12
votes
2answers
1k views

Design properties of the Rijndael finite field

So we've already had a question on replacing the Rijndael S-Box. My question is - can we use a different finite field other than the one given by $x^8 + x^4 + x^3 + x + 1$ in $GF(2^8)$. In other ...
6
votes
2answers
186 views

Where is the proof of security of Diffie's cipher?

There is an apparently provably secure cipher that was proposed by Diffie, but enhanced by R.A. Rueppel. The scheme, which was mentioned in Applied Cryptography, works like this: Measure the length ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Is a book cipher provably secure?

I've seen ciphers (usually in spy drama shows) that involve taking a book and writing down an index to individual characters. Essentially it's a keyed substitution cipher, where the key is the name ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Unpredictability of X.509 serial numbers

About X.509 certificates serial numbers the RFC 5280 says: The serial number MUST be a positive integer assigned by the CA to each certificate. It MUST be unique for each certificate issued by a ...
8
votes
1answer
826 views

AES and perfect ciphers

I'm taking a crypto class this semester and after learning the definition of a perfect cipher. I started wondering how this definition applies to AES. Obviously AES isn't a perfect cipher, since the ...
2
votes
1answer
622 views

Verilog simulation of Data Encryption Standard

I interested in developing DES(in verilog) for my college project.Can i get help in understanding the simulation results of DES encryption and decryption ? thanks in advance .
4
votes
2answers
358 views

How does the wider cryptographic community view non-abelian group based cryptography?

Is there perhaps some neural expository article on crypto systems based on non-abelian groups? I've gleaned that Anshel–Anshel–Goldfeld key exchange is the most well-known cryptographic algorithm ...
7
votes
3answers
885 views

Using a Non-Random IV with modes other than CBC

The weakness CWE-329 is an interesting problem with CBC mode. However, does this same weakness affect the other modes of operation that rely upon an IV such as: PCBC, CFB and OFB? My gut feeling is, ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

How can I create a fixed length output in my hash function?

I've been recently looking into the creation (and theory) of hash functions, however I just can't figure out how to turn a message into something of a fixed length. At the moment, my theory of a hash ...
5
votes
2answers
424 views

101: Advanced Access Content System (AACS) and Subset Difference techniques for Broadcast Encryption

I'm trying to get a grasp on AACS and Subset Difference for a project I'm working on and am having a hard time coming up with a technically valid layman explanation, let alone implementation. Is it ...
5
votes
2answers
641 views

Is a RSA-signature of some identifying data a safe way to implement a license key?

I have this idea of implementing a license key: After the user downloads the program, he connects to a website and sends his Windows product ID. The website, then, sends this back to him with a ...
5
votes
3answers
266 views

Cipher for Product Registration?

I'd like to implement a "Product Registration" scheme into my software where upon initial use, the User must enter a key to unlock it. The key they enter is compared to their encrypted Username. ...
0
votes
3answers
763 views

Does knowing common prefixes help crack blowfish?

I have strings that are if the form: {static data}{changing data} The beginning static data part is around 20 characters and is common to all strings. The last ...
5
votes
1answer
859 views

Example of CHI Square test on Caesar Cipher?

I am trying to get my head round the chi square test, when used with the Caesar cipher. I started off using this formula, $$ X = \sum_{i = 1}^k \frac{f_i · f'_i}{n · n'} $$ Where ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What is Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) and why is it “better”?

Most CS/Math undergrads run into the well-known RSA cryptosystem at some point. But about 10 years ago Boneh and Franklin introduced a practical Identity-Based Encryption system (IBE) that has ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Calculating the amount of zero bits to be appended to the message

From FIPS 180-3 Suppose that the length of the message, M, is l bits. Append the bit “1” to the end of the message, followed ...
4
votes
3answers
245 views

Derived Shared Key vs Distinct Keys?

I've seen a lot of 2-party applications that derive a shared key from distinct keys created by each party. Why is this technique employed? Would it not be better to use those two distinct keys for ...
4
votes
1answer
152 views

What are the consequences of a MAC tag collision?

I've seen some proofs of MAC security that are based on the extremely-unlikely event that two MAC tags collide (ie, they are equal for distinct messages). Suppose that this extremely unlikely event ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Is the CBC weakness in XML Encryption a new discovery? Are other applications vulnerable?

The RUB in Germany reports that XML encryption is broken. This is essentially the W3C standard for protecting XML documents from prying eyes. Does this mean that an attacker can only see a single ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

How does a chosen ciphertext attack work, with a simple example?

Can someone please explain - using a simple example - how a chosen ciphertext attack works?
-1
votes
3answers
504 views

Encryption technique performance evaluation

I've come up with a light weight bit wise encryption algorithm and seems good. Ive tried it with text and image input. But I've the following questions I would like to ask What do you think of bit ...
12
votes
1answer
640 views

Mapping points between elliptic curves and the integers

My primary question is: Is there an easy way to create a bijective mapping from points on an elliptic curve E (over a finite field) to the integers (desirably to $\mathbb{Z}^*_q$ where $q$ is the ...
5
votes
1answer
707 views

What is the proper way to use a client nonce?

I've implemented an API for one of my clients, it relies on nonces and a shared secret. The structure: Client's Site (CS) requests nonce from My App (MA), posting their username MA verifies the ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

RSA-PSS salt size

One of the inputs of RSA-PSS signing and verification is the salt size. According to PKCS#1, you must know the salt size before the verfication is carried out. However, this makes interoperability ...
5
votes
2answers
482 views

Random Coin Flip using ElGamal and a Trusted Party

An old exam question I am trying to figure out: Consider the following protocol for two parties to flip a fair coin. Trusted party T publishes her public key pk A chooses a random bit ...
9
votes
2answers
3k views

Are there practical upper limits of RSA key lengths?

Suppose one wanted to use RSA encryption for the sole purpose of sending key bits for use in symmetric crypto systems, a dedicated key exchange system so to speak. And say you didn't think that the ...
6
votes
3answers
465 views

Threshold Secret sharing - How to create a shared secret from pre existing secret parts?

In usual $(t, n)$ secret sharing schemes, a secret $S$ is split into $n$ parts so that any $t$ out of $n$ parts reconstruct the original secret. So, suppose that there is a group of $n$ participants ...
6
votes
2answers
375 views

For public-key encryption, why does COA resistance imply CPA resistance?

My professor told me: If a public-key crypto-system is secure against ciphertext-only attacks, then it is also secure against a chosen-plaintext attack. Why is this true? Is there a proof that ...
12
votes
1answer
706 views

Is H(k||length||x) a secure MAC construction?

If $H$ is a typical secure hash function, then $(k,x) \mapsto H(k \mid\mid x)$ is not a secure MAC construction, because given a known plaintext $x_1$ and its MAC $m_1$, an attacker can extend $k ...
5
votes
1answer
193 views

Why isn't the IND-CCA property inherited when sending redundant ciphertext?

Suppose that in order to avoid loss in transmission, a secret key encryption scheme $(Gen, Enc, Dec)$ is modified to be $(Gen, Enc', Dec')$, such that the message m is encrypted independently ...
9
votes
2answers
801 views

Measuring entropy for a ciphertext only attack

When bruteforcing a password (e.g. the common attacks on DES), where you have ciphertext only, you need a way to assess whether a decrypted plaintext is the right one. I believe the EFF DES machine ...
10
votes
3answers
459 views

Are these emerging threats against AES affecting your designs?

Recentally, an attack on AES was discovered which reduces its computationally complexity, by a very slight amount. The first key recovery attack on the full AES-128 with computational complexity ...
3
votes
2answers
185 views

Getting the encryption method and key from the encrypted data and the raw data

I have some pairs of plaintext and ciphertext data, from which I need to be able to decrypt the other passwords stored in the database. The password field typically contains something like ...
5
votes
1answer
663 views

Linear Cryptanalysis

What is the principle of linear cryptanalysis, as applied to a block cipher ? For instance, this page gives the rough outline of differential cryptanalysis.
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Encrypting and obscuring data between site/user without SSL

Im trying to figure out what the best way to encrypt data sent between a webpage and the user(both ways) is, when hosted in an environment that doesn't support SSL. The purpose of encryption would be ...
3
votes
1answer
764 views

Encrypting (CBC) identical files with same key and different iv, is it less secure?

I would like to learn more about cryptography. Let's say you encrypt multiple files with CBC encryption using the same key, but each file has unique (and pseudo random) iv. Does this weakens the ...
9
votes
1answer
353 views

How to choose constants in a cryptographic function?

A number of cryptographic functions have constants built in. For example, the constants used in RFC 2104 for HMAC, or the constants used in s-boxes (e.g., DES and AES), or MD5. In general, how are ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the purpose of four different secrets shared by client and server in SSL/TLS?

I was looking through the working of SSL V3, and found that a connection state is defined by a set of things, including client write mac secret, server write mac secret, server write key, client ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

Can CBC ciphertext be decrypted if the key is known, but the IV not?

Let's say that there is a binary file encrypted with AES in CBC mode (i.e. using a key and initialization vector). If key is known, but IV is not, is it easy to fully decrypt the file? How hard is ...
5
votes
1answer
170 views

Academic papers on ECDSA security

What are the most authoritative papers on the security analysis of ECDSAs? I`m mainly looking for comparisons of how secure different curves are considered to be, what potential methods are there of ...
5
votes
2answers
105 views

How does one measure the decrease in security, if any, of RC4 when mapping to a specific range of values?

For a project using RC4, the output is to be mapped to values of 0 to 35. Thus, only 36 unique output values representing the letters A to Z and 0 to 9. To avoid bias, the RC4 byte output (with a ...
7
votes
1answer
497 views

How to deduce enigma settings given a partial plaintext?

Assuming some large block of text is encrypted with an enigma machine and I only know a small subset of letters before and after encryption, how do I go about figuring out the enigma settings from ...
1
vote
2answers
163 views

Is there a secret sharing scheme which allows sharing of a secret (one-out-of-n)

Is there a secret sharing scheme where the knowledge of just one share is sufficient to find the secret, in other words a (one-out-of-n) sharing scheme ? Plz I need to know if it is possible to make ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do we need special key-wrap algorithms?

Wikipedia says: Key Wrap constructions are a class of symmetric encryption algorithms designed to encapsulate (encrypt) cryptographic key material. We are using these algorithms to encrypt ...
6
votes
3answers
4k views

Is Blowfish strong enough for VPN encryption?

I'm looking at an OpenVPN connection between two sites configured to use 128 bit Blowfish in CBC mode, and trying to figure out how to assess the strength, but I just don't know enough of the maths. ...
4
votes
1answer
763 views

How does a key wrapping like RFC 3394 secure my cryptographic keys?

So I'm messing around in the BouncyCastle library with the RFC 3394 AES Key Wrap engine and I'm trying to understand the benefit of it. The problem I'm running into is how to store keys securely on a ...
9
votes
2answers
244 views

Why would you expect to find a collision in a hash function after approximately $\sqrt{n}$ hashes?

I can't get an intuitive understanding of why it's $2^{(\frac{n}{2})}$ and not $2^n$, where $n$ is the number of bits of which the key consists.
16
votes
1answer
4k views

Why can't one implement bcrypt in Cuda?

I had heard that although it's easy to implement message digest functions like MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256 etc. in CUDA (or any other GPU platform), it is impossible to implement bcrypt there. bcrypt is ...
9
votes
1answer
371 views

Can one efficiently iterate valid bcrypt hash output values?

bcrypt is an intentionally slow hash algorithm. In my last protocol idea, I wanted to use it to expand a password and then only transfer the bcrypt-hashed password. An efficient attack on this would ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Encrypted text length in AES

I have created an application that will be able to read any file and encrypt it using AES Encryption. For efficiency, I am reading a block of data, encrypting it and so on. So for decrypting, I just ...

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