# All Questions

482 views

### RSA Signature Weak Padding Attack

Assume that we have a message $m$ of size $n$, and it is padded with two 01 bytes in front. Then the signature $s$ is computed using a private key $ks$. Can we ...
549 views

### Pollard’s Rho Method

I can't get my head around Pollard’s Rho Method for solving discrate log problem I have read in a book: The basic idea is to pseudorandomly generate group elements of the form α^i · β^j ...
2k views

### With sufficient randomness, is XOR an acceptable mechanism for encrypting?

I have heard criticism of various cryptosystems saying that "at their heart, they were just XOR." Is this just ignorance, or is there something inherently wrong with XOR based ciphers?
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### What exactly is inside a private key?

May sound stupid to many, but I would like to have some pointers on what exactly is contained inside a private key. I have decent understanding of public/private keys/certificates (have created them ...
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### How random are commercial TRNGS

I'm thinking about buying a USB TRNG. How do I evaluate its randomness? I'm sure some are better than others but which is which? Are thermal-noise better than radio-noise TRNGs?
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### Should new applications still use RSA? Is it worth going down the ECDH route for protocols?

I am currently designing an application for communication between two and more users. At the moment I am trying to figure out what methods to use for the asymmetric cryptology. With the recent ...
191 views

### Why can an RSA signature be authenticated ONLY with the signer's public key?

I'm an undergraduate Math student currently taking a cryptology course. I have a question about the RSA signature authentication mechanism. An RSA signature can be authenticated with the public key ...
300 views

### Attacks against El Gamal private key

El Gamal encryption involves picking $(p,g,b)$ which is our public key. We compute $b=a^x$ $mod$ $p$. Here, $x$ is the private key which we don't know. What are some efficient and strong algorithms ...
193 views

Given the finite cyclic, additive group (G, +), with |G| = n and generator = g, what are the computations and exchanged messages for Diffie-Hellman? What I tried myself: Alice chooses a private $a$ ...
281 views

### Help with linear cryptanalysis

I am new to linear cryptanalysis, so I decided to try to break a toy cipher that was designed to be vulnerable to linear cryptanalysis. Unfortunately, I can't get it to work no matter how hard I try. ...
152 views

### What does pseudo pre-image of a hash function mean?

So finding a pre-image means given the hash value, one tries to find a message that gives this value using the function's standard IV. What about pseudo-preimage?
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### Authentication mechanism for low memory, low computing power device

I am looking for an authentication mechanism that works best with low memory, low computing power devices. I came across a paper "A Practical Zero-Knowledge Protocol Fitted to Security Microprocessor ...
222 views

### Why use a timestamp and how can someone know it's the correct one?

Let's say A wants to send a message, so everyone who gets the message, can be assured that it's from A. A then sends a message ...
152 views

### Decryption or attacking DES encrypted file

I have a file that has been encrypted using DES and am looking to decrypt and find a secret message encoded. All I have is the file which is full of binary data. There is no key or anything else which ...
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### What is the difference between a one-shot MPC protocol and a unbounded invocation of multiple MPC protocols?

In this paper on pg. 1236, under the section "Security Against Continual Leakage", the authors say: "We further remark that the weaker security notion previously achieved cannot be extended ...
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### Testing a steganalysis technique on realistic data [closed]

I'm developing a new image steganalysis technique, and I'd like to test how effective it is in practice. How could I do this? Are there such things as standard "test vectors" for steganalysis?
2k views

### How secure is the Vigenère cipher in file encryption if you encrypt the password first?

I created a basic file encryption method, that seems pretty secure to me (based on an answer below, it seems to be an implementation of the Vigenère cipher) , but one of my colleagues claims that it ...
608 views

### DES — Can I recover the key when I have both ciphertext and the plaintext?

Given a message and DES encrypted form of said message, is it possible to efficiently compute the key used to encrypt the data?
113 views

### Combining two hashing functions

I have been working on a Bloom Filter implementation recently and after a discussion with a co-worker about how many hashing functions to use I told him I was limited with using hashing functions that ...
5k views

### AES encryption using a Diffie-Hellman key exchange

I have two systems which need to encrypt their communication by AES-128. The key for the AES encryption should be exchanged with the Diffie-Hellman (DH) algorithm. Now, I've read about DH and got a ...
447 views

Consider the pairing $e: G_1*G_2 \to G_t$. Why we are mapping element from group $G_1$ and group $G_2$ to an element in $G_t$. How are they used in cryptography? What advantages do they provide?
141 views

### Is there a general method to crack this type of fractionating cipher?

I've seen a few puzzles based on a type of cipher in which letters in the plaintext are substituted with groups of characters in the ciphertext. The ciphertext only uses a handful of unique ...
117 views

### Generate random in secure message transfer

I’m doing a school assignment about secure communications between a Server and a Client. Basically, messages are exchanged between the clients and the server and these communications must implement ...
191 views

### What is the GnuPG process for going from a passphrase to a symmetric key?

Suppose I use GnuPG to symmetrically encrypt a file like so: gpg --no-options -c --cipher-algo AES256 --no-random-seed-file -o my.out my.file I then provide a ...
105 views

### Diffie-Hellman for Encryption

In learning how DH works for cryptography applications, I'm coming across some confusing language. For starters, most of the time DH is discussed in the context of "generating" their shared secret. ...
64 views

### A confusion about linear span of modified de Bruijn sequence

Recently i'm reading "Cryptographically Strong de Bruijn Sequences with Large Periods" . In the section 2 2.1 Basic Denitions and Properties , property 1 says that ...
347 views

### Game traffic encryption AES CTR + HMAC

I was asked to implement traffic encryption between the game server and clients. Currently, the traffic is not encrypted in any way, which lets players use cheats to listen to the traffic in order to ...
103 views

### Sample RSA-style signature confusion

I'm trying to study a simplified TLS-style protocol, including verifying RSA signatures. It's an attempt to verify using only a valid certificate. However, I can't manage to get anything to verify ...
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### Are IVs and salts the same and usable for each other uses?

I'm new in the crypto world and I've just discovered PBKDF (I used to use typed passeword as symmetric key). When using some crypto mode, you're required to ...
212 views

### Bit commitment with 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer

I know a protocol for bit commitment using regular OT (Bob has 1/2 chance of learning the bit Alice transferred to him) which goes like this: COMMITMENT PHASE Alice chooses a bit $b$ For ...
123 views

### What is the impact of different modes on pseudo randomness of AES?

AES in CBC-MAC mode is proven to be good PRF . But is there any study done on other modes ? how good is ECB mode as PRF ?
186 views

### Keyed digest function with odds of collision below the birthday bound?

I wonder if it is possible to devise a function $F(K,S,R_S)\mapsto D$ where: $K$ is some key (I have freedom on $K$, it could even be generated by a trusted party); $S$ is in $\{0,1\}^s$, say ...
194 views

### Pohlig-Hellman exponentiation block cipher

Let $G$ be a group of order $n$ and let $e,d$ be integers such that $ed\equiv 1 \pmod{n}$. Then the exponentiation maps $x \mapsto x^e$ and $y \mapsto y^d$ are inverse maps on $G$. These maps give us ...
156 views

### Can anyone tell me the name of this cipher please?

Can anyone tell me the name of this cipher please? I know it's a simple substitution cipher, I just don't know the name of it. Cipher Key: help Cipher alphabet: ...
657 views

### Can the XOR of two non-collision-resistant hashes be collision resistant?

Suppose I have two hash functions, of which neither (or only one) is collision resistant, and I want to create a new hash function by taking the bitwise exclusive or (XOR) of the results of those two ...
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### When do I need to renew keys for Salsa20 or HMAC?

I currently have a system which uses two keys sourced from a single key subjected to HKDF. One key is used in the Salsa20 stream ...
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### So what is quantum cryptography anyway?

I am having difficulty understanding quantum cryptography concepts. I've searched the internet and watched some videos on youtube explaining the topic, but it is still hard to understand how it works. ...
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### Did NIST verify “post-quantum” claims in the SHA3 proposal papers?

I have been reading Bernstein’s “Quantum attacks against Blue Midnight Wish, ECHO, Fugue, Grøstl, Hamsi, JH, Keccak, Shabal, SHAvite-3, SIMD, and Skein” paper from 2010… This document disproves ...