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9

The difference is in the choice of $m_1$. In the first case (second preimage resistance), the attacker is handed a fixed $m_1$ to which he has to find a different $m_2$ with equal hash. In particular, he can't choose $m_1$. In the second case (collision resistance), the attacker can freely choose both messages $m_1$ and $m_2$, with the only requirement ...


5

Without the specific reference I can't be sure this is what you are talking about, but generally a "long message" attack is a way to defeat second preimage resistance with less complexity than expected. It uses a time-space tradeoff to find a second preimage with complexity $2^{n/2}$ for a $n$-bit hash function (normally you would expect $2^n$). In the ...


5

I prefer using definitions that explicitly specify who does what. Weak collision resistance: After Bob creates some message x1, it is "computationally infeasible" for an attacker Mallory to compute some other message x2 such that h(x1) == h(x2). Strong collision resistance: It is "computationally infeasible" for an attacker Mallory to find any two messages ...


4

A long message is a message that, when padded, is longer than the block size of the hash function. That means that the hash function has to process the message in parts and keep track of state somehow, which may allow for attacks. Such attacks would not apply to messages shorter than the block size, and may additionally require a large number of blocks to ...


3

SipHash is a MAC (aka Pseudo Random Function Family) with 64-bit output and 128-bit key, rather than a hash (aka random public member of a Pseudo Random Function Family). It is explicitly designed to be used with a secret random key. Quoting Jean-Philippe Aumasson and Daniel J. Bernstein's SipHash: a fast short-input PRF (in proceedings of Indocrypt 2012): ...


3

Can we exhibit collisions, or second-preimages (with implies the former), for the ChaCha core? No, likely not. The Salsa20 and ChaCha cores both consist of a large number of "quarter-rounds" each of which is invertible and bijective. The only reason neither core is a bijection (and thus can have collisions) is the final addition of the input elements ...


2

First, I must warn you that any definition that uses "feasible" will not be a rigorous one. The only way I know to rigorously define collision and preimage resistances is using function families, i.e. keyed hash functions. That said, if you believe the negations are equivalent, the definitions you are using are themselves equivalent (you correctly negated ...


2

Well, if you construct what you described you basically create a function $f: \{0,1\}^{2m} \rightarrow \{0,1\}^m$. As you correctly pointed out these two strings give the same when xor'ed. So the messages $10101111$ and $00000101$ will result in the same xor and hence will get mapped to the same hash, resulting in a second preimage as you found two $x,x'$ ...


1

Consider this hash: $$H(m) = m$$ Where we define it's domain to be messages of some arbitrary fixed-length. It is completely second pre-image resistant. It is not at all first pre-image resistant. Therefore: Second pre-image resistance does not imply first pre-image resistance.


1

The easiest, zero thought, way to get an answer to this question is to ask the computer. Using Dylan's cryptol implementation it is straight-forward to ask a question: m1 != m2 ==> ChaChaCore m1 != ChaChaCore m2 That is, if inputs m1 and m2 are not equal then the ChaCha core function will not be equal either. Cryptol doesn't (well, didn't) have an ...


1

Yes. ‚Äč I believe this is the standard conversion. (That link is to the paper "Universal One-Way Hash Functions via Inaccessible Entropy".)


1

I think I understand what you're asking now. ChaCha is essentially a block cipher with no key schedule. This has an advantage, less SRAM required for constrained devices, and even for desktops, less cache calls ( https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10274355/cycles-cost-for-l1-cache-hit-vs-register-on-x86 ). Part of the reason why ChaCha manages to be as ...



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