encryption with PKCS#5 padding. Take $H = \textrm{SHA-256}$ if it matters. In other ...
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1answer
213 views

why hash(hash(str)) is bad?

Why do people say that using hash twice or more is bad? yes there is key derivation that do that job, but in a low bandwidth network countries, the solution i see is to use a simple hashing system on ...
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2answers
178 views

Is there a problem with this non-ECDSA message signing?

Is there a problem with signing a message like this? ...
1
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2answers
93 views

Lamport-Diffie + attempting to invert OWF

I am studying Lamport-Diffie signature scheme and in my lecture present the follow algorithm for attempting to invert the one way function $f$, where $f$ is used to compute the public key of this ...
1
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1answer
261 views

How to verify a shared secret using only AES?

I have two devices that need to verify that they both are in possesion of the same secret key. One of the devices is a very limited embedded device that only has AES128 available, no SHA or other hash ...
1
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1answer
324 views

Solving a discrete logarithm using GDlog

I am trying to calculate an $x$, such that $t = g^x \pmod p$ in order to crack a weak ElGamal encryption for university. I found GDlog, but I cant figure out how I can use the input to calculate my ...
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3answers
985 views

Implementing secret reconstruction in Shamir's Secret Sharing

I am trying to implement Shamir's secret sharing in C++. I have got the generation of shares working. However, I am very confused with the reconstruction of shares. I get the part on how three users ...
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1answer
2k views

decryption many time pad [duplicate]

I have eleven ciphertexts that were encrypted with the same key (which I don't know). I want to decrypt the last ciphertext. I read similar question like Many time pad attack but I can't solve my ...
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1answer
122 views

Pseudo Random Generator (PRG) from Rabin function

I'm trying to make a PRG using the Rabin function. The code (in Java) I wrote to implement the function is: ...
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1answer
157 views

Given a certain entrophy per character, how long should a passphrase be to guarantee key strength?

Given an entrophy of 1.5 bits per character, how long does a passphrase have the be to guarantee a key strength of a 128 bit random key? Assuming an alphabet of 26, one character takes log2(26)=4.7 ...
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1answer
829 views

What's the difference between Trapdoor Functions and Encryption Functions?

From Wikipedia: A trapdoor function is a function that is easy to compute in one direction, yet believed to be difficult to compute in the opposite direction (finding its inverse) without ...
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1answer
504 views

Possibility of factorisation of rsa modulus due to vulnerability in java implementation code

Below is my implementation of the RSA algorithm. Actually I'm choosing the private key (d) instead of public key (e) and computing the public key.It is working fine but I want to know if this is a ...
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2answers
477 views

Chosen Plaintext Attacks against an Affine Cipher

Assuming the ability to launch Chosen Plaintext Attacks (CPA), how many oracle calls an attacker needs to break the affine cipher? and how
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1answer
326 views

How to generate a random polynomial of degree $m$?

I am trying to do a homework in which implement a variation of this paper and I don't know how to generate a polynomial of degree $m-1$. This polynomial is used to generate the $y_0$ and $y_1$ values. ...
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2answers
188 views

Where can I learn basic cryptography to know more about passwords and Bitcoin?

Basically my knowledge in passwords consist of setting up a Diceware master password back then, and I know hashes are not convertible back to the original password. Some basic question I want to know ...
1
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1answer
86 views

Tweaking textbook RSA to make the encryption a Pseudorandom function

Lets say I want to tweak/alter the textbook RSA encryption function to create a pseudorandom function by pre-processing the input. Suppose I do something simple like add 2 to the input before ...
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1answer
173 views

Need for Twin Elgamal encryption

What is the need for two private/public keys in twin elgamal? I'm relatively new and would need some help.
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2answers
358 views

Are really, really long passwords any securer than short ones?

Just for fun, I want to encrypt a message that will take about 10 or so years to decrypt. My idea is to encrypt a message with AES-512 with a password one million decimal digits long. Knowing not ...
1
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1answer
3k views

RSA 4096 bit key benchmark

How can I benchmark RSA operations on my computer? I want to know about 4096-bit long keys on general computers. How many encryptions and decryptions are possible per second? All benchmarks I found ...
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1answer
305 views

Does RSA-OEAP have integrity and authenticity properties?

RSA-OAEP is IND-CCA2 secure (indistinguishable under an adaptive chosen ciphertext attack). Does it also have the INT-CTXT (integrity of ciphertext) and INT-PTXT (integrity of plaintext) properties? ...
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2answers
207 views

Pseudorandom generator and AE-secure encryption

How would you answer the following question (I have to translate it from German): The existence of a pseudorandom generator implies the existence of a AE-Secure encryption scheme (AE = ...
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1answer
419 views

Key Scheduling of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)

How to perform the key scheduling in International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), I took a research but I can't understand how to perform it, "further groups of eight keys are created by rotating ...

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