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9

Contrary to your assumption, this is done, and it is secure: For instance, the hash functions SHA-224 and SHA-384 are basically the same algorithms as SHA-256 and SHA-512! The only differences are in the initial values for the Merkle-Damgård construction used internally and, of course, in that only the first $224$ or $384$ bits of the resulting hash are ...


6

Your doubts are absolutely valid. Disguising the algorithm is not a valid argument for security. It also contradicts to Kerckhoffs Law. It (the algorithm) should not require secrecy, and it should not be a problem if it falls into enemy hands; Designing cryptographic algorithms (ciphers, hashfunctions, ...) is a long and complicated process. In ...


5

There are attacks on both blockciphers and hash functions that can exploit symmetry in the round functions. For example, completely identical round functions can permit Slide Attacks on Hash Functions, and rotational symmetries of the round function can permit rotational cryptanalysis. The round constant addition or 'iota' step of the Keccak Hash Function ...


4

Does the value of the key array(T) have to be in this range [0-255] if yes could you please specify why? Yes. RC4 operates on bytes. There are 256 possible values for an 8 bit (1 byte) number, that range from 0 to 255. RC4 treats the key as an array of bytes, so every entry in the key array is by definition in the range 0 to 255. Why did they use ...


3

Before answering the actual question, I will offer some general advice. It is important to pay attention, both in class and to the textbook you are reading. If learning how to solve such exercises is a key goal of the course, such solutions have very probably been discussed at length in class. Moreover, your textbook also has proof examples, and in this ...


3

This question is based on opinion. At least kind-of. But the variants from which one can choose are quite a few. As for general construction the sponge construction (like Keccak / SHA-3 uses) are very versatile and can be used for many purposes, for example hashing, authenticating (= "MAC'ing"), authenticated encryption (see “General Overview of the ...


2

An algorithm which is secure even if the enemy acquires everything but the key may be regarded as a means of generating secure algorithms. If one presently has a secure channel for communicating with a correspondent, and will need to communicate securely in future when no secure channel is available, using some dice to generate a random key and conveying it ...


2

Note that, in Salsa20, the loads and additions of the key words ($x_1$, $x_2$, $x_3$, $x_4$, $x_{11}$, $x_{12}$, $x_{13}$, $x_{14}$) are critical for security, since the double-round function is trivially invertible. One might think that the remaining loads and additions could be skipped without sacrificing security, achieving almost half of the ...


1

If, as can be reasonably inferred from the question, a fresh random $k$ is chosen on each invocation of $G$, then $G$ is not a pseudorandom generator because it is not deterministic. (A pseudorandom generator by definition is a deterministic algorithm.) If $k$ is fixed, then more information would be needed. For example, is $k$ always the same, or is a ...


1

To give this question its deserved answer, I’ll repeat what Ricky Demer noted in his comment: $$G(x \oplus 1^s) = F(k,x \oplus 1^s) \oplus F(k,x \oplus 1^s \oplus 1^s) \\ \downarrow \\ F(k,x \oplus 1^s) \oplus F(k,x \oplus 1^s \oplus 1^s) = F(k,x \oplus 1^s) \oplus F(k,x \oplus 0^s) \\ \downarrow \\ F(k,x \oplus 1^s) \oplus F(k,x \oplus 0^s) = F(k,x ...


1

$\big(\hspace{-0.03 in}$You don't need that. $\:$ $\operatorname{L}\hspace{-0.02 in}\operatorname{cm}\hspace{.02 in}(\hspace{.04 in}p\hspace{-0.04 in}-\hspace{-0.05 in}1,\hspace{-0.02 in}q\hspace{-0.04 in}-\hspace{-0.05 in}1)$ can be used instead of $\phi(N)$.$\hspace{-0.03 in}\big)$ $k$ is an integer which will make the quotient an integer. ...



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