# All Questions

2answers
12 views

### Combined message separation

I have two ciphertexts, I suppose that its RC4 with reused key. I have XORed both ciphertexts and obtained message containing combined cleartexts. I suppose that the underlaying messages are written ...
2answers
36 views

### Reusing one-time-pad with random plaintext

I understand that by definition one-time-pad keys cannot be reused but I was thinking about the case where it is used to send random data and couldn't find anything on the subject so here is my idea: ...
1answer
36 views

### Converting a number to a member of a multiplicative cyclic group

I am currently trying to make an implementation of the ElGamal encryption for educational purposes. As I understand it, when using the encryption with multiplicative cyclic groups, one generates a ...
1answer
64 views

### how to represent message as an integer between $1$ and $n-1$ [closed]

I am trying to implement simple El-Gamal cryptosystem. And I can't understand how to represent message as an integer between $1$ and $n-1$. The only thing that comes to my mind is: if $n$ bit length ...
2answers
65 views

### Finding strong primes

Wikipedia lists the following conditions for a prime to be strong: $p-1$ has large prime factors. That is, $p = a_1 q_1 + 1$ for some integer $a_1$ and large prime $q_1$. $q_1-1$ has large prime ...
1answer
20 views

### ElGamal and Schnorr groups

As I gather, a normal practice for choosing a cyclic group for ElGamal key generation is to find a safe prime $p$ and use a multiplicative cyclic group with modulus $p$ and order $q = (p-1)/2$. ...
10answers
5k views

### Now that quantum computers have been out for a while, has RSA been cracked?

D-wave systems has released a commercially viable quantum computer. This means in theory, that all asymmetric encryption algorithms — such as RSA — are now useless due to the speed at which quantum ...
0answers
18 views

### Spritz cipher sponge function capacity

Rivest and Shuldt proposed a new sponge like cipher algorithm called Spritz: http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/pubs/RS14.pdf In this paper they say that the strength of the cipher is related to the ...
1answer
29 views

### Why is factoring $p-1$ easy when $p$ is a safe prime?

A paper states: [...] $(p,g,y)$ is a correct ElGamal public key if $g^x=y\in\mathbb G$. To verify this the order of $g$, and thus the factorization of $p-1$, is needed. This is easy for safe ...
0answers
20 views

### Why do Certificate Authorites cross-sign each other? [on hold]

X.509 suggests Certificate Authorities (CA) arranged in a hierachy, but in practice, CAs may sign each other: ...
1answer
29 views

### TLS 1.2 Handshake: How is the ECDHE public key signed by server?

I am dealing with a situation where a cipher option, such as ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA, is chosen for establishing a TLS connection. In this case, a server, when sending the ServerKeyEnchange message to ...
0answers
7 views

### Data anonymization and search with wild-cards

Broadcast encryption technique proposed by Water et al. http://www.slideserve.com/nairi/revocation-systems-with-very-small-private-keys takes a leap from earlier schemes as it provides smaller user ...
2answers
731 views

### Is a small size block cipher usable?

Consider a block cipher with a key of size 128 bits but a small block size, say 32 bits. Is this kind of block cipher secure? I would like to know to what extent I can use a small block cipher, like ...
1answer
790 views

### Knowing pre-encryption data, can we find the private key CryptoLocker used?

One of our users seems to have been hit by CryptoLocker. As a result, he has a hard drive full of encrypted files. The ransom-ware claims to have used public key encryption on the files. If we know ...
0answers
22 views

### PRGs from OWFs: Implementations?

This is a fairly common topic but I have a specific question given recent developments in theoretical PRGs from one-way function (OWFs). In theory, we have PRGs iff OWFs exist. The first construction ...
1answer
36 views

### How much work is required to detect multiple collisions for a hash function?

Assume an ideal hash function of output size n bits, detecting one collision requires approximately 2^(n/2) evaluations of the ...
0answers
23 views

### Is it possible to perform one-way Diffie-Hellman MITM?

Here's something that is bugging me recently: suppose that me and my friend establish an OTR session and - as a result of that - DH key exchange is performed. My friend verifies my key, but I cannot ...
2answers
117 views

### Number of keys when using symmetric and asymmetric encryption?

Quoting part of my homework/assignment: How many keys are required for secure communication among 1000 person if: Symmetric key encryption algorithm is used? Asymmetric key encryption ...
2answers
101 views

### Brute force against computational security

One-time pad is secure under brute force with respect to either of the definitions \begin{align} \Pr[M = m] &= \Pr[M = m | C = c]\\ \Pr[C = c | M = m_0] &= \Pr[C = c | M = m_1] \end{align} ...
1answer
44 views

### Should the nonce passed to GCM be authenticated?

This answer recommends authenticating the IV with HMAC when using AES and then HMAC. Since AES-GCM provides authentication too, should the external nonce passed to GCM be authenticated separately ...
1answer
87 views

### Fairness in cryptography [on hold]

Two users A and B decided to share a file of same size and transfer data bit by bit. And at the end of exchange, A will have B's data and B will have A's data. Assuming, A starts to transfer the ...
1answer
36 views

### Security aspects of using a global values as nonce and additional data for AES?

is it a good idea to use global values as nonce / additional data? What problems can occur? What should be take in account when we deal with such parameters for encryption. Thanks
0answers
34 views

### how boolean functions can be converted into LSSS(LINEAR SECRET SHARING SCHEME)? Pls explain with example [on hold]

explain how assign the values in this example diagram
4answers
113 views

### Secure way to encrypt and decrypt a folder on Mac or Linux?

I am looking for a way to securely encrypt files on Mac and Debian. OpenSSL comes pre-installed on Mac OSX and Debian/Ubuntu. Therefore, is this a safe/recommended way of encrypting individual files? ...
3answers
96 views

1answer
152 views

### Compact digital signature for noisy data

The question asks for a signature scheme, with a public verification procedure, that is tolerant to minor alterations of the signed data during its transmission [possibly in analog form over some ...
0answers
30 views

### Diffie-Hellman on infinite groups

The most common groups to be used as examples for the DH protocol are modular multiplication and elliptic curves. But I've realised that the groups doesn't need to be finite, a suitable infinite group ...
0answers
37 views

### How does cryptanalysis of the Playfair cipher work?

I have a set of Playfair-enciphered data that I'm trying to crack without the key. I know I need to analyse bigrams; I've currently worked out what decrypts to th, ...
1answer
29 views

### Why the data length is shifted 3-bit in MD4 Java implementation? [on hold]

In RFC 1320, It is stated that "A 64-bit representation of b (the length of the message before the padding bits were added) is appended to the result of the previous step. In the unlikely event that b ...
2answers
431 views

### Is python a secure programming language for cryptography?

I know Python is a powerful programming language but is it secure for cryptography? I mean is it possible to reverse engineer the program (written in python) and discover the algorithm of cryptography ...
0answers
43 views

### chameleon signature vs regular signatures

I am trying to understand the practical usage of sanitizable signatures particularly on Chameleon Hashing and Signatures. Chameleon hash, or trapdoor function allow parties with the knowledge of the ...
1answer
61 views

### Is RC4 +XOR secure for small data?

I need to encrypt transmission between my device (with AVR processor) and base. I create packet data - it will be encrypted into string: ...
1answer
46 views

### wireless network security protocol

In network security, encryption and integrity done by the same algorithm that is AES-CCM in that MIC generated by CBC-MAC and encryption done by CTR mode. So suppose I want to do encryption with any ...
1answer
77 views

### BEAST attack confusion

I understand that BEAST is a CPA using javascript injected onto the browser's webpage. Apparently the thing that BEAST exploits is the fact that the IVs are predictable. What I'm confused about is why ...
1answer
49 views

### HMAC-Ripemd-160 in TrueCrypt

I'm wondering if it is still secure. I know TrueCrypt closed its doors but I continue using it because the cryptoaudit didn't find any huge bugs or security issues in TrueCrypt. But I have a bad ...
1answer
118 views

### Find private exponent in RSA

The other answers for this confuse me, I know the principle of d in terms of the equation it has to satisfy. However I'm not sure how I would go about finding the private exponent without trial and ...
0answers
60 views

### Why cant I use ECB with some obfuscation for random access data stored in say a DDR

I understand that ECB does not hide data patterns well. BUt my understanding is that it cannot be bronken to "know" the underlying message. If that was the case, why cant ECB be used with some ...
1answer
130 views

### Practical Attack on RSA

Currently I am designing an RSA based application, and I am thinking of how long should the key be in order to be secure against attacks. I know that RSA 4096 bit key can be recovered using Sound ...
2answers
72 views

### Automated testing of cipher security for import/export compliance [closed]

What do we know about systems that automatically test and grade cipher security. The application in mind would be for checking for compliance with import/export regulations. I imagine a system that ...
5answers
6k views

### How big an RSA key is considered secure today?

I think 1024 bit RSA keys were considered secure ~5 years ago, but I assume that's not true anymore. Can 2048 or 4096 keys still be relied upon, or have we gained too much computing power in the ...
0answers
35 views

### What is the best “flattening” effect you can achieve with a two-character Vigenere cipher? [on hold]

What is flattening effect? What is meant by two character Vigenere Cipher? And what is the best effect we can achieve?

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