# All Questions

326 views

### how much is secure to encrypt a password using itself (as encryption key) for storing it on a unsecure media?

I want to store a password securely on a storage (suppose in a usual unencrypted file). I use this password as AES key to encrypt itself (using AES-ECB) & then store it on the media (the password ...
63 views

### How to keep phi(n) secret in RSA?

As we know, RSA cryptosystem have both private key(a,p,q) and public key(b,n), by chinese remainder theorem and fermat's little theorem, we know that the importance of keep p and q secret, and from ...
93 views

### modulus condition [closed]

In RSA algorithm, the modulus $n$ should be chosen based on the below condition $2^{8(k-1)} \leqslant n < 2^{8k}$ Where $k$ is the byte length of the modulus $n$. for this condition I want the ...
1k views

### Store user passwords in database using Java Application

I want to store user's password details in Database. My project is in Java. I want to know the best way of storing passwords and other important information like user data.
96 views

### Journals to read in order to keep up to date with interesting research [closed]

I'd love suggestions from crypto.stack as to academic journals to read. They can range from introductory to advanced, as long as it's free (requires no access fees). Feel free to edit this question ...
123 views

### Understanding multiplication in the AES specification

I am reading through the AES specification and am not able to wrap my head around the multiplication definition (section 4.2). Sorry to refer to a spec but AES is the holy grail in crypto so I hope ...
73 views

### $f : \mathbb{Z}_n \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}^\times_n$?

Is there any function $f : \mathbb{Z}_n \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}^\times_n$ that is invertible? By invertible, I mean it given $y \in \mathbb{Z}^\times_n$, it should be easy to find $x \in \mathbb{Z}_n$ ...
136 views

### What are the weaknesses of this message exchange protocol?

Here is a protocol for a key exchange: Bob encrypts a message $m$ with his key $K_B$: $m_1 = E_{K_B}(m)$. Bob send the result $m_1$ to you. Alice encrypts my encrypted above message with her own ...
169 views

### What length should the padding be when encrypting or signing with RSA?

I am wondering what length the padding should be when encrypting or signing with RSA. Does it matter what length the padding is, and if so — what length should it be? Another point: Should it be ...
643 views

### Is it possible to crack a blowfish 256 bits encrypted file? [closed]

I have a file of my own that I have encrypted using Coder-Abi. Now, I can just remember part of this password. So, would it be possible (much easier) for me to crack it knowing only part of it? I can ...
283 views

### Recovering SHA1 knowing 2/3 of the hash generated

I am doing some research on cryptography, so I generated a random string of numbers resembling a creditcard number(according to MOD10 validation) and encrypted it with SHA1 algorithm for encryption. ...
181 views

### Why RC4 used constant 24bits for initial vector

Why RC4 used 24-bits constant value + 40 bits random values to generate key?
206 views

### data structure of random / compressed data

can anybody explain to me what data structure results after data is compressed? I just try to find out the difference between random data and compressed data, the entropy of both is very high while ...
152 views

### Why is 2 the inverse of 10?

I have one question about the ECDSA signature scheme. When Bob wants to send a message to Alice that is to be signed she makes following things (with for example $A = (5,1)$, $d=7$, $q=19$). ...
3k views

### How does one implement the Inverse of AES' MixColumns

I got an answer in the related question about Mixcolumn for encryption, but how about decryption? what will I do? Because it said that I will used this: During decryption the Mix Column the ...
265 views

### Factoring a polynomial over a GF [closed]

I have the following question: What polynomial, when factored over the field $GF (2^8)$ based on the irreducible polynomial that is used in Rijndael, will factor into all the polynomials in the ...
43 views

### Abstract algebra in cryptography [closed]

I have taken a course in my undergraduate on the theory part of abstract algebra.Now am interested to know how can abstract algebra be applied to cryptography.Thanks
81 views

### Is less security required for a short stream cipher than for the AES enciphering of very long messages? [closed]

Criticisms of a cipher system such as 'the ciphertext from one message must be indistinguishable from the ciphertext of a second message" surely only apply when there are very large amounts of ...
198 views

### Decrypting Triple-DES using 2 keys in crypto tools

I'm currently working on crypto tools to encrypt/decrypt 4 blocks of messages using Triple-DES with 2 keys. So, I've reached the final cipher text, but now I have to do the reverse and get the ...
48 views

### Meet in the middle attack - message and key

I clearly understand the story of Alice and Bob: Alice and Bob are going to use double DES. They know the keys K1 and K2. Alice sends to Bob the encrypted message c= EK1(EK2(m)). Bob decrypts the ...
196 views

### Is the random data at the end of my decrypted message supposed to be there?

This is my PKCS#5 & AES/ECB Python 3.3 code: ...
103 views

### What parts of number theory does the RSA algorithm use?

It is said that the RSA algorithm uses number theory. What parts of number theory does it use? I know it uses modular arithmetic and Euler's totient theorem and function. Is that all?
383 views

### Block Cipher vs Stream Cipher in Web Application [closed]

I'm doing research about "Cryptographic attack methods in Web Application" so I have some questions to ask you guys: Block Cipher vs Stream Cipher, which is more common used in Web Application? How ...
179 views

### What are some of the major differences between PyNaCl and PyCrypto? [closed]

It seems like one can generate keys and encrypt data with both libraries. Is one better than the other? Do they attempt to solve different problems? Is one more secure than the other?
186 views

### Perfect Secrecy, two Definitions

I'm reading the proof of the implication "Def 2.1 $\Rightarrow$ Def 2.4" in these slides about Adversarial Indistinguishability and Perfectly-Secret Encryption. I have a doubt in the slide 10. Here it ...
303 views

### Why this k parameter is in unary in adversary PPT algorithm? [duplicate]

While reading some text on cryptography, I found that algorithm $A$, that the adversary (called Eve by convention) runs to break the cipher message, needs two parameters, candidate message ($y$) and ...
290 views

### Strong encryption done by hand [duplicate]

One of the distinguishing features of a good encryption algorithm, is that it is easy to encrypt, and hard to crack. Are there any that are easy enough for average folk to remember, and calculate by ...
861 views

### Where to store the private key and the public key in a communication protocol

I want to create a simple secured connection protocol over TCP/IP. I just want to connect from my mobile device to a server securely. Firstly I thought to use an SSL connection, but I changed my ...
187 views

### Because the algorithm is known, it is no longer a trade secret [closed]

In wiki about RC4 cipher they said, Because the algorithm is known, it is no longer a trade secret. Is that mean the cipher text will be more secure if the algorithm unknown to the attacker. ...
173 views

### What is the advantage of an attacker over breaking a 4 digits PIN?

When a hardware system is protected by a 4 digits password, what is the advantage of the attacker into breaking that system? Isn't it $10*10*10*10=10^{4}$? If $\frac{1}{10^{4}}$ is the cost of such ...
45 views

### How to calculate bit strength of Integer Factorization Cryptography (IFC) such as RSA using Python

I would like to know how to calculate the bit-strength of Integer Factorization Cryptography (IFC) such as RSA by using Python. I gathered it is based off the complexity of factorizing the modulus ...
45 views

### Theory for pre-paid debit card: card-to-card transfer [closed]

In Sweden in the late 90's they deployed a electronic prepaid cash system system, and if I remember correctly you could transfer money between cards without online access. Wikipedia states that the ...
44 views

### The improvement of the private key exponent in the M.Weiner Attack

I am working on attacks on RSA and came across the M. Weiner attack. The limit for $d$ in order for the attack to apply is $d <= (\frac{1}{3})N^{0.25}$. The paper states that Boneh and Durfee ...
38 views

### Error propogation in CBC mode

Going through the wiki for modes of operation I see that the section error propogation says that an error in one block in the ciphertext in CBC mode only impacts two blocks. I do not quite get that. ...
39 views

### How to make sure the pre-agreed information safe for DH-Key Exchange

The definition of DH key exchange was given as the method let two authenticate each other & exchange the crypto key over an insecure channel. DH-key-exchange was innovated to defence ...
62 views

### How do they implement MAC in TLS?

I recently read questions about "MAC then Encrypt/Encrypt then MAC" which made me curious about how they actually use the algorithm. MAC only calculated once either case (according to what I read). ...
142 views

### cryptography and use of python programming language [closed]

why is it recommended to write cryptography programs ,for example crypt-analysis projects with python programming language? what is the advantages of python? why not use c or any other language?
46 views

### What's wrong with this “order-preserving MAC” function?

Please note: this is purely a thought experiment and not intended for any real-world usage! I came up with a simple function $\mathrm{OPF}$ to map the integers $[0,C)$ (where $C$ is the "ChunkSize") ...
30 views

### In Needham Schroeder key distribution what happens if responder's part is not encrypted in step 2 with Kbs but encrypted instead by Kab in step 3

The Needham-Schroeder protocol is: 1 A→S:A,B,Na 2 S→A:{Na,B,Kab,{Kab,A}Kbs}Kas 3 A→B:{Kab,A}Kbs 4 B→A:{Nb}Kab 5 A→B:{Nb−1}Kab Here Na and Nb are nonces. Kab is the key between a and b Kas is ...
111 views

### Hash Based Encryption (fast & simple), how well would this compare to AES? [duplicate]

First of all, I know it's a very bad idea to invent your own encryption algorithm. It's better to use existing known, trusted, extensively tested and studied algorithms with a proven track record. The ...
40 views

### Affine encryption function

Let $f(x) = ax + b$ be an affine encryption function. $a$ and the cardinal of the field of our keys $K$ (in English, 26) must be coprime so that the encryption ...
104 views

### Regain 3DES ECB key, assuming I have both encrypted and decrypted text

Let's assume I've encrypted some text with some 24-byte key using 3DES ECB. Question: is it possible to regain the key if I have both encrypted and decrypted text? Excluding bruteforce.
75 views

### Hypothetical question about AES output

Consider that you stumble upon 5 different AES output strings. One of these strings can be decrypted with a secret phrase, the other four strings are based on the real string but have had random parts ...
77 views

### Assuming that we had a way of finding primes, could RSA be used without computers?

I once asked a question "Would RSA make sense if we used no computers?". The answer was negative, because finding primes that would make secure keys would prove too hard. Assuming that we had found ...
134 views

### How do I cryptanalyze a password field?

In a PostgreSQL database, I can see the following fields in a table (for a specific record): User = administrator Password = "ceMv9Me6go" Now the following are true: The password length is not ...
704 views

### Learning to encrypt/encryption algorithms [closed]

I am a beginning programmer interested in coding an application of my own to encrypt sensitive files of mine. For example: lists of passwords, bank accounts, Credit Card numbers etc. I was wondering ...
101 views

### Why is it said that if we know few bits of pseudo random sequence we can predict the whole of it?

I am new to this cryptography and in the source from which i study it is said that if we know the first few bits of a pseudo random sequence we can predict the whole of it.How is it possible? The ...
348 views

### How to calculate cycles per byte [closed]

Sometimes, websites and scientific papers that introduce and/or handle cryptographic algorithms also provide speed-analysis and tables comparing the individual performance of cryptographic ...
740 views

### How does the rand() function in C work? [closed]

I want to know how rand() works (even when I don't provide any seed how it produces PRNs?) thanks!
202 views

### What are alternatives to the random oracle model for modelling hash functions? [closed]

I was looking for more realistic alternatives to the ROM for describing hash functions in theoretical proofs. I came across the common reference string model (where hash functions can be modeled as ...

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