# All Questions

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### Hardness of finding mutual discrete logarithms of small generators in $\mathbb{Z}_p$

Suppose you want to select a prime $p$ such that finding e.g. $\log_2(3)$ in $\mathbb{Z}_p$ is expected to be either at least as hard as the general Discrete Logarithm Problem in $\mathbb{Z}_p$, or at ...
271 views

### AMD's implementation of RDRAND instruction

The latest AMD programmer manuals, dated June 2015, include the RDRAND instruction in the instruction set. For completeness, it lacks ...
482 views

### Security of RSA for paranoids with padding?

RSA for Paranoids (RSAP) (in cryptobytes v3n1), also known as Unbalanced RSA, is a variant of RSA proposed in 1995 by Adi Shamir, as a mean to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping ...
708 views

### Who first published the interest of more than two prime factors in RSA?

Multi-prime RSA is now a well known technique (described here): it uses $k>2$ distinct secret prime factors in the public RSA modulus, with the advantage that, using the CRT, we can gain a speed ...
107 views

### Is there a standardized tree hash?

SHA-1, SHA-2, and the standardized version of SHA-3 are all sequential. This is impractical for hashing very large files distributed across machines. Any sequential hash can be straightforwardly ...
228 views

### Are there any practical attacks that create a printable chosen prefix MD5 collision?

I would like to create two ASCII text messages with the same MD5. Is this possible? If not, is there a similar but less strict attack that could work? Or to rephrase my last question: what are the ...
190 views

### Can a commutative block cipher be indistinguishable from a random one, assuming a random permutation of keyspace?

Define a commutative block cipher with keyspace the finite set $K$, and message space the finite set $S$, to be an application \begin{align} E:K\times S&\mapsto S\\ (k,x)&\mapsto E(k,x)\text{...
1k views

### Elliptic curve cryptography related key attacks

This question is an extension of Families of public/private keys in elliptic curve cryptography As described above, bitcoin "type 2" deterministic wallets use a root private/public key pair, where ...
175 views

### Has the distributed project “Number Fields @ Home” project benefited cryptography in any meaningful way?

Is there any new understanding, property, or knowledge that has come from the Number Fields @Home distributed computing project? Has any outcome advanced the study of cryptography, or altered ...
273 views

### Efficient decoding of irreducible binary Goppa codes and the role of matrix P in McEliece cryptosystem

If we assume that the support for an irreducible binary Goppa code $\gamma_1, ..., \gamma_n$ is publicly known, when is it possible to efficiently decode the code? I know it's possible if one knows ...
80 views

### Are there any signatures based on matrix multiplication with noise?

Are there any signatures based on matrix multiplication with noise? Representing the message as a matrix and multiplying with some randomness coming from another matrix such that the signature itself ...
58 views

### Name of an archaic type of RSA padding (0BBBBBBB…)

In some legacy code, I encountered RSA signature padding in the following format (hexadecimal): 0B BB BB BB BB BB BB ... BB BB <hash> Is there a name for ...
47 views

### Does a partial preimage attack imply a preimage attack?

Let's assume we have an $n$-bit hash function and a $b$-bit partial preimage attack that is faster than brute force. Does this imply a faster than brute force preimage attack on the whole hash? It ...
308 views

### What is the original SKID3 protocol?

While searching for a mutual authentication protocol I often stumbled upon SKID3. However I encountered different variations of it. The basic structure is the following: (1) $A \rightarrow B: r_A$ (...
247 views

### Parallel Pollard's Rho: Number of distinguished points

When using the parallel version of Pollard's Rho algorithm for discrete logs, each processor performs its own random walk to find distinguished points, and reports the starting point and the ...
189 views

### Verbatim of early work on public-key cryptography?

In late 1997, the history of public-key cryptography was turned around with the announcement by the CESG (April 2000 archive) that public-key cryptography was theorized in a 1970 note [1] by James ...
226 views

### How can I create an RSA modulus for which no one knows the factors?

It's easy to create an RSA modulus where almost no one knows the factors: for example, I can generate two 1024-bit primes $p$ and $q$ and set $n=pq$. If I publish $n$, I will be the only person in ...
61 views

### Using a single Ed25519 key for encryption and signature

The libsodium documentation contains a function crypto_sign_ed25519_pk_to_curve25519 that converts an Ed25519 key into a Curve25519 one, so it can be used for both ...
65 views

### Distinguish two ciphers in Ring-LWE?

I am fairly new to this topic. so my question is: if I have $A=e_0a+e_1$ and $B=e_2a+e_3$ where $a$ is the agreed public parameter, $e_i \leftarrow \chi$ (drawn from the error distribution). if the ...
46 views

### Quantum complexity of LWE

As per my understanding LWE is quantum secure because there is no known quantum algorithm to solve LWE in polynomial time. Due to the reductions given by Regev et al. If there is any algorithm that ...
63 views

### Increase in AES SBox

AES uses one single Sbox to substitute all 16 bytes in one Round. Will using 16 different Sboxes (with cryptographic properties similar to AES Sbox i.e Non-Linearity of 112, Differential probability ...
60 views

### Software timing attack using Kocher method

What's the minimum number of random sample points needed in Kocher's timing attack, so that we can determine enough valid measurements of $A_{i,r}$ and $D_{i,r}$? I'm working from this paper: Volker ...
69 views

### Confusion on Private Information Retrieval by Keywords

PIR protocols retrieve an item from the database without the server knowing which item it is. But classic CPIR(Computational PIR) or IT-PIR (Information Theoretic PIR) protocols requires the user to ...
112 views

### Homomorphic system that allows Hamming distance computation?

How can I work out Hamming distance between two binary vectors securely? I would like to know how I can apply homomorphic techniques here.
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### What is the fastest modular reduction algorithm available?

I have been browsing for the fastest and most efficient modular reduction algorithms and came across quite a few. But the one in A Fast Modular Reduction Method (2014) by Zhengjun Cao, Ruizhong Wei ...
151 views

### help with cryptanalysis of a sponge permutation

I have been studying and researching hash functions. So far my research has led me to the sponge construction. It appears that the permutation used in the sponge to stir the state is more or less ...
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### An MPC protocol from Elgamal is a good solution a homomorphic multiplication?

I want to compute a multiplication between many secret values and then distribute the result to everyone involved. For this, I thought about an MPC protocol built from Threshold Homomorphic Elgamal. ...
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### OTR AKE protocol implementations security

While looking at the different versions of OTR protocol I discovered a strange thing: there is no trace of the patch for the weaknesses that were noted in “Finite-State Security Analysis of OTR ...
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### Performance of ECDSA, ECKCDSA and ECGDSA

It is proven that ECDSA algorithms are faster in key and signature generation compared to RSA. In addition, the signatures are much shorter. However, I would like to know the performance difference ...
81 views

### Why is AES-SIV not used, but AESKW, AKW1?

I'm trying to investigate different key wrapping algorithms for my implementation. I've noticed that AES-SIV is very rarely implemented by most of open source libraries. Most of them implements key ...
123 views

### Efficient way to confirm identity

I am working on a multiplayer game. I have a central server which handles all data transmission and coordinates all games. Clients which involved in a single session send requests to do actions to ...
41 views

### Is it possible and safe to use SAKKE for signing/verification, rather than for encryption?

Is it safe to use the Sakai–Kasahara key encryption algorithm (SAKKE) for signing/verification, rather than for encryption? (Example at bitbucket.org) In particular, I want many Bobs to be able to ...
50 views

### Can a one-way accumulator be used in place of a digital signature?

Could a one-way accumulator be used in a manner to replace a digital signature? Can it provide a way to: verify that the data has not been tampered with, and verify that the message is in fact sent/...
332 views

### How to break a columnar transposition cipher?

I'm currently studying for a cryptography exam. I've been given ciphertext that has been encrypted by a columnar transposition cipher. I've been given no shift key length or key word, the only thing I ...
67 views

### Elliptic curve point addition with $Z_1 = Z_2 = 1$

Elliptic curve point addition and point doubling operations using Projective and Jacobian coordinates require fewer field multiplication operations when considering $Z$ coordinates of input points ...
33 views

### Safe generation of $k$ points on a curve such that the mutual discrete logs are hard?

I have a multiplicative group $G$ of prime order $p$ implemented using a twisted Edwards curve (similar to Ed25519). I want to compute a set of $k$ distinct points $P_1,...,P_k$ that generate $G$, ...
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### Would the encryption of bigrams and trigrams weaken the code?

Supposing a rotor machine of the 1940s or 50s, with 36 characters instead of 26. Would the encryption of the ten additional characters as the most frequent bigrams or trigrams weaken the code? What ...
350 views

### Evaluating Algebraic Complexity of a S-box

While studying the design and the desirable properties of an AES S-box , I came to know that Algebraic Complexity is also an important property of an S-box which is usually considered while evaluating ...
121 views

### Homogenous and heterogeneous Unbalanced Feistel Networks

Unbalanced Feistel networks can be homogenous (F-function identical in each round), or they can be heterogeneous (F-function not always identical in each round). The advantage of heterogeneous UFNs ...
283 views

### Given a 'good' basis for a lattice, how can we solve the CVP?

I'm doing a little bit of reading about lattices. I read that if we can find a 'short' basis for our given lattice, we can solve CVP and SVP very efficiently. However, the paper didn't describe an ...
311 views

### LT codes with Homomorphic hashing

I have been working on a project implementing LT codes with Homomorphic hashing (inspired from http://blog.notdot.net/2012/08/Damn-Cool-Algorithms-Homomorphic-Hashing and http://blog.notdot.net/2012/...
174 views

### Unique GCM/CCM initial counters without recipient side message counters

I am implementing the encryption layer for a communication protocol. The bulk encryption method used is either AES-CCM or AES-GCM. Due to implementation details, encryption of packets is usually, but ...
343 views

### Odds of false error detection in a randomness test using the chi-squared test?

Common Criteria classifies the requirements for true Random Number Generators, and specifies how these should be tested against failures (these can occur accidentally, or following deliberate attack, ...
62 views

### Replacing signer with simulator

Assume we can prove security of digital signature scheme against key-only (no message) attacks. Now we want to prove security against adaptive chosen message attack. We use random oracle model. The ...
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### Cracking a PRNG by observing ranks within groups of its output

Suppose that I am generating random numbers with Python's random module, so that there is a known random number generator (Mersenne Twister in this case). I've ...
42 views

### Security proof in (Ciphertext-Policy) Attribute-Based Encryption

I am having hard time understanding the security proof in Attribute-Based Encryption, especially in Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. To do reduction in CP-ABE scheme, how do I check that ...
65 views

### Does changing the order of the steps within a round affect the security of AES?

I was trying to understand the internal structure of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) Standard order of steps within a round: Substitute Bytes Shift Rows Mix Columns Add Round Key Substitute ...
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### How to select corresponding ciphertext in anonymous Identity-based broadcast encryption

In identity-based broadcast encryption, suppose the broadcast ciphertext $(r_1,r_2,\dots,r_i,U,W,V)$ is sent to the receiver. It does not describe which user corresponds to which ciphertext part. User ...
### On a proposition in NTRU original paper: $\gamma_1 |f|_2 |g|_2 \leq |f \circledast g|_\infty \leq \gamma_2 |f|_2 |g|_2$
In the original paper of NTRU cryptosystem, we have the following proposition (that is said to be suggested by Don Coppersmith): For any $\epsilon > 0$, there are constants \$\gamma_1,\gamma_2 &...