A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

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the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphe…
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a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inpu…
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an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.
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a symmetrical block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes of 128, 192 or 256 bits.
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an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypti…
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analysing cryptographic algorithms, potentially uncovering weaknesses in them (e.g. "breaking" them or casting doubts on their actual security)
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algebraic-geometric structures with applications in cryptography. Such a curve consists of the set of solutions to a cubic equation over a finite field equipped with a group operat…
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an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of t…
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Algorithms and protocols for creating signatures to documents, and verifying such signatures. These are normally asymmetric, for symmetric signatures see [mac].
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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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Design of cryptographic primitives (algorithms), like block ciphers, stream ciphers, random-number generators, hash functions, MACs, key exchanges, public-key encryption or signature schemes. Also tag…
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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successfully validating that an entity you are communicating with is actually who they claim to be. The entity typically demonstrates who they are by showing they possess a secret th…
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an anonymous, non-authenticated key-agreement protocol.
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Symmetric cryptosystems assume two communicating entities share a pre-established secret key.
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usually secret information used as input to various kinds of cryptographic algorithms, like encryption, signature, MAC, to select the concrete transformation done by the algorithm.
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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secret keys which human beings can memorize.
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a method for constructing a message authentication code based on a cryptographic hash function.
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a request to be provided with (links to) documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures, to provide a trusted b…
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(or message authentication code), a short piece of information used to authenticate a message, and the algorithm to create and check such information, using a secret key.
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the process of taking it from its mathematical or algorithmic description and producing a working version, often in computer software or hardware. This tag should …
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SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and its successor TLS (Transport Layer Security) are protocols which provide communication security (privacy and integrity) for a bidirectional data channel.
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Cryptosystems which support computation on encrypted data. They might be partially homomorphic (support for one operation such as + or *) or they might be fully homomorphic (any sequence of + and *).
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Key exchange protocols allow two parties to produce a secret session key over a public channel.
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an encryption algorithm which encrypts arbitrary length plain text, using a (fixed length) key. Some stream ciphers generate a key stream from only the key, which is then XOR-combin…
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Difficulty of finding two different inputs that hash to the same value
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a method for encrypting large amounts of data with a block cipher that can only encrypt fixed length plaintexts. When used with an unpredictable initialization vector (I…
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In cryptography, a key derivation function (or KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password or passphrase using a pseudo-…
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ways of applying a block cipher to multi-block messages and enabling repeated use without changing the key.
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the number of times a generator of a group must be multiplied by itself to produce a known number. By choosing certain groups, the task of finding a discrete l…
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Combination of encryption and authentication in a way that ensures confidentiality and integrity.
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an integer greater than 1 with no divisors other than itself and 1. Primes and prime products play an important role in public key cryptography.
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a United States Federal Government standard or FIPS for digital signatures. It was proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Aug…
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an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement.
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A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the p…