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First lets acknowledge this is a horrible hack - you really should find a way to do what you want more directly or risk code maintenance issues and likely bugs in the future. Second, while the question isn't about your key strengthening step it seems like you should ask about the security. There are lots of good key derivation methods out there and I don't ...
0: you have the wrong CipherValue. The one you show is in MACMethod/MACKey and is the encryption of the MAC key, see 6.1.1. The encryption of the subject key is in Key/Data/Secret/EncryptedValue and is AAECAwQFBgcICQoLDA0OD+cIHItlB3Wra1DUpxVvOx2lef1VmNPCMl8jwZqIUqGv. 1: openssl enc in most cases, including the one you used, does password-based encryption. ...
I've implemented AES-128 with byte calculations for a small embedded systems, with optional on-the-fly key schedule calculation. See aes-min on github. The key schedule starting point for decryption must be obtained by calculating all the rounds of the key schedule. For a particular key, that decryption key schedule starting point only needs to be done once ...
Camellia perhaps? NESSIE (EU) and CRYPTREC (Japan) both endorse it. Your requirements are brief and mysterious so it's difficult to give further suggestions.
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