# All Questions

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### Is this modified Schnorr signature scheme secure?

Signing Let y = g^x, which is your public/private keypair. Let r = g^v, for random v Let c = H(M) Let z = (v + cx) mod q The signature is the pair (r,z) Verifying g^z = ry^c mod p We further ...
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### Can Bitcoin HD public keys be used for symmetric encryption?

I asked this at bitcoin.stackexchange.com first, but it seems that this is more of a crypto-question anyway. I'm interested in using a Hierarchical Deterministic Bitcoin wallet branch as a "shared ...
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### Interleaving bytes to make an effectively larger block size

Will applying a 16 byte bit block cipher such as AES over a 256 byte block to in the following way result in a much stronger cipher:- Apply block cipher with first key digest to each 16 byte group. ...
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### Revealing random bit permutation

I am new in cryptography. I want to determine the complexity of revealing a random bit permutation which is used as block cipher for plaintexts (bitstrings of length n). An adversary catches different ...
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### OCB nonce usage

I've just come across this piece of code in Bouncy Castle's implementation of OCB Mode: ...
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### Can I crack an AES string if I have all these parameters?

This is for a challenge at followthewhiterabbit.trustpilot.com: Knowns: The algorithm is AES (Rijndael) Blocksize: 128 Keysize: 256 You only need to find the first 6 bytes of the ...
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### generate hash of all handshake messages for verify data (DTLS)

I am trying to create a DTLS client finished packet, where I need to generate verify data for handshake hash is need. And here I want to know how to generate handshake hash. As of now I am doing like ...
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### Is it possible to get better randomness by using multiple PRNGs?

I don't know if this question even makes sense, but: Is there be any benefit or impact to some sort of hierarchical (e.g. a PRNG drives the decision for which PRN to pull from a set of PRNGs) or ...
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### Encrypt-then-MAC: full random keys or keys derived from master key?

I have this scenario where I use Encrypt-then-MAC (AES256-CBC and HMAC-SHA256) with keys generated by a CSPRNG (specifically, SecureRandom in Java). I'd like to know which is better: Use the CSPRNG ...
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### Does this protocol provide Perfect Forward Secrecy / are there potential security flaws?

We have a HMAC key (128 bit/16 bytes) an AES key (128 bit/16 bytes) an AES IV (128 bit/16 bytes) a random salt (128 bit/16 bytes) Each packet is signed with a HMAC (SHA256) After each packet is ...
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### Is AES-256 over AES-128 weakening the original encryption?

When transfering data using TLS the browser and server agree the cipher suite to be used - so for example this could be chosen as AES-128 and is (probably) outside of my control. If I separately ...
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### RSA private exponent primality

I know that the public exponent is always a prime, but what about the private exponent? Is it always a prime too?
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### Point addition and doubling in Ed25519 (ref10)?

I just migrated CodesInChaos' C# port of Ed25519(ref10) to Java, and everything works fine. (I.e. I get the same results for key generation, signature and verification.) Now, I would like to do a ...
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### In the STS Authentication Protocol, why are the signatures encrypted?

From Wikipedia: (1) Alice → Bob : g^x (2) Alice ← Bob : g^y, E_K(S_B(g^y, g^x)) (3) Alice → Bob : E_K(S_A(g^x, g^y)) I know there should be something I'm missing,...
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### ECC partially blind signature scheme verification

Continued from Is there a flaw in this ECC blind signature scheme? The problem I needed a partially blind signature scheme for one of my projects, but couldn't find one on the internet, so I've made ...
869 views

### PRF and hash functions

Is there a difference between PRF and a hash function? For example: Creation of a secret key is using PRF and creating a secret key is using hash function.
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### About using mistakes as part of a code

Could a code be developed where one uses intentional errors say in english, as a text to encode? For example someone might have a message 'Agent X must report to station 5'. This could be distorted ...
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### DES with actual 7 byte key

Do we have any library or any mechanism where we can use true 7 byte key for DES instead of 8 byte key. I need it for keys analysis in DES and 8 byte key requirement for associated library is creating ...
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### Are the MD5 constants an S-Box?

I noticed that several hash algorithms, in this case MD5, defines some constants. MD5 defines 64 constant values (the shift count per round) which also gets expand (via sine) to a summand for a ...
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### Proving a decision was randomly made [duplicate]

Alice and Bob want to agree on a bit $0$ or $1$. Both know it would be fair to pick that at random, but there's no way they could meet to throw a dice and no third party they could trust. Are there ...
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### Why concatenate the key a second time in HMAC? [duplicate]

On Wikipedia it is said that HMAC is basically (without taking into account padding): $H(key\ \Vert\ H(key\ \Vert\ message))$ where $\Vert$ denotes concatenation. I understand the need to hash ...
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### How does the key size per data bit influence the security?

The likelihood of breaking, for instance, an AES-128 cipher is 100% after $2^{128}$ tries in brute force, meaning that I've got to try $2^{128}$ keys to certainly break it. What if I (hypothetically) ...
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### Linear Cryptanalysis - possible without plaintext?

If Linear Cryptanalysis exploits the fact that the plaintext and ciphertext are not completely unrelated, is the attack possible without having access to the plaintext?
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### Breaking Double Encryption

I am trying to understand how an attacker knows when he has successfully decrypted a ciphertext for an assignment. As such, some pointers/hints for the following questions would be greatly appreciated....
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### 64 bit Elliptic Curve key?

For a simple proof of concept project i'm (attempting!) to do, i've started looking into openSSL elliptic curve cryptography. However instead of the standard key lengths, 160-512. I'm interested in ...
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### Is it possible to calculate the 'skeleton key' for DUAL_EC_DRBG? What would it take?

According to Bruce Schneier the constants used in the spec of DUAL_EC_DRBG may be related to a secret set of numbers, that could function as a master key for ...
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### Functional Encryption (for Non Experts)

I recently stumbled across "How to Run Turing Machines on Encrypted Data". Given that it's now possible to run turing machines on encrypted data, what open problems remain in the realm of Functional ...
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I know about PBKDF2, bcrypt, scrypt, etc. and while I'm not a crypt professional, I think I understand why are they better than just "hash(pass+salt)". But a colleague of mine surprised me with the ...
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### PRP, PRF and modular arithmetic

Are there any arithmetic or mathematical functions that can be used as PRPs or PRFs ? Since, Conventional block ciphers like AES are that are proven to be good PRPs are not based on mathematics but ...
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### Is this approach to generating a “random” number from a sha512 hash effective?

I'm looking to run a small raffle but i'd like people to be able to verify that the number chosen was fair. I know some sites use a "Provably Fair" system to achieve this where user input is combined ...
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### How is HKDF-Expand better than a simple hash?

Why do we need HKDF-Expand if we can simply hash the pseudorandom key to make it longer? The docs (in the link) say: The second stage "expands" the pseudorandom key to the desired length... ...
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### what's the advantages of identity-based systems over certificate-based ones?

Actually, I'm not familiar to how identity-based and certificate-based systems work, so ,can anyone give me a detail and comprehensive answer to this question? Moreover, in what environments the ...
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### Json AES128: Security against known plaintext attack

I have a system where I am transmitting json messages securely (using for example AES-128), where each message has the same format. For example ...
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### Decryption honeypots

When performing a key search, I've always wondered how you reliably detect a successful decryption once you hit the right key. I assume that you have to analyze the data and look for patterns: words, ...
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### Distinguishing attack on CBC-MAC

I want to ask about distinguishing attack on CBC MAC, as in the paper published by Ketting Jia, Xiaoyun Wang, Zheng Yuan, and Guangwu Xu: Distinguishing Attack and Second-Preimage Attack on the CBC-...
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### Is this algorithm demonstrating “proof of work”

Is this algorithm demonstrating proof of work? This is a algorithm where a "token" is combined with a time stamp and then a cryptographic hash is generated from the combination, next the objective is ...
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### What kind of Quantum cryptography technology(protocols) can be used for Mobile Ad hoc networks(MANETS)?

Typically ad hoc networks do not have a proper infrastructure and the routing is done only through the base stations which are connecting a wired and wireless network. Does quantum cryptography ...
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### Is it possible to split a large AES encrypted string and decrypt the parts one by one?

Due to some platform restrictions our decryption algorithm can only handle up to 1 million bytes. The string we receive is larger, having been generated by AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode, ...
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### Need 32-bit mixing function that has perfect avalanche between octets

for my hobby tinkering project, I need a mixing function that takes 32-bit input and has 32-bit output (and will, most likely, run in a 32-bit C environment) and the following property (independent of ...
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### Publicly exposed hash of private key

Would exposing a cryptographic hash function's digest (e.g. SHA-3) of RSA private key data compromise the key? If so, what are the possible (cryptanalysis-) vectors for attacking the key if an ...
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### password generation: random length or max length

In short: Is it cryptographically stronger to have a known length password of the maximum length allowed, or a random length password somewhere in the range of the longest length possible? Does the ...
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### Computing p and q from private key

We are given n (public modulus) where n=pq and e (encryption exponent). Then I was able to crack the private key d, using Wieners attack. So now, I have (n,e,d). My question is, is there a way to ...