3
votes
1answer
202 views

Stream ciphers based on discrete logs

Blum Blum Shub is a stream cipher that is provably reducible to the difficulty of factoring integers. I'm wondering whether there is a similar construction for discrete logs? For example, I could ...
2
votes
1answer
273 views

Vulnerabilities of encrypting data with known regularities

I need to encrypt data that has a pre-defined header and footer structure, and furthermore the data follows pre-defined patterns. The header and footer structure follow a defined structure but cannot ...
4
votes
2answers
162 views

Does a high exponent compensate for a low degree of certainty?

If a RSA certificate is created with a low degree of certainty, does the value of the exponent compensate for this? I'm asking because certain implementations of key generation software hide the ...
1
vote
1answer
156 views

Probability of Repeated Encrypted Block In Output Feedback (OFB) Mode

Is there any probability/chances of repeated encrypted block in Output Feedback (OFB) mode? Is there any existing documentation/studies about that? If it is existing, can you please provide me a link ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Replay attack in ECB mode

How do replay attacks work in ECB mode? I found this in Wikipedia: "ECB mode can also make protocols without integrity protection even more susceptible to replay attacks, since each block gets ...
2
votes
2answers
949 views

How to decrypt this RSA-like cipher

Suppose we have a RSA-type Modulus $n = pq$ with $p,q$ prime. We also pick a random public exponent $e$ with $\gcd(e,\varphi(n)) = 1$ and compute the private exponent $d$ with $de \equiv 1 ...
1
vote
1answer
640 views

What is the correct value for “certainty” in RSA key pair generation?

I'm creating an RSA key pair in Bouncy Castle and need to specify an int value for certainty. This Stack Overflow answer says it is a relative test for how prime the values are. There is another ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

Impacts of not using RSA exponent of 65537

This RFC says the RSA Exponent should be 65537. Why is that number recommended and what are the theoretical and practical impacts & risks of making that number higher or lower? What are the ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Deciphering a key from XOR encrypted cypher using boolean logic

Assume there's an unencrypted message A, and an encrypted message B. You know that message B was encrypted using a simple XOR method of A with a private key K, resulting in message B. Thus, B = A ⊕ K ...
6
votes
2answers
273 views

Proof of work for standard computers

I'm interested in a proof-of-work system that works well on standard computers without using the GPU. Properties the system should have: Seed based proof-of-work. There is no distinguished ...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

Setting protocol parameters to achieve concrete security

Background One issue with modern security proofs is that they are usually asymptotic. In other words, such proofs are usually formulated as follows: For any polynomial-time adversary $\mathcal A$, we ...
5
votes
1answer
159 views

How are state wiretaps obtaining plaintext from encrypted transmissions?

According to the US 2011 Wiretap Report, encryption — on the off chance that it is encountered — has been no hurdle to retrieving the content of a conversation. Public Law 106-197 amended 18 ...
3
votes
3answers
413 views

Multiple Hash Functions that work in either nesting

Are there any hashing functions that, if two are used in conjunction (with the same salts) will return the same response regardless of ordering? I.e. are there hash-functions $H_1$, $H_2$ such that ...
5
votes
2answers
567 views

Using bad generator in ElGamal Encryption

Suppose Alice chooses a random Prime $p$ and a random private Key $a \in \mathbb{Z}^*_p$. By accident, she also chooses a random number $g \in \mathbb{Z}^*_p$, which is not a generator of ...
2
votes
1answer
652 views

Generating a strong unique Initialization Vector

How can I determine if I am generating a unique and strong Initialization Vector? If my mode is generating Keystream? Is there any scientific explanation in generating a unique and strong ...
7
votes
1answer
136 views

Why does it matter for a signature scheme to be without random oracles?

There is a profusion of articles proposing signature schemes without random oracles (see for yourself). What does that mean, and why does it matter?
4
votes
1answer
224 views

Length of data to hash for PGP

I have finally managed to verify some simple PGP signed message blocks. However, I discovered that for some reason, my implementation limits me to verifying data that is 9-16 bytes long. no less. no ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

How can I validate a hashed password if all I have is another hash?

The Scenario I have a client-side web application that bounces requests against a server-side API. For the sake of simplicity, every request must pass a username and password. This is similar to ...
-1
votes
2answers
181 views

What is the advantage of an attacker over breaking a 4 digits PIN?

When a hardware system is protected by a 4 digits password, what is the advantage of the attacker into breaking that system? Isn't it $10*10*10*10=10^{4}$? If $\frac{1}{10^{4}}$ is the cost of such ...
6
votes
5answers
2k views

Is it possible to make time-locked encrytion algorithm?

I'm not sure if what I'm asking is even a valid question but here goes. Would it be possible to add a mechanism to an encryption algorithm that would mean it had to be a certain time of the day or a ...
6
votes
1answer
112 views

Abstracting primitives and modes of operation

I am developing a symmetric crypto library and have reached a roadblock. Looking at block ciphers, it is quite obvious that all block ciphers are trivially abstractable as a simple primitive ...
6
votes
5answers
402 views

Asymmetric algorithm to generate compact unique messages that can be validated

I have a cryptographic problem with the following characteristics: I need to generate a set of relatively short messages; say 20 bytes in length The contents of the messages themselves is not ...
2
votes
2answers
677 views

Capacity of Advanced Encryption Standard in terms of File Encryption

what is the capacity of AES in terms of File Encryption? is it really good to encrypt a large files in AES? ex. I am encrypting a 8GB of File... is it still good to used AES? is it still good to used ...
3
votes
2answers
408 views

How does the cyclic attack on RSA work?

I am trying to get the idea of cyclic attacks againts assymetric RSA encryption. Taken from Handbook of applied cryptography . Let $k$ be a positive integer such that $$c^{(e^{k})} = c\mod n ...
8
votes
2answers
456 views

Are Stream Ciphers Less Secure?

This is by no means a scientific observation, but it seems to me that stream ciphers receive a lot less attention than block ciphers. Is there any reason for this? (Is it because block ciphers are ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Are there any known collisions for the SHA-2 family of hash functions?

Are there any known collisions for the hash functions SHA-1, SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512? By that, I mean are there known values of $a$ and $b$ where $F(a) = F(b)$ and $a ≠ b$?
5
votes
2answers
5k views

How much computing resource is required to brute-force RSA?

It's been over 30 years since Rivest, Shamir and Adleman first publicly described their algorithm for public-key cryptography; and the intelligence community is thought to have known about it for ...
1
vote
1answer
402 views

Expectation Value of the Index of Coincidence

Can Anybody tell me why the expectation value of the Index of Coincidence is the following? For a cipher text string of length $L$, where $n$ is the number of alphabet characters, $k_r = 1/n$, and ...
2
votes
1answer
149 views

Does it make sense to use slow hashes in digital signatures?

For storing passwords, it seems that the use of intentionally slow hash functions (like PBKDF2 and bcrypt) is now recommended. This is because most hashes are designed to be fast, which also makes ...
3
votes
3answers
602 views

Getting started [closed]

I'm looking for a good place to start in cryptography and places to go to get free books etc on the topic. I have been looking online but I always get stuck at some point or another. I need something ...
2
votes
2answers
160 views

Byte location of plaintext vs ciphertext when using a block cipher or stream cipher

I know that when you use a stream cipher you are just XOR'ing the plain text with the PRNG stream, such that you know if a specific byte is in position 3 of the plain text it will still be in ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between these AES encryption methods

I am using AES encryption (Rijindael) with Base-64 encoding in Obj-C and VB. I am currently using the following two projects to achieve this: Obj-C: ...
2
votes
2answers
173 views

Is there a way to compare the 923 bit pairing based key with RSA or AES, etc

I've see many articles, most of them basically the same, praising Fujitsu for cracking what is referred to as a 923 bit pairing based encryption. I understand that in comparing RSA to AES you've got ...
3
votes
1answer
433 views

bcrypt - collision-resistance against chosen salt and work factor?

Would it be difficult to find $\:$ cost,salt,input,password0,password1 $\:$ such that bcrypt(cost,salt,password0,input) = bcrypt(workfactor,salt,password1,input) and $\:$ password0 != password1 $\:$ ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Use of nonces in Kerberos and Needham–Schroeder protocols

Can you please explain me what is the reason of using nonces in the Needham-Schroeder and in the Kerberos protocols for Key Transport. In particular : Can you explain me the use of $N_A$? And ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

What do the magic numbers 0x5c and 0x36 in the opad/ipad calc in HMAC do?

Wikipedia lists the following pseudocode for HMAC: ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Do I have to recompute all hashes if I change the work factor in bcrypt?

The well-known article about why we should use bcrypt for hashing passwords mentions the work factor - some parameter to the algorithm that determines how long one hashing should be in terms of number ...
3
votes
1answer
203 views

Chaum undeniable signature - justification for probability of misleading the verifier?

Can anyone explain me in details why does the following statement hold true in Chaum and van Antwerpen scheme for undeniable signature? The probability that a dishonest signer is able to ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the recommended replacement for MD5?

Since MD5 is broken for purposes of security, what hash should I be using now for secure applications?
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Why must IV/key-pairs not be reused in CTR mode?

Many sources mention that IVs must not be reused with the same key in CTR mode, for encrypting 2 different pieces of data, because that totally destroys security - but I haven't found an explanation ...
4
votes
2answers
394 views

How can I solve the discrete logarithm modulo 2q+1 if I can solve it in the subgroup of order q?

As part of my cryptography course I came across an exercise that neither me or my friends could figure out. The problem statement is as follows: Let $p$ be a large prime of the form $p = 2q + 1$ ...
4
votes
1answer
561 views

Partial collisions for md5

Let $h$ be a bitstring and let $P(h, n)$ be the n-bit prefix of $h$. A partial collision of length $n$, for a hash function $H$ is a pair $(x,y)$, such that $P(H(x),n)=P(H(y),n)$. What is known about ...
0
votes
1answer
187 views

RSA Signature - Multiple Use Weakness

I cite from Fundamentals of Computer Security (Chapter 7 on Digital Signature, Paragraph 7.3 on RSA Signatures, page 289): Multiple uses of the RSA Signature scheme tend to weaken it. The way out ...
2
votes
2answers
490 views

Are there standards for transport layer security using only symmetric keys?

I have an embedded system with AES-128 implemented in hardware. There is very little flash/RAM and the (8-bit) CPU runs relatively slowly. Public key crypto isn't a viable option. This system is ...
4
votes
1answer
176 views

Why are there $ signs in my passwd file?

I am trying to get access to my eReader and I managed to get the passwd file. ...
4
votes
2answers
432 views

Is ECB mode secure if plaintexts guaranteed to be unique?

I've got a scenario where I need to encrypt many small (16-byte) plaintexts. I want to use AES-128 in ECB mode. Notably, each plaintext is guaranteed to be unique, though each may differ by only a few ...
1
vote
2answers
154 views

Can you distinguish encryption methods from the output?

Suppose that you see all IP communication packets between two computers for a day, as they pass through a connecting router, and this amounts to 10MB. You additionally know that all data transmission ...
4
votes
1answer
247 views

Does Identity-Based Encryption actually solve any problem?

Identity based encryption schemes [*] seem to have great potential in high-latency Delay-Tolerant and mobile, ad-hoc networks since they apparently seem to avoid the need for key negotiation and ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Digital Signatures, Standard Hash Functions and MACs

I'm studying Hash functions and Digital Signatures in sequence, and came up with some doubts about their usage. First of all: What is the difference between hashing a document and signing it? And ...
6
votes
1answer
421 views

Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali Construction

The Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali construction allows to build a (cryptographically secure) pseudo-random function from of a (cryptographically secure) pseudo-random generator. More formally, let $G: ...

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