3
votes
1answer
568 views

What is “Blinding” used for in cryptography?

What does "blinding" mean in cryptography, and where do we usually use it? Can you describe a sample implementation?
2
votes
1answer
304 views

Why is RSA usually limited to messages up to 1 block

I'm wondering why RSA encryption usually is only used for messages that fit into one block. For larger messages hybrid encryption in combination with symmetric ciphers like AES seem to be the solution ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Why do all SSH-RSA Keys begin with “AAAAB3NzaC1yc”?

My Friend and I have been generating a few ssh2-rsa keys and noticed that all the public keys began with "AAAAB3NzaC1yc". The similarity extended to "AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEA" between two keys I ...
2
votes
0answers
174 views

Why not use CBC, not send IV, and assume first plaintext block is garbage? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Using CBC with fixed IV Forgive me if this has been asked before, I looked but haven't seen any answers that suit. Is there any danger in using CBC, encrypting a ...
1
vote
2answers
168 views

Where can I learn basic cryptography to know more about passwords and Bitcoin?

Basically my knowledge in passwords consist of setting up a Diceware master password back then, and I know hashes are not convertible back to the original password. Some basic question I want to know ...
3
votes
2answers
315 views

Crypto USB Devices - where is the PIN/Password stored?

I am currently looking at the security of cryto USB drives for storing x509 certificates. I have one in possession currently. It can be read/written to using the Microsoft Crypto APIs. Anytime one ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

Why does WPA-PSK not use Diffie-Hellman key exchange?

Is there a reason, why in pre-shared key mode, Wi-Fi session key is not secured with something like Diffie-Hellman but instead is derived from PSK key and some information exchanged in clear during ...
3
votes
1answer
823 views

Ideal passphrase length: old diceware method (5 words) vs. your Bitcoin wallet.dat passphrase lenght (8 words) and doubling passwords?

I made a cool 5 word passphrase back then using the old Diceware method and use it as a master password. The question is as computing power increases will we need to add more and more words to our ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

How and why can a decryption program tell me that a key is incorrect?

I have noticed that some programs used for file encryption will tell you if an entered key is wrong when you try to decrypt. It seems (to me at least) that this would mean that the key somehow is ...
4
votes
1answer
747 views

What happens if an RSA key pair has identical public and private exponents?

Rather, is it possible for big prime numbers? Classroom examples usually involve smaller primes, so for example if you are given a prime number pair $p = 3$, $q = 13$ you would get $n = 39$ and $e = ...
2
votes
0answers
124 views

Code-breaking software [closed]

Is there any (free) software available to check for standard encryption algorithms such as the Caesar cipher? Advanced encryption algorithms such as RSA, DES, AES, etc. are not necessary.
2
votes
2answers
320 views

Simple homomorphic crypto for 32-bit integers

I'm looking for a simple way to perform homomorphic crypto on 32-bit integers. My only requirement is that I can add and subtract from the plaintext value without actually decrypting it. The crypto ...
2
votes
1answer
354 views

Break double encryption

Let $E_k$ : {0,1}$^l$ be a block cipher encryption function with block-size $l$ and key-length $n$. In class, we saw that a double encryption with two independent keys $E{}'_{k_1k_2}(x)$ = ...
8
votes
2answers
526 views

Why xor the message into the state for sponge hashes?

Sponge hashes like Keccak(SHA-3) and CubeHash, xor a message block into part of the internal state. Why use a reversible operation like xor for that, instead of replacing that part of the state with ...
3
votes
1answer
680 views

Why can't I break ElGamal encryption by brute-forcing the secret exponent?

I am doing a course on cryptography on coursera and one of the topics covered was the ElGamal Encryption system. I am using the terms as defined in Wikipedia. Alice publishes $g$ and $g^x$. ...
2
votes
2answers
139 views

High Power Computing for Crypto Research

Obviously, much of cryptography requires the assumption that adversaries have bounded computing power. So, I was wondering, are there any fields in cryptographic research for which high power ...
0
votes
2answers
376 views

Properties of Ideal Straight P-Boxes

What properties should an ideal straight P-Box exhibit?
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Will length-extension work if secret is not prefixed but appended to the data? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why is h(m||k) insecure? Length-extension allows to append any data to the message while not knowing the secret. Any length-extension explaination one the web considers ...
4
votes
1answer
219 views

Does Grover's algorithm effect block size or only key size?

We know that Grover's algorithm can speed up cracking symmetric keys. Basically the key space is halved. This means we have to use at least a 256 bit key (to get 128 bit security). I heard somewhere ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

Example Rainbow Table Generation

I have read up on rainbow tables and think I understand the idea behind them. However, I find that it would be better for me to actually attempt to implement a (very basic) rainbow table generator in ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

Does the elliptic curve (EC) cryptosystem outperform RSA and DL cryptosystems?

Throughout the literature, it is stated that EC cryptosystems outperform RSA and Discrete logarithm cryptosystems, but I cannot understand how ECC would be more efficient than RSA and DL in terms of ...
5
votes
1answer
340 views

HMAC for short messages

I am using HMAC (hmac-sha256 to be precise) message authentication without encryption. My question is, is having a short message make it easy to determine what my secret key is? My C# code is as ...
2
votes
2answers
712 views

Do known-plaintext attacks exist for public key encryption?

In asymmetric ciphers we publish the public key for anyone, which means an attacker can encrypt any message they want and compare the ciphertext and plaintext without communicating with the owner of ...
10
votes
1answer
6k views

Calculating RSA private exponent when given public exponent and the modulus factors using extended euclid

When given $p = 5, q = 11, N = 55$ and $e = 17$, I'm trying to compute the RSA private key $d$. I can calculate $\varphi(N) = 40$, but my lecturer then says to use the extended Euclidean algorithm to ...
4
votes
0answers
242 views

Odds of false error detection in a randomness test using the chi-squared test?

Common Criteria classifies the requirements for true Random Number Generators, and specifies how these should be tested against failures (these can occur accidentally, or following deliberate attack, ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

What's the strategy for future directions in cryptography? Bigger numbers/faster searching, or new methods, say, of factoring?

I'm taking a course in cryptography, and I would value any comments. This is not too technical a question, but more about directions or strategy in cryptography. My question is, is public key ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Needing to encrypt plain sight information

Okay here are my requirements. I need a solution that can do the following. Lets say I have an encrypted piece of text with the value "20". and I have UserA and UserB I give UserA the Keys (/5 and ...
5
votes
2answers
574 views

Hill cipher, unknown letter value

I've been struggling on this problem for a while now : the Hill cipher is well-known to be vulnerable to known-plaintext attack due to its linearity. Given a key matrix $K$ of size $n\times n$, one ...
2
votes
0answers
375 views

Determining the algorithm used to generate a digital signature

I have a string "abcd pqrs". This string is digitally signed with an X.509 certificate (with its private key) and it produces a signature. From the signed string, is it possible to find out what ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Should I salt an AES password at each encryption?

I saw a sample code where the same password is salted with a different value (using PBKDF2) for each encryption. That means that the salt must be stored for each encrypted message. I don't understand ...
3
votes
3answers
474 views

Searching over encrypted data

Is there any library/tool available which can allow me to search over encrypted data? I would like to encrypt data on client side, send it to cloud and perform search in cloud. I've been reading ...
2
votes
2answers
661 views

Benefit of combining classical substitution ciphers with modern cryptography

I know that a simple monoalphabetic substitution cipher is considered extremely weak, on account of linguistic frequency-analysis attacks. However, assume the following: cleartext is encrypted ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Difference between symmetric and asymmetric hash function?

The Linux kernel supports symmetric and asymmetric hash functions. E.g. sha1, sha256, ... See tcrypt.c and search for test_hash_speed and ...
1
vote
2answers
584 views

What are monotonic and non monotonic access structures in ABE ?

While reading Attribute Based Encryption Schemes, I did not quite understand what a monotonic access structure or non monotonic access structures are. Is there a popular explanation of those terms ? ...
5
votes
3answers
350 views

What do $0^n$ and $1^n$ mean in cryptography?

EDIT : I added more context. Let $f$ = {$f_k$} be a pseudo random function family. Let $G(x)$ be a pseudo-random generator such that: $G(x)$ = $f_x$($0^k$)$f_x$($1^k$) where k=$|x|$ . I don't ...
5
votes
1answer
268 views

DES key expansion: why are these two descriptions different?

I would like someone to explain me how to generate DES subkeys, because in the documentation that I saw, sometimes they say: "We rotate the initial key according to the number of iterations given ...
3
votes
1answer
143 views

efficient authentication with broadcast encryption?

(I am not a crypto expert, so I apologize if the terminology I use is incorrect.) Suppose I have the following simple broadcast encryption scheme for securely sending content to $n$ authorized ...
4
votes
1answer
170 views

Future-Proof Versioning and Validation

I am working on a library (using standard primitives: AES256 CTR; HMAC with SHA256; PBKDF2 with SHA256, 128 bit salt, and 10000 rounds) to encrypt and decrypt data, given a password. The encrypted ...
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Can Add and Multiply On Cipher Text achieve all operations?

A Fully homomorphic encryption scheme needs to support an evaluate function that can do add and multiply operations on cipher text. Can we do all kinds of complex operations on cipher text like ...
1
vote
2answers
538 views

Tools for modelling and analysis of cryptographic protocols

I am designing some cryptographic protocols and I am new to it. Are there any well-known tools that can be used to model and design these protocols? And also verify or analyze their validity? If not ...
15
votes
2answers
3k views

What exactly is a negligible (and non-negligible) function?

The mathematical definition of neglible and non-neglible functions is fairly clear-cut, but why they are important and how they are used in cryptography?
6
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the progress on the MIT LCS35 Time Capsule Crypto-Puzzle?

Ron Rivest posed a puzzle in 1999. MIT LCS35 Time Capsule Crypto-Puzzle. The problem is to compute $2^{2^t} \pmod n$ for specified values of $t$ and $n$. Here $n$ is the product of two large ...
3
votes
3answers
521 views

A proof-of-work random number generation system for Pokémon [closed]

(The original question that was here was considered too confusing, unclear, and rambling. You can still view it in the edit history, but the content is no longer useful by itself, and cannot be ...
6
votes
1answer
328 views

Can a nested block cipher avoid the meet in the middle attack by using a secret initialization vector for the inner encryption?

It seems to be believed that encrypting twice with a block cipher using an independent key each time is not as secure as you might expect because of the "meet in the middle" attack. This is an attack ...
2
votes
2answers
413 views

Why does Fortuna (RNG) require entropy sources to specify accumulator pool?

Re-reading my copy of Cryptography Engineering for the holidays, I was struck by the following question about the Fortuna RNG: Why require an entropy source specify which pool a random event should ...
3
votes
1answer
483 views

Blind quantum computing and fully homomorphic encryption

I am somewhat familiar with current research on fully homomorphic enryption schemes and their possible application to Cloud computing. I've just noticed (somewhat late) that a marketing-savvy group ...
0
votes
1answer
502 views

True 128bit secured password length?

assume we say 128bit keys are secure so a 16 character long password is safe, but if i even use lower case and upper case letters with numbers and special characters on my keyboard its about 80 ...
1
vote
1answer
162 views

What would the Internet be like without public-key cryptography?

The functioning of the Internet as we know it nowadays depends very heavily on public-key cryptography, including several key root systems that depend on its asymmetric properties. But what would it ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

AES-GCM and its IV/nonce value

I was reading about the differences between the GCM and the CBC more here and I have a follow up doubt on the same. In the CBC mode the person who performs the encryption is the one who provides the ...
3
votes
2answers
171 views

Security model for privacy-preserving aggregation scheme.

Suppose that $S=(E,D)$ is an additively homomorphic encryption scheme. Now I want to design a protocol $P$ such that given inputs $x_1,x_2,..,x_n$, the adversary $A$ (who can decrypt) can only learn ...

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