# All Questions

2answers
145 views

### GGM PRG construction: Why do we need to change keys all the time with underlying PRG

When constructing a PRF that has n bit input using the GGM PRG, why do we always have to recursively run the PRG using its previous output as a seed key n times. Instead, why don't we run the PRG n ...
1answer
192 views

2answers
4k views

### In RSA, do I calculate d from e or e from d?

In the original paper introducing RSA, it is implied that one should first choose $d$ and then calulate $e$ from $p$, $q$, and $d$. However, I have found in other places (such as the wikipedia article ...
2answers
275 views

### Amateur question: two-way RSA?

Is this a sensible scheme for 2-way client/server communication? A client connects to a server. The server and client both generate RSA keys, and send over the public ones to each other. If the client ...
1answer
175 views

### Preimage resistance hash in digital signature

I'm studying about preimage resistance property of the hash functions. In particularly I'm reading as the missing of this property can be fatal in digital signatures that use RSA. Further details: ...
0answers
70 views

### Why is it impractical to generate a semiprime dictionary? [duplicate]

This might be a very simple question. However, I am just learning the concept, so just excuse me. I am wondering why there is not any attempt to generate all semiprime numbers? (as an dict. attack to ...
1answer
455 views

### length extension attack on an MD5 hash of a text file of about 10K Bytes?

How much computing time on a typical desktop computer would it take to find a new length and new data to extend a text file of about 10K Bytes with a given MD5 hash?
1answer
206 views

### Can Poly1305 be used with block ciphers running in CTR mode?

Is the use of Poly1305 limited to stream ciphers? (note, I'm not talking about Poly1305-AES )? Can it be used with block ciphers running in CTR mode? If so, what other considerations/limitations are ...
1answer
340 views

### Given a private RSA key, how do we get the public key?

Is it possible to pre-choose a private RSA key, then obtain a public key from it?
1answer
441 views

### Difference entity authentication and implicit key authentication

From the Handbook of Applied Cryptography, in discussions of key sharing algorithms, I see definitions: Implicit key authentication is when one party is assured that no other aside from a ...
1answer
815 views

### Finding CRC collisions for specific divisor

My current textbook (Information Security: Principles and Practice by Mark Stamp) discusses how to determine the CRC of data via long-division, using XOR instead of subtraction to determine the ...
2answers
113 views

### Differential privacy definition

Differential privacy defines "privacy" of a mechanism $A$ as the "closeness" of the two distribution $Pr[A(D) \in S]$ and $Pr[A(D') \in S]$ where $D,D'$ differ in one element. And the distance between ...
1answer
108 views

### Can substrings of a long string be efficiently authenticated?

Suppose one has a (strong) shared secret key and wishes to authenticate a very long string in a way that will allow the verifier to verify small substrings without reading much of the stored data and ...
1answer
125 views

### What kind of cryptography should i use?

I have a trusted third part A that issues an access token (xml file) to an untrusted client C that uses this token to log into an untrusted server S and access to the authorized files. I want only ...
3answers
316 views

### What are some good references for the implementation weaknesses in RSA

I'm pretty sure I understand textbook RSA. Choose p and q, large primes, and compute n=pq. Choose e such that $gcd(\phi(n),e)=1.$ Publish n and e. Compute d such that $de=1$ (mod $\phi(n)$). To ...
1answer
193 views

### What's efficient MPC protocol for determining if sum's bigger than y?

My secure multi-party computation (MPC) in need is simply to determine if a sum of two private variable is bigger than a given value $y$, as $f(x_0, x_1) = [(x_0 + x_1) > y]$ in which the value ...
1answer
420 views

### Can you identify the public key used to encrypt something?

If I encrypt a string with a public key, does the encrypted ciphertext reveal the public key I used to encrypt it? Basically, I don't want anyone to know who the ciphertext is addressed to. I'm ...
1answer
2k views

### How long to bruteforce a RSA key [duplicate]

Suppose I have a 2048 bit RSA public key, and want to brute force the corresponding private key. I guess there are 2048^16 possible combinations? How long would this take me to brute force with an ...
2answers
333 views

### When using HMAC, does key encoding matter?

Given: H is a good hash function with block size L. K is a key of length >= L (recommended by RFC 2104). Khex and Kbase64 are ASCII encodings of K. In the HMAC algorithm, is there a good reason to ...
2answers
336 views

### Is triple des similiar to RSA in that they message size is limited to the key size?

Is triple des similiar to rsa in that the message size you can encrypt is limited (unlike AES)? Yes you can break the message size into parts and apply it, but I'm not interested in doing that so I ...
1answer
75 views

### “proof of access” schemes

What is the state of the art way when implementing a scheme challenging a party to prove they have access to certain data? What I'm looking for something along the lines of Give them ...
1answer
133 views

### Trying to finalize my understanding about password storing

am sorry, an a beginner, so please forgive me if i make mistakes, so here is what I understood: PBKDF2: uses HMAC, so, the message is the password, and the key that crypts the message is the salt? or ...
2answers
144 views

### How to compare two datasets „anonymously”?

Ok, I hope this question makes some sense because I am not so sure how to word it any differently… Imagine the following situation: There are 10 defined colors (blue, orange, yellow etc.) There are ...
2answers
180 views

### Is this OTP scheme safe?

I have a message $m_1$ and I want to encrypt it by XORing it with two keys $k_1$ and $k_2$: $$c_1 = m_1 \oplus k_1 \oplus k_2$$ So far so good. Now I was wondering if I could create a "fake" result ...
0answers
71 views

3answers
1k views

### Why crypto hash functions must be collision resistant and how to find resistant?

Why cryptographic hash functions must be collision-free and is there any methods to evaluate whether a function is not resistant to collision? Thanks,
2answers
229 views

### Is entropy affected by time?

I'm quite new to cryptographic systems, and today we discussed entropy at work. Since entropy is used to ensure the difficulty for an attacker to break in, I was wondering if the more time the high ...
1answer
66 views

### Why does the server in S/KEY authentication only store a single password?

I've been reading about the S/KEY One-Time Password system on wikipedia here and was wondering why the server only stores a single password and not the list of one-time passwords like the client does. ...

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