All Questions

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Given an encrypted file, what are possible ways to find its encryption algorithm?

Given an encrypted file, what are possible ways to find its encryption algorithm? Heuristic ways are okay as well.
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What is a good way to handle longer strings using FPE?

While experimenting with this FPE based on FE1 http://botan.randombit.net/manual/fpe.html (well actually a port of it in C#) I found when the string length gets too long (number of characters N) ...
547 views

AES file encryption with PBKDF2. Safe parameters?

I'm developing an application that will use public key authentication to contact some webservice. So the user has his keypair on his computer, and I want that file to be encrypted using AES with a key ...
198 views

How to calculate if probability is negligible or not

If i have probability $Q = 2C(A\times B)$ where $A$ and $B$ are unknown probabilities and $C$ is a non-negligible probability, what can i speculate about probability $Q$ and how can i calculate bounds ...
117 views

anonymous signature implementation and usage?

This is one of the question asked in my class. Implement a anonymous digital signature. So it means hiding signers information. i could not find any article in anonymous digital signing. Also another ...
145 views

How to map a handful of numbers in a large range to a much smaller range deterministically without collissions

I want to map a set of long integers (say around 100 different values) that can span the entire 64 bit integer range to a much smaller range such as from 0 to 25000 deterministically with almost zero ...
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Does “identity-based dynamic threshold signature” exist and could such scheme contain a “Signature Combination” algorithm?

I came across [1] and I'm very puzzled by this paper. They use a building block which they call "identity-based dynamic threshold (IBDT) signature", citing paper [2]. First of all [2] does use this ...
963 views

What does ⊕ mean in cryptography?

Can someone please help me with the question below? Explain why 0 ⊕ x ≠ 1 ⊕ x, whatever the value of the bit x. Hence, explain why flipping a bit in the plaintext produces a predictable ...
146 views

What is the “Walsh Function” about?

I'm currently dealing on the so called “Walsh Function” (WF) that is written like: $$f^W(a)=\sum_{x\in{F^n_2}}(-1)^{f(x)+(a,x)}$$ What I know is that this function is used to approximate an arbitrary ...
111 views

How difficult is homomorphic encryption? [closed]

I want to learn more about homomorphic encryption and eventually make a career from it. Currently, I'm thinking to have my bachelor degree in this field. What background should I have for this ? How ...
250 views

Encrypt file name

I'm looking to encrypt (rename) mutiple files name based on a passphrase. Currently the passphrase would be numeric but I can change that to something else if required. I would like to be able to ...
710 views

Why use randomness in digital signature algorithms?

I understand why randomness has to be employed in encryption, because deterministic ciphers are not IND-CPA. I don't understand why digital signature schemes that employ randomness, like RSA-PSS, are ...
225 views

How openssl padding for AES cfb IV?

From a few documents I have read and a few questions about padding here, I think if I passed a encrypted text fewer than BLOCK SIZE, openssl would pad it per PKCS7. And use that padded encrypted text ...
141 views

Factoring two RSA moduli $N_i=p_i\cdot q_i$ knowing that $p_2=p_1+2$?

It is given two RSA moduli $N_1$ and $N_2$, known to be of the form $N_i=p_i\cdot q_i$, with $p_i$ and $q_i$ unknown primes, and such that $p_2=p_1+2$. Can we make use of that relation to factor the ...
147 views

What does signed fixed window method mean in ECC?

I am studying (sliding) window method in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) but I am confused by the term, signed fixed window method. By the way term is used in a research paper and not in the book ...
22k views

How much would it cost in U.S. dollars to brute force a 256 bit key in a year?

I am often told that any key can be broken and that it is only a matter of time and resources for any key to be broken. I know that this it technically true. However, I think that there is probably a ...
2k views

Is ECB mode safe to use with RSA encryption? [duplicate]

Firstly, bear with me, I'm relatively new to cryptography. In a recent static analysis scan of our application, one of the findings complained that we are using ECB: A mode of operation of a block ...
388 views

How to verify a shared secret using only AES?

I have two devices that need to verify that they both are in possesion of the same secret key. One of the devices is a very limited embedded device that only has AES128 available, no SHA or other hash ...
245 views

Are well designed crypographic codes unbreakable? (NOT ciphers)

Codes are not to be confused with ciphers. It is known that all known ciphers are theoretically breakable except the one-time pad and this isn't what the question is about. Some cryptographic codes ...
696 views

PGP digital signature vs SHA256 HMAC Comparison

First let me admit that I am not a mathematician or a cryptographer. I am responsible for assisting in making a recommendation on a project that is consolidating payment processes within a company's ...
45 views

trying to get calculator and RSA calculatin does not make sense [duplicate]

got two question, I am novice in the area of crypto and currently in big learning curve. From crypto book I am going over with, I see the RSA algorithm example as follows: it chose two rand #-s: p=...
137 views

Format preserving encryption FFX

In FFX mode the format of the ciphertext is same as plaintext. How does it ensure data integrity and authentication? Is there any bit flip attack in FFX mode? Is it malleable?
246 views

AES as Integer Program

I read that AES can be broken by solving a Linear Integer Program (IP). From a given encrypted text, how can one construct this IP? How big is the system?
516 views

The difference between MAC algorithms and what to use

I've been looking into message authentication codes and found several ways to create integrity for a message. I know of the following algorithms: HMAC, this can use any cryptograhpic hash function ...
130 views

Simplicity and precision in cryptography papers [closed]

I know a PhD student who recently had his paper on applied cryptography rejected because one the reviewers claimed that it was "the solution was too simple and the notation used was more than ...
66 views

Energy necessary for brute-forcing or decryption

I am trying to understand how the physical limits of computation apply to crytography, and came up with the scenario below as a sort of gedanken. I would be grateful to see how others answer it. ...
50 views

Decypting a Stream Cipher

I am trying to decrypt a stream cipher. I know what the first word of the message is when decrypted but I am unsure how to decrpyt the rest of the message. I know what the first word is because I ...
87 views

Is it a bad idea to use PGP encryption for structured/predictable data?

I'm working on an app and need to encrypt some structured data. The data will be turned into a string form (JSON) before getting encrypted. The data format I'm using will always start with a ...
2k views

If you hashed a hash an infinite number of times would you end up with a unique hash?

If you took a hashing algorithm for example MD5 and repeatedly passed the output hash back into the algorithm an arbitrarily large number of times would you eventually end up with one unique hash? My ...
184 views

Can I use the output from a DRBG directly as K for AES, or do I need to use a key generator algorithm?

NIST has 3 validated "Recommendation for Random Number Generation Using Deterministic Random Bit Generators" (DRBG's) that are based on NIST SP 800-90A: Hash_DRBG (based on hash functions) ...
82 views

How to select a 'tweak' used in FE1 mode format preserving encryption?

I'm experimenting with this library Botan which includes a module for format preserving encryption based on FE1 mode. The parameters for the Encrypt method are as follows ...
335 views

Block cipher does not provide security by itself

What is this statement all about? When I look at a block cipher it seems pretty hard to break it and the mathematics behind insure a good complexity. It may refer to key generation, initialization ...
394 views

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Zero knowledge / proof of knowledge sudoku solution

I recently started a coursera course "cryptography 1" provided by Stanford university. In one point when explaining zero proof knowledge the instructor mentions the following: Almost any puzzle ...