# All Questions

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### Shannon confusion and diffusion concept

I read the document(not the whole document) from Shannon where he speaks about the concepts of confusion and diffusion. I read in many places(not in the document but around the internet) that ...
206 views

### AES-CTR with ephemeral keys vs IV

Let's say that we have a key exchange of some sort, which leaves A and B sharing the long-term secret $S$. Then, A and B want to use AES-CTR for the communication, which leaves us with several ...
74 views

### PGP String to Key specifiers

I've been reading through the PGP Standard and here I'm a little confused. This section is discussing converting string data to a session key. I'm confused about the paragraph in bold. First off, what ...
109 views

### Measure ECC key size

I have implemented a ECC key generation scheme successfully. Now I need to find ECC key sizes of each generating key pairs. I assumed that ECC key size is the size of the ECC private Key. So I would ...
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### Committing Bilinear equation in Groth-Sahai framework

Groth-Sahai framework enables us to commit to QE, MSME, PP equations. Now, is the equation below committable in GS framework? A bilinear map $e: G_1 \times G_2 \rightarrow G_T$. $g_1 \in G_1$ and ...
41 views

### Calculate the security of a cascade cipher

I’m reading “The Security of Multiple Encryption in the Ideal Cipher Model” and I’m having a hard time understanding something. How do I calculate the bounds of cascade cipher from the following ...
119 views

### Understanding Pseudo Random Generators

I've been taking a crypto course online. I have a good idea how PRG's and Stream Ciphers work, but I'd love to get some input to help visualize what is actually happening. I understand a seed is used, ...
35 views

### Deprecation of RSA-SHA-1 in DKIM keys?

I recently noticed that OpenDKIM on my mail server is objecting to DKIM signatures from a client, saying their key is insecure. It may be that that's due to lack of secure DNS (confirmation anyone?) ...
70 views

### SHA-1 collision resistance

I'm researching on the SHA-1 algorithm and looking for reasons why it has fallen prey to differential cryptanalysis. I have read the research papers by Merc Stevens and Wang both of which describe how ...
43 views

### RSA-KEM construction

"Create a random key for CCPA2 scheme, encrypt m, send it along with a PK encryption of the symmetric key. " Say in the process, the KDF is HMAC, then: get a random key (128-bit) C1 = encrypt ...
110 views

### Equal length of primes in paillier cryptosystem

In the key generation step of paillier cryptosystem , In order to satisfy $\gcd(pq,(p-1)(q-1))=1$ , we can take equal length primes. Instead of taking(length as parameter to generate $p,q$) equal ...
75 views

### How can I map arbitrary group elements to unique integers without using Hash functions?

Let's say, I have a group $G$ of large prime order $p$. A set $S$ consists of $n$ random elements chosen from $G$. Without using a collision resistant hash function $H$, how can I map elements of $G$ ...
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### For calculating the index of coincidence for each sequence

I was learning about the finding the key length reading the following web site... http://practicalcryptography.com/cryptanalysis/stochastic-searching/cryptanalysis-vigenere-cipher/ and I really don't ...
41 views

### Checking the share membership in secret sharing schemes

I was thinking of this since yesterday. Imagine, a secret is split into its respective shares (using any secret sharing scheme) with threshold $t$ and total $n$. Can we find out given any random ...
74 views

### Implementing a web app where the server cannot decrypt its own data?

I'm a cryptography novice, but I think that the world needs to move towards an "encrypt everything" mentality as much as possible. As a result, I've been thinking a lot about ways to build a web app ...
128 views

### Is it possible to find plaintext from ciphertext if (n) and (a) are known for RSA?

I have a couple of questions pertaining to a RSA problem. I need to decipher some ciphertext and find out what the original plaintext was. Modulus: $n = 2537$ and exponent: $a = 11$ Encrypting ...
51 views

### Calculate the avalanche effect

I need to solve this problem, however, I didn't get the concept right. Is it I need to sum up all bits to get the total avalanche effect? eg. (1x8bits) + (5x8bits)... until I get the total for its ...
136 views

### What does it mean that a protocol realizes “strong mutual authentication”?

What does it mean that a protocol realizes "strong mutual authentication"? And What does it mean that a protocol realizes "weak mutual authentication"? Can you define them formally ? I have found a ...
60 views

### How is a Yubikey static password derived from the AES key?

When I configure a Yubikey slot as static, it's not documented or obvious how the static password yielded by a press relates to the AES key I set. For example: ...
101 views

### Attacking both authenticity and secrecy in authenticated encryption modes

looks like NIST only approved GCM mode for authenticated encryption and other modes don't have any approval or a good implementation available. Is that possible a weakness in $GHASH$ compromise ...
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### simple encryption scheme turns out to be “somewhat homomorphic”

In the paper Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers in the introduction: How do I calculate $r$ and $q$ of this equation in the picture? $r \approx 2^{\sqrt{\eta}}$ and \$q \approx ...