1
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1answer
2k views

How can I implement the “Multiplication Modulo” and “Addition Modulo” operations in IDEA?

I am currently working on IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm), and I don't know how to perform Multiplication Modulo and Addition Modulo. This is how IDEA operates: IDEA operates on ...
1
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1answer
338 views

password entropy calculation

I have the following password with a prescribed format: it starts with a fixed value of 111, followed by 2 random lower case letters and then lastly a random digit: "111""2 Random lowercase ...
1
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1answer
108 views

Using pairings to verify an extended euclidean relation without leaking the values?

Let $P_i(x)$ be polynomials $i=1,...,n$, $s$ some value, and $g$ a generator of a group $G$ where the discrete logarithm is hard. Assume a prover wants to convince a verifier having access to the ...
1
vote
1answer
218 views

Tree hash and multithreading for parallelism

I am using tree hash mode of Skein on a 16 core processor. Will it automatically employ parallelism using more than one cores or do I have to use multi-threading within the tree hash for parallel ...
1
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2answers
415 views

which of these is more secure (bcrypt vs srp)

OK, here's the two different ways I was thinking about making the authentication for the login thing to store the passwords securely. The first is the following. Client hashes password ...
1
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3answers
181 views

verify contents, but not order

Is there an algorithm that can be used to verify the contents of a cyphertext, but not the order of the elements? I am thinking that a deck of cards could be shuffled, and it must be verifiable that ...
1
vote
1answer
802 views

How can the Diffie-Hellman key exchange be extended to three parties? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Can one generalize the Diffie-Hellman key exchange to three or more parties? How can Alice, Bob, and Charlie share a common secret key using an extended version of the ...
1
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1answer
282 views

Blowfish Encryptions in Bcrypt hashing algorithm

I am trying to understand the ExpandKey function used in the bcrypt hashing algorithm. As per the documentation of bcrypt hashing algorithm on USENIX here: ...
1
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1answer
414 views

Recommended Books for Cryptography : Theory and Implementation [closed]

It is a great idea if experts in Cryptography from mathematicians to security engineers introduce books and textbooks which they think is helpful or instructive for all people interested in the ...
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1answer
259 views

Digital Certificate Chain Verification

Does a certificate contain the complete chain of all certificates up to the trusted root certificate, or does the program that verifies certificates have to fetch each parent certificate individually ...
1
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1answer
58 views

Design question for a service that signs messages on behalf of a user

I'm working on a messaging service that lets users author messages and have them signed with an RSA key. The key is used for identity purposes only and can be revoked, so compromising the private key ...
1
vote
1answer
436 views

Deniability of OTR messaging

I've been looking at the off-the-record messaging protocol, and there is something about its deniability property that seems strange to me. Consider the following scenario: In the course of an ...
1
vote
1answer
171 views

Do Quantum Key Distribution and Physical Unclonable Functions combine, and how?

I see there's a project to combine Quantum Key Distribution, Physical Unclonable Functions, and classical crypto, in order to secure a high speed (100Gb/s) optical link. While there does not seem to ...
1
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1answer
1k views

Deciphering a key from XOR encrypted cypher using boolean logic

Assume there's an unencrypted message A, and an encrypted message B. You know that message B was encrypted using a simple XOR method of A with a private key K, resulting in message B. Thus, B = A ⊕ K ...
1
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1answer
476 views

Expectation Value of the Index of Coincidence

Can Anybody tell me why the expectation value of the Index of Coincidence is the following? For a cipher text string of length $L$, where $n$ is the number of alphabet characters, $k_r = 1/n$, and ...
1
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1answer
2k views

Use of nonces in Kerberos and Needham–Schroeder protocols

Can you please explain me what is the reason of using nonces in the Needham-Schroeder and in the Kerberos protocols for Key Transport. In particular : Can you explain me the use of $N_A$? And ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Incorporating known ciphertext into new message

Which ciphers $c_k$ enable one to define a joining function $f_{c,k}$ such that: $$ f_{c,k}(c_k(p_1), p_2) = c_k(p_1 + p_2) $$ That is, the result of joining some known ciphertext $c_k(p_1)$ with a ...
1
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1answer
456 views

How to represent a 32-byte SHA2 hash in the shortest possible string?

I'm calculating a SHA2 hash of a certain sensitive key value. I need to store files on disk using this hash a directory path prefix. So lets say I hash the key value 150023, I get a 32-byte value ...
1
vote
1answer
119 views

Tips on conceiving safe software messaging platform

I have a personal project in mind in which I plan to use cryptography in order to let the users be confident in the fact that, even if all data get's stolen, it would be virtually impossible to crack ...
1
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1answer
417 views

Brute forcing Cardan grille

Having a "rotating" square Cardan Grill with sides long n cells, how could i determinate the cost of a brute-force attack? How many configurations should be considered to perform an exhaustive ...
1
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1answer
258 views

Twofish key length

I'm using twofish. Say you have a 120 bit key, is there any difference in using a 128 bit bit keylength or a 256 bit one? Since the most significant digits of the key will be allo zero in both cases, ...
1
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1answer
522 views

Is this fixed length MAC unforgeable?

Consider the following fixed length MAC for messages of length $\ell(n)=2n-2$ using a pseudorandom function $F$: On input of a mesage $m_0||m_1$ ($|m_0| = |m_1| = n-1$) and a key $k \in \{0,1\}^n$, ...
1
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1answer
135 views

How is the password sent across for verification?

I am familiar with Challenge-Response Authentication scheme. However I would like to know actual message content sent between client and server for 1 way authentication, over an insecure channel. ...
1
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1answer
628 views

iSeries (AS/400) Database File: password encryption

I am helping with a project in which an old software system on an iSeries is having a brand new .NET UI applied to it. It's going well... except... In order to allow users to login and maintain ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

ElGamal and Schnorr groups

As I gather, a normal practice for choosing a cyclic group for ElGamal key generation is to find a safe prime $p$ and use a multiplicative cyclic group with modulus $p$ and order $q = (p-1)/2$. ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

open source whitebox-crypto implementation

I am trying to code a simple WBC situation to help my understanding about white-box cryptography. Details: I have 2 programs, a "server" and a "client", the server utilises caesar cipher (key = 2) ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Confused with the role of AES round keys

AES works when each plaintext block is arranged in a 4x4 array of bytes called states. State goes through 10 rounds of encryption consisting of 4 operations: bytesub, shiftrow, mix columns and add ...
1
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1answer
25 views

TimeStamp in Cache-time attacks on AES [closed]

I have recently read about AES cache timing attacks. More specifically, I read Daniel Bernstein paper Cache-timing attacks on AES. I have a question about the code in Appendix A: ...
1
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3answers
74 views

Key derivation of public key without knowledge of private key?

I'm looking for a convenient way to share a set of public keys across multiple services, while preserving privacy by preventing these services from tying the identity of these public key sets together ...
1
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1answer
46 views

What is the algorithm behind PasswordDeriveBytes?

Microsoft has created an implementation of PBKDF1 in the PasswordDeriveBytes class. It can however generate more bytes than PBKDF1, which is limited to the number ...
1
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3answers
101 views

How to roll my own hardware RNG?

I am considering building a hardware RNG myself using cheap parts. Is this a good idea and safe enough? Random sources: amplified Zener noise from one randomly chosen ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Luby-Rackoff on Feistel ciphers [closed]

On page 46 of these lecture notes, it seems to say that if we have a Feistel cipher, and plaintexts $(L_0, R_0)$ and $(L_0^*, R_0^*)$ with corresponding encryptions, then we can determine the key? But ...
1
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1answer
56 views

test vectors for 3DES seem to in fact be testing DES - not 3DES

NIST SP 800-20 Appendix A has what presumably are supposed to be test vectors for 3DES except almost all of the test vectors utilize 8-byte keys and not the 24-byte keys that 3DES is supposed to have. ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Protecting a short password

I figured that a really secure password would be an AES 128 key. If this key were to be base 64 encoded, I could replace 4 random bytes in it in order to make it unusable unless you know which bytes ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Perfect secrecy of a crypto system

Suppose we have the following crypto system: $P = C = K = \{0, 1, . . . , n − 1\}$, $E_k(x) = (x + k) \bmod n$ and $D_k(y) = (y − k) \bmod n$. Prove that the crytosystem has perfect secrecy. Perfect ...
1
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1answer
58 views

RSA Protocol behind Yaksha Security System

So I'm reading over the Yaksha Security System and see it is based on the RSA cryptosystem and a centralized server, easy enough. What I'm slightly confused on is the math behind the related keys. It ...
1
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1answer
68 views

Why do we have fixed output length in the algorithm SHA1

Why do we have fixed output length in the algorithm SHA1 . is there any explanation about that
1
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1answer
57 views

RSA-blind signatures vs. DSA-blind signatures

I see that the RSA blind signature scheme tends to be implemented more often than others, e.g., DSA blind signatures. Isn't the RSA blind signature scheme a 'lesser' scheme, if you may, compared to ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Reduced message expansion in NTRU

In the original NTRU proposal from 1998, it says on page 16: It may be worth mentioning, though, that there is a simple. masking technique that can be used to significantly reduce message ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Use of the master key in Delerablée's Identity-based Broadcast Encryption

I'm reading “Identity-Based Broadcast Encryption with Constant Size Ciphertexts and Private Keys” by Cécile Delerablée. On page 207, the encryption process needs $\gamma$ which is part of the master ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

What is the functional role of CKY-I and CKY-R in ISAKMP (IKEv1)?

According to RFC 2409: CKY-I and CKY-R are the Initiator's cookie and the Responder's cookie, respectively, from the ISAKMP header. Each CKY is a 64 bit value that is included in each ISAKMP ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Retrieve timestamp from TOTP value

TOTP (Time-based One-Time Password) as I understand is an algorithm that uses the current time as a variable along with a shared key to generate a secured token. Wiki page for reference: ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Why is proving “parties' views are simulatable” enough in semi-honest model?

To prove a protocol is secure in semi-honest model, we have to prove: the view of each party, on each possible pair of inputs, can be efficiently simulated based solely on its own input and and ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

ECC - ElGamal with Montgomery or Edwards type curves (curve25519, ed25519) - possible?

I know the usual way of using getting shared secrets for encryption with ECC is DH, however, this only works with two keypairs of exactly the same kind, for example two curve25519- or two ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Requirement for the length of a HMAC tag?

I've seen NIST requirements about key length. What about the output lengths ? Is 112 bits enough for the HMAC output length ? Can we truncate the tag to keep only 112 bits ? Thank you
1
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1answer
68 views

Building a pad for OTP on-the-fly with Diffie-Hellman

Through repeated DH attempts, could Alice and Bob build a large random key for use as a one-time pad? My intuition is that this protocol would be as hard as breaking DH (discrete logarithm).
1
vote
1answer
109 views

What Java actually stores inside Keystore when generating Keys?

When we use Keytool to generate a Keystore to store Private/Public keys, what Java actually stores inside the Keystore file ? I ...
1
vote
2answers
326 views

Encryption of big files in Java with AES/GCM

I have to encrypt big files. Say their size ranges from 500mb to several of gigabytes. I would like to use AES/GCM/NoPadding as provided by Java 1.8 since that gives me automatic authentication and ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

fully homomorphic encryption (FHE)

Please, I would like to find some hints or solution to my following problem, I would appreciate your assistance to walk with me throughout the solution Given fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

extract ciphertext from encrypted SMIME file

the main question of this message is how to get the true ciphertext from S/MIME file? I created RSA keys and encrypted a message with S/MIME as follow : ...

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