# All Questions

112 views

I have a secret message which I want to encrypt such that any of several different keys can open it independently. The keys can't know about each other and it has to be able to work completely ...
89 views

### Why is knowing M not enough to break Blum Blum Shub?

In Blum Blum Shub, the generator is $x_{n+1}={x_n}^2 \mod M$ where $M=p \cdot q$, $p \in \mathbb P$, and $q \in \mathbb P$. Supposedly, knowing $p$ and $q$ is enough to break the system. But if I know ...
40 views

### What does K stand for in frequency analysis

It was from frequency analysis lecture and the professor mentioned but I cannot recall. The K value for English was .067, German was .076. The lowest K was Russian which was .056. When the frequency ...
104 views

### PRF based on the GGM construction

What's the differences between the concepts “pseudorandom generator” and “pseudorandom number generator”? In fact, I want to implement a pseudorandom function based on GGM's construction at ...
68 views

### Usage of GF(p^m) fields, where p != 2

$GF(2^m)$ Galois fields are widely used in different cryptographic algorithms, for example, in Rijndael. However, $GF(p^m)$ fields are possible with any prime $p$, not only 2, but $GF(2^m)$ fields ...
199 views

### How are the AES inverse S-Boxes calculated?

I would like to know, how to calculate the inverse S-box. I followed this link (with affine transformation first, then multiplicative inverse), but the result is wrong. For example, if I use the value ...
70 views

### Is it a variant of Strong RSA assumption?

Informally, the hardness of RSA/Strong RSA assumption lies in the hardness of factoring a large composite number $N$ having two large primes as its factors. If RSA modulus $N$ is a prime number, then ...
115 views

### What kind of attack does the current brokenness of SHA-1 allow?

I understand that the following is becoming feasible, or already is: Find any 2 data (d1 and d2), for which SHA1(d1) = SHA1(d2) However, it is not entirely clear ...
114 views

### Programming language for modular arithmetic over large numbers [closed]

I'am trying to implement algorithms on integer factorization.This involves dealing with integers of 200-500 digits and doing modular arithmetic over them.Which programming language has inbuilt support ...
167 views

### Combining a keystream generator with a block cipher

I understand that: A stream cipher's security is diluted if the same key is used more than once. This is fixed by using an additional initialization vector in the keystream's computation. A block ...
119 views

### The perfect way of using IV in CTR mode

I understand that it is necessary to use the same IV for both encryption and decryption in the CTR mode. I'm thinking about the case when I concatenate the secret ...
128 views

### Strength of RSA with OAEP

In our current system we use an encryption solution based on RSA with OAEP padding. Key size is optional but default 2048. What is the general strength of RSA with OAEP? Are there know attacks that ...
33 views

I am studying for network security exam. And in the slide about Key Management, under a heading Key Verification I see this: Key Verification Almost all cryptographic algorithms have some weak keys ...
111 views

### Transforming a key into a seed with the most entropy

I'm making a very simple encrypter in C# which is basically a Stream cipher. The user enters a key(password), converted to a seed for a pseudo-random generator, and the pseudo-random generator ...
143 views

### Finding discrete logarithm with baby-step-giant-step algorithm

I am trying to use the Baby Step Giant Step algorithm to find discrete logarithm in: $$a^x= B \pmod p$$ with using BSGS: $$x = im+j$$ $$a^j = B a^{-im}$$ where $m = \sqrt{p}$ Wikipedia says: ...
62 views

### KPA on Feistel cipher?

I heard that DES is technically “broken” because of attacks involving large amounts of known plaintext. These attacks are obviously academic and highly complicated, so for some intuition I was hoping ...
86 views

### Does a cryptosystem provide unconditional security if and only if it provides perfect secrecy?

Is unconditional security and perfect secrecy one and the same thing, i.e a cryptosystem provides unconditional security if and only if it provides perfect secrecy ? I've wondered about the above and ...
103 views

### Group description in pairing based cryptography

Suppose we have a public key encryption scheme, in which public parameter contains $(p, G, G_t, e, g)$, where $p$ is prime number, $G$ is a (cyclic) group of prime order, $e:G \times G \mapsto G_t$. ...
63 views

### MD-compliant hashes don't really accept arbitary length input, do they?

When people talk about hash functions, they usually say that they accept arbitrary-length input, but if you actually look at the padding (eg MD-strengthening padding), you see it's like ...
47 views

### Repeating something encrypted and non-encrypted?

If one wants to keep the receiver's name non encrypted, but it also appears in the encrypted message - will it leak information? (other than the receiver's name, of course.) Let's assume a "bad" case ...
75 views

### block cipher algorithms with variable block lengths

Rijndael supports block lengths of 128, 192 and 256. AES does not but Rijndael does. What other algorithms support variable block lengths? Or is Rijndael unique in that regard?
62 views

### simulating rc4-256 with rc4-128

OpenSSL supports rc4 with 128-bit keys and rc4 with 40-bit keys. It does not support rc4 with 256-bit keys. My question is... is it possible to modify the state of the pseudo-random generation ...
46 views

### Condition on Vector Boolean Function to be Bijective

Suppose the vector boolean function be \begin{align} f:F^n_2 \longrightarrow F_2^n \\ (x_1,\dots ,x_n) \longrightarrow (x_2,\dots x_n,g) \\ \\ g:F^n_2 \longrightarrow F_2 \\ (x_1,\dots ,x_n) ...
130 views

### Using bcrypt derived keys for encryption?

Sorry for this ignorant question but I am currently weighing up the advantages and disadvantages of BCrypt over PBKDF2 and from what I have read BCrypt is considered more secure but from what I have ...
89 views

### Random Permutation polynomial

I need to know, please: (1) Is there anyway to pick uniformly at random permutation polynomial in a field of prime order? (2) Are there many permutation polynomials in a field? (3) In a finite ...
98 views

### Can DH_anon really be exploited by an attacker?

General consensus is that DH_anon (and ECDH_anon) ciphersuites should be disabled since they offer no way to verify if the server is the one you intend to communicate with. However, I have never run ...
244 views

### AES— Brute force attack versus Known plain text attack

I am taking a codes and cryptology course and the following is a questions on a past exam that I could not and still can't solve: ...
530 views

### What are SNARKs?

What does it mean and what is it used for, I have been hearing this term a lot lately. From the context I've heard it talked about it seems to be connected with zero knowledge?
398 views

### Why does openssl use SHA1 in ECC when I use secp384r1 curve

I need a small clarification that why openssl using SHA1 in ECC when I am using secp384r1 curve, but in rfc they are saying we should use SHA2. Thing here is am using nanoECC in my DTLS, nanoECC ...
105 views

### RSA prove $a^{\varphi(n)/g} \equiv 1 \pmod{n}$

I should prove that $a^{\varphi(n)/g} \equiv 1 \pmod{n}$, so I thought I would prove it with primitive roots but I got stuck. Here is the assignment: Let $p, q$ be primes such that $p \ne q$. ...
222 views

### Frequency analysis of Vigenere Cipher

For Vigenere cipher, I understand Find period first (say we have p = 6) Find highest frequency of letter in each group (from 1 to 6) and assume it is "e" in plaintext What if we have more than ...
141 views

### Operation which needs much computing power to be created, but just a little to be solved?

Does somebody know a cryptographic/mathematic operation, that needs much computing power to be "encrypted"/"created" but doesn't need much power to be "decrypted"/"solved"?
167 views

### How to encrypt letters less than block n using Hill Cipher

I am learning about Hill Cipher and know that it is a block cipher where each block of n letters (considered as an $n$-component vector) is multiplied by an invertible $n \times n$ matrix, again ...
88 views

### Is it possible to 'fake' time for TOTP? (Time-based One-time Password)

TOTP (Time-based One-Time Password) Algorithm is used in Two factor authentication. I understand the algorithm and that current time is used as a variable to generate a token. Wiki page for reference: ...
133 views

### How can convert affine to Jacobian coordinates?

I have a point in affine coordinates: $(x,y)$. What should I do when I want to convert to $(X,Y,Z)$ in Jacobian coordinates? I need it for calculating ECC in a prime field.
263 views

### How costly is to find millions of large prime numbers for RSA?

Consider I need to assign a large distinct prime number to each element in a large set. This must be deterministic so the function always gives me the same prime to the same value. What is the most ...
85 views

### RFC3447 OBJECT IDENTIFIER semantic

http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3447#appendix-B.1 ...
64 views

### Key escrow on indistinguishability games

Does it mean that when PPT attacker is breaking an indistinguishable based (equivalent with semantic security) game with non negligible probability that he is able to infer the secret keys either on ...
410 views

### Static DH/Static ECDH certificate using OpenSSL

I've been searching for some time and have found no way to create a working certificate and private key pair with a DH or ECDH public key using OpenSSL. Once I do this, I'd like to sign it with an RSA ...
151 views

### Correctness vs Completeness

What is the conceptual difference between the definition of correctness and completeness in verifiable cryptographic protocols? They justify that if a statement is correct then the verification should ...
196 views

### Strength and weaknesses of this JavaScript charCodeAt based login script

I know of a company on their website who are using this very basic password login page written in JavaScript. This doesn't seem very secure at all, because in the html source code it shows where the ...
112 views

### EC Public Key length in ASN.1 DER

I have two X.509 certificates in DER format. A: ...
264 views

Is there any consensus (i.e. are there any research results) on the benefits and drawbacks of various padding schemes? Generally there seem to be two kinds of them: random paddings, like ISO10126 ...
187 views

### Is Rabin's cryptosystem secure against known-plaintext attacks?

I've bee learning about Rabin's cryptosystem, and I already know that Rabin's cryptosystem is vulnerable to a chosen-ciphertext attack, but I was wondering, is it also vulnerable against ...
62 views

### Data I/O operations for encrypted files

I need to implement a simple approach on a Linux system to encrypt/decrypt data and I would appreciate any feedback from you. Basically, I need to change a bit the behavior of the functions ...
118 views

### What is the most secure key expansion routine?

I am looking at G now, but is there a better, (in terms of security and speed), means by which a byte array can be expanded that doesn't involve another cipher, just a simple algorithm? I need to ...
276 views

### Are SSL/TLS used for maintaining data confidentiality?

In SSL/TLS, we use symmetric and asymmetric keys to encrypt the data. Does that mean that the keys are used to encrypt the data (preserve the integrity) or provide a secure channel for the data to be ...
51 views

### Is MAC algorithm same at both sender and receiver end

The MAC algortihm which is used along with a secret key to generate a MAC tag on the sender end ,is it same at the receiver end also who again uses a MAC algorithm to generate a tag? If yes, then how ...
Suppose: The "counter field" is about: NONCE || CTR-VALUE. I have multiples messages $M_a, M_b, M_c, \dots$ Each message can be divided into x-bits blocks ($M_{a1}, M_{a2}, M_{a3}, \dots$). Each ...