# All Questions

243 views

### How to construct a zero-knowledge proof of a number of the form $n=p^a q^b$

Let $n = p^a$$q^b$ where p and q are distinct primes and a and b are positive integers. How to construct a zero knowledge proof that n is of such form? This is actually a homework problem with a ...
526 views

### Can we use elliptic curve cryptography in wireless sensors?

Can we use elliptic curve cryptography in wireless sensors? If so, how do you map points to message characters?
198 views

### synchronization of counters in HOTP

How is synchronization of counter values achieved in the HOTP protocol? As I understand it, the server increments its counter value only if a match (of the OTP value) is found. What happens at ...
621 views

### What is the best way to put a backdoor in an encryption system?

How can you put a backdoor into an encryption algorithm? Are there any techniques that can be used to reduce the time it takes to break a key? I am looking for practical examples encryption schemes ...
1k views

### Sending KCV (key check value) with cipher text

I was wondering why it is not more common to send the KCV of a secret key together with the cipher text. I see many systems that send cipher text and properly prepend the IV to e.g. a CBC mode ...
1k views

### What is an efficient random number generation algorithm

I have been looking for the algorithm that generates random number and this algorithm has to be more secure. I am going to use this algorithm to generate the salt that will be used in PBKDF2. ...
941 views

### Why was ISO10126 Padding Withdrawn?

Wikipedia mentions ISO10126 Padding has been withdrawn, but doesn't say why. Also there were no news reports about this, as far as I can see. Why was it withdrawn? Are there security flaws? Is there ...
339 views

### secure multiparty computation for multiplication

Suppose there are $N$ parties $p_j$, each with a binary $b_j\in{\{0,1\}}$. The problem needs to compute the multiplication of number of ones times that of zeros, that is, ...
521 views

### How can I generate a one-time password?

Through my reading about the generation of one-time password (OTP) I found that there are many algorithms that generate OTP and they are either based on time such as TOTP or based on mathematical ...
732 views

### How do public key rings work in cryptographic applications?

I am wondering if there are any links to articles or resources available online, or explanations that you can give, that would help me to understand the concept of a public key ring, and why I might ...
430 views

### Can I secure my key by XORing it with a hashed password?

I'd like to build a simple password-protected symmetric key system. The key-creation process in my system operates as follows: The system creates a 256-bit key purely at random. The user chooses a ...
326 views

### How can one share information using the 'host-proof' paradigm?

I am attempting to make a web-based secure password management and sharing utility, both as an academic exercise and to fully understand and feel safe about using it. I really like the idea of a ...
183 views

### How can I store a combination of multiple pass phrases?

Let's assume we have 2 phrases, one is the real password from a user, and the other is generated from the real password and almost impossible to guess. You would need both to authenticate a user. What ...
295 views

### Are derived hashes weakening the root?

Given a root hash root = H(plaintext) and two (or more) derived hashes h1 = H(salt1 + root) h2 = H(salt2 + root) would the ...
142 views

### Combating traffic analysis over request-response protocols

Suppose I am to design a request-response protocol (similar HTTP). For the sake of simplicity let us assume that this is a "chat" protocol where the client can only perform two actions: Contribute a ...
563 views

### Standardized parameters for elliptic curve cryptography

When an elliptic curve-based cryptosystem is deployed, a single set of public parameters (consisting of a particular elliptic curve over a finite field as well as a generator of a prime order subgroup ...
407 views

### Can one group the SHA-256 outputs depending on partial inputs?

Is it possible to predict a hash key based on half key? Let's have some example: I have 100000000 hash results, and they are generated by either ...
358 views

### Exposing RSA private-key data… bad?

We know that exposing $p$, or $q$ or $\phi(n)$ results in trivial attacks on RSA since they allow us to factor $n$ and to compute the private exponent $d$. In OpenSSL (and most RSA implementations) ...
4k views

### Rijndael vs. Serpent vs. Twofish: General comparison

Can anyone explain (or give a link to document about) why Rijndaal won the AES, especially comparing it to other finalists (Serpent and Twofish)? What criteria were used to make decision? Or is there ...
4k views

### Which one of the Block Cipher modes is the best?

I have two questions regarding the Block Cipher Modes: Which one of the modes is considered the best? I know CBC has a problem of IV since the next block of the plain text is XORed with the result ...
266 views

### Realize a MAC using a Pseudo-random function?

Given a pseudo-random function and assuming that we do not have any other tools, How can we construct a MAC? I believe this can be done. Would like to know if there is more than one way of doing ...
1k views

### What are the advantages of a static ECDH key?

What are the advantages of using "static-ephemeral ECDH" over "ephemeral-ephemeral ECDH"?
917 views

### How does the MOV attack work?

What exactly is the MOV attack, how does it actually work, and what is it used for? It's explained briefly here and I'd like to know what it is more / what is it fully used for.
197 views

### Any techniques for evading frequency based crypt analysis without encrypting?

Are there any general techniques for evading frequency based crypt analysis without using any encryption techniques?
2k views

### What is the 'Version Incompatibility" Problem in TLS 1.1/1.2 and 1.0?

It's unclear to me if there are multiple problems, or a single one, (and just what that problem is) with servers incorrectly negotiating down from a client offering 1.1 or 1.2 to something they ...
140 views

### Is there a way to provide proof of batch RSA security?

Suppose we have two encrypted messages with two different public key issued from the one server. There is a client who wants to send these to messages to the server. In the middle there is an ...
3k views

### How can I calculate the SHA-256 “midstate”?

Recently I've been trying to implement some Bitcoin-related code, and I've stumbled upon a weird concept, a SHA-256 "midstate". Some explanation is given here. The general concept is that Bitcoin ...
397 views

### Is there some way to generate a non-predictable random number in a decentralised network?

Is there a way to generate a random number with given restrictions: It will be used in a decentralised network with a big number of peers (no central authority to generate it) Its generation should ...
635 views

### Passwords with same SALT. What does this mean?

If the same SALT is used for many passwords on a Linux server, in what way is that a security risk? Does the mean, that a user (which can change his own password) can calculate other users passwords? ...
319 views

### Threshold Signatures for RSA and DSA

I have a few questions relating to threshold signatures: a scheme where $n$ participants hold a key share and any $t$ of them can conduct a protocol using their shares that results in a valid RSA or ...
219 views

### Is there a known vulnerability when using identical key and salt with PBKDF2?

For optimum security, a random salt should be chosen for PBKDF2. I came across a scenario where I produce a hash of a random file that serves as the "password". Due to the nature of files, this has ...
1k views

### Why not use CTR with a randomized IV?

I'm currently reading the chapter of Cryptographic Engineering (Ferguson, Schneier, Kohno 2010) about block cipher modes of operation. They have recommended CBC with random IV instead of CTR due to ...
1k views

### How to attack a general polyalphabetic cipher?

I am able to decrypt vigenere cipher text using the index of coincidence and chi test. However out of interested how do you go about attacking ciphertext that was encrypted using a mix alphabet ...
252 views

### Undecrypt using the OpenSSL EVP API?

I'm writing a client-server encryption scheme for homework, and I've stumbled upon what might be a fatal blow to my current implementation. When using AES-256-CBC on the two sides, it's important ...
1k views

### How does PBKDF1 work?

I need some basic guideline on Password Based Key Derivation Function. PBKDF1 generates a key from password and salt using Hashing algorithm (like SHA1, SHA256, MD5). What is the step behind this?
2k views

### Secure way to transfer data over NFC?

I am currently writing a payment system to accept payment details from an NFC enabled smartphone (BlackBerry 9900) to a Windows client (C#.NET) I am currently having two issues relating to security: ...
480 views

### Is Common Name encoded in the certificate?

When I make a certificate like so cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/ source ./vars . /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key client1 Then ...
269 views

### Best choice of finite field for AES on a 4-bit microcontroller?

As the finite field of $GF(2^8)$ are isomorphic to $GF((2^4)^2)$, $GF((2^2)^4)$ and $GF(((2^2)^2)^2)$, which of the fields is best suited and most efficient for 4-bit MCU and why? Would it be ...
3k views

### Why do we need asymmetric algorithms for key exchange?

In SSL protocols, both symmetric and asymmetric algorithms are used. Why is it so? The symmetric algorithms are more secure and easier to implement. Why are asymmetric algorithms usually preferred in ...
274 views

### Anonymous trust/reputation system

Suppose there are 3 persons, Alice, Bob and Peter. They are identified by their pseudonyms (public RSA keys). Alice has a key Alice, Bob has ...
2k views

### How are timestamps verified?

You put an input and the hash value comes as an output then when someone puts the input the hash function it is applied to see if it is the same hash original value is stored in some database , that ...
775 views

### How to account for moore's law in estimating time-to-crack?

It seems to be common practice (at least in some communities) to tack on the phrase "with current computing power" when estimating the absurdly long time it would take to, for example, brute-force an ...
865 views

### How to better generate large primes: sieving and then random picking or random picking and then checking?

I'm writing an RSA algorithm, and am wondering what is the best and/or usual way to choose the initial prime numbers (p and q). I know of two methods to achieve this, one based on a prime number ...
656 views

### Can one implement AES on 4-bit microcontroller?

It is possible to implement AES on 4-bit microcontroller? As far as I know, AES on 8-bit microcontroller are common especially for light weight application such as the RFID. I have yet to come across ...
400 views

### What is the key strength reduction encrypting only 160 bits of data using RSA1024 for signatures?

I am attempting to determine the strength of an incorrectly implemented 1024 bit RSA signature scheme. The weakness in the implementation is that the padding data lacks random numbers. As a result, ...
318 views

### What type of hash functions provides non-malleability of hash digests?

I want to use a hash function for commitments. I don't want an attacker to construct a commitment related to a previously published (but still unopened) commitment. A simple deterministic commitment ...
524 views

### Does RSA padding have to be unpredictable if the payload is?

I'm trying to understand the precise requirements on padding when using RSA for encryption. Suppose Alice uses RSA to encrypt a payload $M$ that cannot be guessed (say, a random nonce): Alice send ...
2k views

### How can I convert a DER ECDSA signature to ASN.1?

I having trouble verifying an ECDSA signature signed using client side javascript with Java/BouncyCastle. The javascript signing function source: ...
Consider the following protocol: Bob has a private RSA key $B_{priv}$, and Alice knows the public key $B_{pub}$. Alice wants to send confidential messages to Bob (no integrity intended). To send a ...