2
votes
1answer
210 views

Is there a time-space tradeoff attack for breaking symmetrical cryptos?

Is there any known techniques for using time-space tradeoff for speeding up symmetrical crypto breaking? Kind of like rainbow tables speed up breaking hashes by using huge precomputed tables. Is ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Is it true that for RSA with no padding, the length of data must be equal to the length of key?

The question pertains not in terms of security but computing operational functionality, as it how the computation is done. Is it true that for RSA with no padding, the length of data must be equal to ...
2
votes
1answer
171 views

Explanations for the complexity values for second preimage attack on GOST?

I've been reading the article "A (second) preimage attack on the GOST hash function" by F. Mendel et al (link) and I'm having some difficulty to grasp some of the values of complexities/probabilities ...
2
votes
2answers
245 views

McEliece key size

There's a lot of references about McEliece key size being the barrier for proper usage of the algorithm, exactly (or roughly) how large are the keys?
2
votes
1answer
178 views

Verifying multiplicative inverse on a prime field in NIST's ECDSA_Prime.pdf

I am trying to learn about the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) by verifying the results in some example calculations. I found a PDF of example ECDSA calculations from NIST here: ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Changing a bit Changes Hash

I am very curious on the fact that SHA, MD5 and all related Hash Functions change the output even by changing one bit in input Message. Why is that?
2
votes
1answer
187 views

How can I show that the DDH problem is self-reducible?

I have trouble to understand how I can show that the Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem (DDH) is self-reducible. I found this as a description of a random self-reducible problem. ...
2
votes
1answer
205 views

Do any one-key-of-many cryptographic schemes exist?

I'm pretty sure I understand how public/private key cryptography works. Anybody can encrypt a message using a well-known public key, but only the person who holds the private key can decrypt it. My ...
2
votes
1answer
356 views

Where can I download a database of RSA keys?

I'm looking to do some research into how RSA is used in the wild. I've read through a few papers and it seems other researchers have had no trouble collecting millions of keys to perform analysis on. ...
2
votes
1answer
206 views

Given p and q of DSA how do you show they are prime?

I am given p = 4916335901 q = 88903 and am asked to show these are prime as well as q|(p-1) in DSA. I am unsure on how to ...
2
votes
2answers
608 views

What key exchange protocols give Forward-Secrecy resisting future progress?

I (wrongly) understood what I've been told as meaning DHE in TLS, PFS in IPSec do not provide Forward-Secrecy; and I'm told that common forward-secure key exchange protocols are restricted to ...
2
votes
5answers
364 views
2
votes
1answer
177 views

Pseudo random permutation for arbitrary size domains

Popular block ciphers like AES or Twofish are keyed pseudo random permutations on the domain $\{0,1,\dots,2^{k}-1\}$ with $k\in\{128,192,256\}$ or similar. I'm interested in pseudo random ...
2
votes
1answer
232 views

ASCII: weakness

Suppose I have an encryption function $e$ of a symmetric cipher with plaintext space $$\mathcal{M}=\{1,2,\ldots,2^{24} \}.$$ Now, consider a list $L$ of integers: $$67, 114, 121, 112, 116, ...
2
votes
3answers
297 views

Generating bilinear pairing parameters - running time of finding member of p-torsion group

Update: Question completely rephrased. I want to create the parameters for a bilinear pairing (the Tate pairing in this case). In case you're interested I'm following this thesis, specifically the ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

Implementation of modular arithmetic?

In FIPS 186-3 appendix D.2 "implementation of Modular Arithmetic", they show shortcuts for solving $$B = A \mod m$$ for select Curves. How would you go about determining a valid short cuts for the ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

ECC - Point Addition/Point Multiplication

So I have a very beginner-esque knowledge of ECDSA and I'm trying to write something in python to take a private key and output the public key (Basically from what I understand just trying to do the ...
2
votes
1answer
180 views

Why encrypting with private and public keys produce the same result?

Let say $e = 5$, $n = 119$ and $d = 77$. If I encrypt, for example, $m=15$ I get: $$m_1 = m^e=15 ^ 5 \mod 119 = 36\qquad\text{and}\qquad m_2 =m^d= 15 ^ {77} \mod 119 = 36$$. Why? Is it always like ...
2
votes
2answers
190 views

How can I solve congruence modulo N?

I am trying to solve congruences of the form $$J_A \cdot a^e\equiv 1 \pmod n$$ where $n=pq$ for $p,q$ prime and $\gcd(e,\varphi(n))=\gcd(J_A,n)=1$ Solve for $a\in \mathbb{Z}$, in terms of $n,J_A$ ...
2
votes
1answer
373 views

Diffie-Hellman: Does the size of the prime modulus depend on the potential size of the secret?

I'm writing my own cryptosystem that uses One Time Pad and Diffie-Hellman to generate keys for the OTP. I am using Rails on the server side and Javascript for the client side. Please don't tell me ...
2
votes
1answer
343 views

Does SpongeWrap (from the Keccak team) absorb ciphertext or plaintext?

I have been reading the Cryptographic sponge functions paper, but I'm still confused. Does Keccak in authenticated encryption mode absorb ciphertext or plaintext? Edit: Are there any test vectors to ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Find the key to a Vigenère cipher, given known ciphertext and plaintext

I have the ciphertext and the plaintext. Is it possible to know the key? If not, what do I need to find it?
2
votes
2answers
128 views

How well does breaking multiple DH key exchanges over the same group scale?

Suppose you are running a server with the Diffie-Hellman parameters (so the group G and generator g) generated once. There are ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

What is adaptive zero-knowledge?

In this paper on pg. 1241 the authors discuss bullet point on Adaptive Zero-Knowledge : I am new to Zero-Knowledge and I am having trouble understanding what they are saying. I think they are ...
2
votes
1answer
333 views

Brute force attack expected running time

I am a bit confused about the expected running times of brute force attacks on different cryptosystems. So let's assume a key size of $2^n$ bits. Symmetric key cryptography: $E(brute)$ = ...
2
votes
1answer
264 views

How to prove this LFSR equation?

I am having difficulty solving part (ii) of Excercise 5.17 from Becker's Cipher Systems. Exercise 5.17 $\quad$If $f(x),g(x)$ are any two polynomials over $GF(2)$ with $f(0)=g(0)=1$ show that ...
2
votes
2answers
500 views

Scalar Multiplication on Elliptic Curves

In the elliptic curve: $y^2 = x^3 + 20x + 13 \bmod{2111}$. Using the point $P=(3, 10)$ I am wondering how to multiply this point by the scalar $57$? I realize I can write $57*P$ as $2^5*P + 2^4*P + ...
2
votes
1answer
532 views

RSA 896 vs 1024 vs 2048 in Javascript?

I am currently working on a secure messaging website and I had been using RSA 2048 for encryption, decryption and signing of messages but I found it to be EXTREMELY LAGGY so i've moved to 1024. I did ...
2
votes
2answers
411 views

What is the limit of plaintext required to break the Vigenère encryption?

A theoretical question about the Vigenère cipher: Without any knowledge about the key (not even it's length) can we tell how much known or chosen plaintext is needed for the adversary to completely ...
2
votes
1answer
191 views

How does SSL secure the initial handshake?

I'm reading the SSL specs, and it seems that the initial handshake has no authenticity protection at all. What is to prevent, say, an attacker from overwriting the "available ciphers" list with one ...
2
votes
2answers
230 views

Hypothetical unknown cipher - security in obscurity?

I'm curious what would happen in the following scenario: Suppose an attacker gets a hold of a cipher-text of sufficiently large length. And suppose he has the means to verify a successful decryption. ...
2
votes
1answer
231 views

Having 4096 bit keys and short (< 256 byte) messages, can I simply use the key as OTP?

Assumptions: Alice and Bob use (cryptographically secure, hardware-rng generated) 4096 bit keys. Each message is encrypted using a new key; meaning: once a key is used, it's destroyed. Alice and Bob ...
2
votes
1answer
713 views

Serpent block cipher : S0 to S7 functions unclear

I am presently implementing the serpent block cipher in C++ following the specifications. It's important to mention that I'm implementing the cipher in bitslice mode. You'll need the The full ...
2
votes
2answers
656 views

Do we have to use an IV for AES encryption to be FIPS 140-2 compliant?

I asked this question Will our app be FIPS 140-2 compliant if we use our own AES algorithm implementation here before and although there are some different thoughts about this, the general consensus ...
2
votes
2answers
516 views

what are the uses of tweaks in block ciphers?

Few block cipher modes has additional parameter , tweaks , especially the ones that are format preserving . Now the comments section of this blog entry says such tweaks can be used for BIN numbers, ...
2
votes
1answer
709 views

How does one use AES block cipher modes of operation?

This is the sequel to my previous question about AES block cipher modes of operation. (See: AES block cipher modes of operation) Now, here is my real problem. I have to use a block cipher with 8 bit ...
2
votes
1answer
217 views

Which platforms are most vulnerable to Simple Power Analyse Attack

In a "Simple Power Analyse Attack", the difference in power consumption during multiply or square operation is used. In the RSA decryption process with the "Square and Multiply" algorithm, both ...
2
votes
1answer
652 views

How hard/easy will be to break a SHA-1 or SHA-256 hash if the attacker knows part of the original text?

I'm creating an algorithm to hash some text variables (20/30 characters long) to send them across an insecure channel. I'm not dealing with high security data, so no credits card numbers or any other ...
2
votes
1answer
562 views

Rijndael: explanation of Rcon on Wikipedia?

I stumbled onto the explanation of Rijndael Rcon on Wikipedia, and I can't follow it. The example for Rcon indicates that Rcon(9) is 0x1b. That could make sense… ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

OpenSSL padding

I would like to know how much padding OpenSSL algorithms expect.
2
votes
1answer
614 views

AES with different modes of operation

I'm taking up a cryptography class and this is for an assignment. We're asked to find the differences between AES/RSA in the different modes of operation vs the one timepad method. From wiki, I can ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Does it make sense to have a compression function that uses 64-bit of the message to create an output of 64-bit?

I have a very simple compression function, which looks like this in C++: ...
2
votes
2answers
815 views

Is there an encryption/decryption algorithm that can give two different outputs?

The recent revelations that airport staff can detain travellers in an interrogation room and force them to give over passwords to encrypted-HDD laptops under threat of jail time has made me think ...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Do any (non-hardware) RNGs exist which could be used to create an OTP for crypto purposes?

I've stumbled (jobwise) over a system where small messages (512 Bytes or less) are encrypted and decrypted using a simple XOR using a OTP. That OTP is created using a seed based on the individual user ...
2
votes
1answer
385 views

random number generator and seed

I'm working with openssl cryptographic libraries, I'm new to all these cryptographic stuffs and slowly I'm learning all these. I have a doubt regarding random number generator, I'm using ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Am I insecurely implementing AES in Python? [closed]

My name is Pat, I'm a rising high school senior interested in Comp Sci. I've taken interest in cryptography following the NSA scandal. Since this is the first time I've ever implemented encryption ...
2
votes
3answers
145 views

Securing content and login with “same” password

I'm writing a client application that wants to store some secret information with a storage service. The client has to authenticate the user with the service and the service should not be able to ...
2
votes
1answer
552 views

Solve a system of non linear equations over GF

I have the following set of equations: $$M_{1}=\frac{y_1-y_0}{x_1-x_0}$$ $$M_{2}=\frac{y_2-y_0}{x_2-x_0}$$ $M_1, M_2, x_1, y_1, x_2, y_2,$ are known and they are chosen from a $GF(2^m)$. I want ...
2
votes
2answers
137 views

What prevents continued hashing of a key from being used as a cipher when xored with plaintext? [duplicate]

This is just an idea I had while looking through some threads so take it as you will. Given a plaintext of any length and a key that a specific hash function is capable of taking as input(I mention ...
2
votes
1answer
371 views

How to prove a cipher resistant to differential cryptanalysis?

How do you prove that a cipher is resistant to differential cryptanalysis? It's said that Rijndael has been proven resistance to differential cryptanalysis. How do cryptographers do that?

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